The Golden Horn known by its modern Turkish name, Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey. As a natural estuary that connects with the Bosphorus Strait at the point where the strait meets the Sea of Marmara, the waters of the Golden Horn help define the northern boundary of the peninsula constituting "Old Istanbul", the tip of, the promontory of Sarayburnu, or Seraglio Point; this estuarial inlet geographically separates the historic center of Istanbul from the rest of the city, forms a horn-shaped, sheltered harbor that in the course of history has protected Greek, Byzantine and other maritime trade ships for thousands of years. While the reference to a "horn" is understood to refer to the inlet's aerial silhouette, the significance of the designation "golden" remains more obscure, with historians believing it to refer to either the riches brought into the city through the bustling historic harbor located along its shores, or to romantic artistic interpretations of the rich yellow light blazing upon the estuary's waters as the sun sets over the city.
Its Greek and English names mean the same, while its Turkish name, Haliç means "estuary", derives from the Arabic word khaleej, meaning "gulf". Throughout its storied past, the Golden Horn has witnessed many tumultuous historical incidents, numerous works of art have depicted its dramatic vistas; the Golden Horn is the estuary of the Kağıthane Rivers. It is 7.5 kilometers long, 750 meters across at its widest. Its maximum depth, where it flows into the Bosphorus, is about 35 meters. At present, the Golden Horn is spanned by five bridges. Moving from upstream to downstream, these are as follows: Haliç Bridge, completed in 1974, which connects the neighborhoods of Sütlüce and Defterdar Eski Galata Bridge, now-defunct, which used to connect the downstream neighborhoods of Karaköy and Eminönü, but was disassembled and relocated upstream between Ayvansaray and Keçeci Piri following extensive damage in 1992 caused by a fire originating in the kitchen of one of the restaurants located on the bridge's lower level.
Dating back to 1912, the now-retired structure is no longer used for vehicular or pedestrian traffic, but functions as a seasonal outdoor exhibit and event space attached to Haliç Park. Atatürk Bridge, aka Unkapanı Bridge, completed in 1940, which connects Kasımpaşa and Unkapanı Golden Horn Metro Bridge, a pedestrianized railway crossing, completed in 2014, that extends subway line M2 of the Istanbul Metro across the Golden Horn Galata Bridge, between Karaköy and Eminönü Archaeological records show a significant urban presence on and around the Golden Horn dating back to at least the 7th century BC, with smaller settlements going as far back as 6700 BC as confirmed by recent discoveries of ancient ports, storage facilities, fleets of trade ships unearthed during the construction works of the Yenikapı subway station and the Marmaray tunnel project. Indeed, the deep natural harbor provided by the Golden Horn has always been a major economic attraction and strategic military advantage for inhabitants of the area, the Eastern Roman colonizers that established Nova Roma along its shores, which became, in order, Byzantium and Istanbul, were no different.
The Byzantine Empire had its naval headquarters there, walls were built along the shoreline to protect the city of Constantinople from naval attacks. At the entrance to the Horn on the northern side, a large chain was pulled across from Constantinople to the old Tower of Galata to prevent unwanted ships from entering. Known among the Byzantines as the Megàlos Pyrgos, this tower was destroyed by the Latin Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. In 1348, the Genoese built a new tower nearby which they called Christea Turris, now called Galata Tower. There were three notable times when the chain across the Horn was either circumvented. In the 10th century the Kievan Rus' dragged their longships out of the Bosphorus, around Galata, relaunched them in the Horn. In 1204, during the Fourth Crusade, Venetian ships were able to break the chain with a ram. In 1453, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, having failed in his attempt to break the chain with brute force, instead used the same tactic as the Rus'. After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II resettled ethnic Greeks along the Horn in the Phanar.
Balat continued to be inhabited by Jews, as during the Byzantine age, though many Jews decided to leave following the takeover of the city. This area was repopulated when Bayezid II invited the Jews who were expelled from Spain to resettle in Balat. In 1502, Leonardo da Vinci produced a drawing of a single-span 240-metre bridge over the Golden Horn as part of a civil engineering project for Sultan Bayezid II. Leonardo's drawings and notes regarding this bridge are displayed at the Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia in Milan, Italy. While the original design was never executed, the vision of Leonardo's Golden Horn Bridge was resurrected in 2001, when a small footbridge based on Leonardo's design was constructed near Ås in Norway by Vebjørn Sand; until the 1980s, the Horn was polluted with industrial waste from the factories and shipyards along its shores. It has since been cleaned, the local fish, f
Woodland Beach is an unincorporated community in Kent County, United States. Woodland Beach is along the Delaware Bay east of Smyrna at the eastern terminus of Delaware Route 6; the Woodland Beach Wildlife Area is located in Woodland Beach. In the 1880's, Woodland Beach was a resort area, the terminus for the Kent County and Delaware Bay Railroad and daily steamboats from the Delaware City and Philadelphia Steamboat Company. Amenities included the Woodland Park hotel; the Thomas Sutton House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973
Elliott West is an American historian and Alumni Distinguished Professor of History at the University of Arkansas. West received an undergraduate degree at the University of Texas at Austin before he completed master's and doctoral degrees at the University of Colorado. Early in his career, West taught at the University of Colorado Denver, the University of Texas at Arlington and the University of New Mexico, he became a faculty member at the University of Arkansas in 1979. Historian Richard White has referred to West as "the best historian of the American West writing today." West's 1998 book, The Contested Plains: Indians and the Rush to Colorado, was reviewed in the Journal of Interdisciplinary History and the Pacific Historical Review. The work won the 1999 Francis Parkman Prize from the Society of American Historians and shared the Ray Allen Billington Prize from the Organization of American Historians that year. A 2009 book, The Last Indian War: The Nez Perce Story, was reviewed in The Journal of American History.