The Galata Bridge is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature, theater and novels; the first recorded bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built during the reign of Justinian the Great in the 6th century, close to the area near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city. In 1453, during the Fall of Constantinople, the Turks assembled a mobile bridge by placing their ships side by side across the water, so that their troops could move from one side of the Golden Horn to the other. In the years 1502–1503, there were plans to construct the first bridge at the current location. Sultan Bayezid II solicited a design and Leonardo da Vinci, utilizing three well-known geometrical principles, the pressed-bow, parabolic curve and keystone arch, created an unprecedented single span 240 m long and 24 m wide bridge for the Golden Horn, which would have become the longest bridge in the world of that time, had it been constructed.
However, the ambitious design was not approved by the Sultan. Another Italian artist, was invited to design a bridge for Istanbul. Michelangelo rejected the proposal, the idea of building a bridge across the Golden Horn was shelved until the 19th century. A small-scale version of Leonardo's bridge design was brought to life in 2001 near Oslo, Norway by the contemporary artist Vebjørn Sand, the first civil engineering project based on a Leonardo sketch to be constructed; the Leonardo Bridge Project hopes to build the design as a practical footbridge around the world, including the Golden Horn in Istanbul, using local materials and collaborating with local artisans as a global public art project. The Wall Street Journal referred to the project as a "...logo for the nations". In the early 19th century, Mahmud II had a bridge built a bit further up the waterway, between Azapkapı and Unkapanı; this bridge, known as the Hayratiye, was opened on September 3, 1836. The project was carried out by Deputy Lord High Admiral Fevzi Ahmet Paşa using the workers and facilities of the naval arsenal.
According to the History of Lutfi, this bridge was built on linked pontoons and was around 500–540 m long. The first Galata Bridge at the mouth of the waterway was constructed in 1845 by Valide Sultan, the mother of Sultan Abdülmecid and used for 18 years, it was known as the Cisr-i Cedid or New Bridge to distinguish it from the earlier bridge further up the Golden Horn, which became known as the Cisr-i Atik or Old Bridge. This bridge was built of wood. Baedeker's called it "Sultan Valideh Bridge" during this time. On the Karaköy side of the bridge, a couplet by poet İbrahim Şinasi was inscribed and stated that the New Bridge was built by Sultan Abdülmecid I. First to pass over the bridge was Sultan Abdülmecid, the first to pass below it was the French captain Magnan in his ship the Cygne. For the first three days, crossing the bridge was free. After that, a toll known as mürüriye was paid to the Naval Ministry. Toll-collecting started on November 25, 1845 and the following tolls were collected: Free: military and law enforcement personnel, fire fighters on duty, clergy, 5 para: pedestrians, 10 para: people with backpacks, 20 para: load-bearing animals, 100 para: horse carriages, 3 para: sheep, goats or other animals Toll was collected until May 31, 1930 by officials in white uniforms standing on both ends of the bridge.
This bridge was replaced by a second wooden bridge in 1863, built by Ethem Pertev Paşa on the orders of Sultan Abdülaziz during the infrastructure improvement works prior to the visit of Napoleon III to Istanbul. In 1870, a contract was signed with a French company, Forges et Chantiers de la Mediteranée for construction of a third bridge, but the outbreak of war between France and Germany delayed the project, given instead to the British firm G. Wells in 1872; this bridge, completed in 1875, rested on 24 pontoons. It was built at a cost of 105,000 gold liras, it was used until 1912. The fourth Galata Bridge was built in 1912 by the German firm Hüttenwerk Oberhausen AG for 350,000 gold liras; this floating bridge was 25 m wide. It is the bridge, still familiar to many people today, badly damaged in a fire in 1992 and towed up the Golden Horn to make way for the current bridge; the fifth Galata bridge was built by the Turkish construction company STFA just a few meters away from the previous bridge, between Karaköy and Eminönü, completed in December 1994.
It was designed and supervised by GAMB. It is a bascule bridge, 490 m long with a main span of 80 m; the deck of the bridge has three vehicular lanes and one walkway in each direction. Tram tracks were re-added to it, allowing the Istanbul Tram to run from Zeytinburnu, in the suburbs near Atatürk International Airport, to Kabataş, a few blocks before Dolmabahçe Palace; the rest of the bridge, including the market area on the first floor, opened to common use in 2003. The Galata Bridge was a symbolic link between the traditional city of Istanbul proper, site of the imperial palace and principal religious and secular institutions of the empire, the districts of Galata, Beyoğlu, Şişli and Harbiye, where a large proportion of the inhabitants were non-Muslims and where foreign merchants and diplomats lived and worked; as Peyami Safa wrote in his novel, Fatih-Harbiye, a person who went from Fatih to Harbiye via the bridge set foot in a d
Prince Joachim of Prussia was a member of the House of Hohenzollern. He was the second eldest son of Prince Albert of Prussia and his wife Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, he is notable for composing music, in particular military waltzes. Prince Joachim's paternal grandparents were Prince Albert of Prussia and Princess Marianne of the Netherlands, his maternal grandparents were Ernst Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and Agnes of Anhalt-Dessau. Joachim had two brothers: Friedrich Wilhelm. In 1885, Joachim's father Prince Albert was chosen as regent for the Duchy of Brunswick. Like all male Hohenzollerns and his brothers entered the army and became officers. Music always appealed to him however, he soon made a name for himself composing. In 1898, he presented a military waltz he wrote to a family gathering at the Neues Palais in Potsdam. An orchestra played it. In 1905, he wrote the libretto and pantomime for "The Apple of Paris", well received in Berlin, he composed ballets and symphonies, wrote a volume of poetry and painted.
During World War I, Joachim served with distinction. This wound ended his military career and allowed him to focus on his music. On 3 September 1909, Joachim married Marie Blich-Sulzer, divorced Baroness of Liebenberg, in Ischl, Austria; the marriage was never recognized by the family, he had many public clashes with ex-Emperor Wilhelm. According to some sources, a previous marriage had led to Wilhelm banishing him by stationing him with the German colonial army in Africa, his inheritance was dramatically reduced. He married secondly to Karoline Kornelia Stockhammer on 9 October 1920 in Vienna, he and Karoline divorced in 1936. Joachim died three years on 24 October 1939. Like many of his family, Prince Joachim had a great love of music. Unlike the rest of them however, he spent his whole life playing and performing in different cities around the world, he was an accomplished violin and cello player. He described himself as old-fashioned in relation to music, he stated in 1927 that he was old-fashioned "because I am a healthy individual.
Much modern music is unnatural and discordant because composers and audiences have jaded nerves which need stirring up. I want my hearers to leave my concerts with the feeling that I have furnished them with esthetic delight and instilled harmony and beauty into their souls". In 1920, Joachim was ordered under arrest by the German Minister of Defense Gustav Noske after he got into a fight with some French military officers; the dispute began after a few of the aforementioned officers failed to stand up when musicians in a nightclub began to play the national anthem "Deutschland Uber Alles". The fight soon escalated. Although he denied his actions, enough scorn emerged against him among most of Europe's newspapers to merit the event's impact on his reputation. In 1926, Joachim accepted an invitation to present his compositions in a series of concerts in leading American cities, he received this invite after playing in a number of welfare concerts in Berlin, conducting his own works throughout the previous summer in Central Germany.
One such concert was planned for Newark, in which Joachim would be conducting an orchestra to music written by himself. All of these concerts would have been done for various charitable organizations. After his arrival in the United States however, it soon emerged that he would do no performing while in the country. Free scores by Prince Joachim Albert of Prussia at the International Music Score Library Project
Nuffield Health is the United Kingdom's largest healthcare charity. Established in 1957 the charity operates 31 Nuffield Health Hospitals and 111 Nuffield Health Fitness & Wellbeing Gyms, it is constituted as a registered charity. Its objectives are to'advance and maintain health and healthcare of all descriptions and to prevent and cure sickness and ill health of any kind, all for the public benefit.' As a private provider, fees are charged to patients. In 2014 Nuffield Health had an annual gross income of £711 million, making it one of the five largest charities in the UK. Nuffield Health operates 300 facilities including 31 private hospitals, 111 Fitness and Wellbeing Gyms across the UK, five medical centres. On 14 January 1957 the British United Provident Association established the Nursing Homes Charitable Trust to acquire and build community facilities equipped for the demands of modern medicine. In 1957 the President of BUPA, Lord Nuffield, suggested the charity might benefit from incorporating his name so was re-registered as the Nuffield Nursing Homes Trust.
At this time the Trust purchased the Strathallan nursing home in Bournemouth for £23,150. It was closed for ten months to be reopened as the first Nuffield Hospital. In its first ten years, the Trust acquired and modernised a total of six dilapidated nursing homes and built seven new ones, together providing more than 400 beds; the earliest purpose-built hospital opened at Woking in 1962. In 1966, the NNHT opened a new flagship hospital in London’s Bryanston Square, at a cost of over half a million pounds; the Trust ran all sites on a self-supporting basis, though non-profit-making lines. Charges from patients were expected to cover not only operating costs but repairs and depreciation. By 1982 the Nuffield Nursing Homes Trust had grown to 1,076 beds. In 1983, the trading name was changed to Nuffield Hospitals, the ‘nursing homes’ element no longer conveyed the focus on modern hospitals rather than nursing homes. A new direction was taken in 2005 when Tweed Park and Sona Fitness were acquired and merged to become Proactive Health, a new business arm providing clinical health services to public and corporate members.
In 2007 Cannons Health & Fitness was acquired increasing services to include physiotherapy, weight management and health assessments. In July 2008 Nuffield Hospitals, Proactive Health and Cannons merged to become Nuffield Health connecting fitness and treatment under a single brand and management structure; the acquisition in 2014 of a further nine health clubs from Virgin Active, LA Fitness in Chester and in 2015 a further two sites in London broadened the Nuffield Health national network of Fitness & Wellbeing Gyms to 77 branches. In 2016, Nuffield Health acquired 35 Virgin Active clubs. Unconfirmed rumours put the value of the acquisition at £80 million. Nuffield Health received planning permission in 2016 to build a new hospital on a five-acre site adjacent to the Manchester Royal Infirmary. In 2016, Nuffield Health announced their acquisition of cognitive behavioural therapy services into their health and wellbeing services, they can now offer emotional wellbeing services across Britain within fitness and wellbeing gyms and hospitals.
In October 2016 the company formed a partnership with Doctor Care Anywhere, an online primary care provider, which will allow their corporate clients to offer employees 20 minute virtual GP appointments, at any time between 8am and 10 pm to suit their convenience, whether they are in the UK or abroad. Nuffield Health has won multiple awards, including: Infection Prevention Society Practitioner of the Year 2016, Sue Millward - IPS Awards Best Healthcare & Social Employer runner up 2016 - Bloomberg Best Employers Bronze Award 2016 from the Defence Employer Recognition Scheme Best brand architecture solution bronze, Best use of typography bronze and Best visual identity from the healthcare and pharmaceuticals sector bronze 2016 - Transform Awards Best workplace wellbeing provider 2012, 2013, 2014 - Health Insurance Awards Integrated Corporate Wellbeing 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 - Flame Management Excellence 2010 - Laing and Buisson Risk Management 2009 - Laing and Buisson List of hospitals in England List of hospitals in Scotland Charity Commission.
Nuffield Health, registered charity no. 205533. Scottish Charity Regulator. Nuffield Health, registered charity no. SCO41793 Nuffield Health website