A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa. Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits; the word spa is derived from the name of a town in Belgium. Thomas Guidott set up a medical practice in the English town of Bath in 1668, he became interested in the curative properties of the hot mineral waters there and in 1676 wrote A discourse of Bathe, the hot waters there. Some Enquiries into the Nature of the water; this brought the purported health-giving properties of the waters to the attention of the aristocracy, who started to partake in them soon after. The term spa is used for towns or resorts offering hydrotherapy, which can include cold water or mineral water treatments and geothermal baths. Termas de Rio Hondo Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña Most of the mineral springs in Australia are in the Central Highlands of Victoria, although there are a few springs in South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. Most are within 30 km of Daylesford, Victoria: the Daylesford and Hepburn Springs call themselves'Spa Country' and the'Spa Centre of Australia'.
Chaudfontaine Ostend Spa See: List of spa towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina Banja Vrućica, Teslić Brazil has a growing number of spa towns. The traditional ones are: Águas de Lindoia, Serra Negra, Águas de São Pedro, Caxambu, Poços de Caldas, Caldas Novas, Araxá, São Lourenço. See: List of spa towns in Bulgaria Bulgaria is known for its more than 500 mineral springs, including the hottest spring in the Balkans at Sapareva Banya - 103 °C. Other famous spa towns include Sandanski, Bankya, Kyustendil, Velingard. In Bulgarian, the word for a spa is баня. See: List of spa towns in Canada Harrison Hot Springs is one of the oldest among 18 in British Columbia. See: List of spa towns in Croatia In Croatia, the word Toplice implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Croatia are Šibenik and Sisak. See: Spa towns in the Czech Republic In the Czech Language, the word Lázně implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Czech Republic are Karlovy Vary, Františkovy Lázně and Mariánské Lázně. See: List of spa towns in France In France, the words bains and eaux in city names imply a spa town.
There are more than 50 spa towns in France, including Vichy, Aix-les-Bains, Bagnoles-de-l'Orne and Enghien-les-Bains. Borjomi See: List of spa towns in Germany In Germany, the word Bad implies a spa town. Among the many famous spa towns in Germany are Bad Aachen, Baden-Baden, Bad Brückenau, Bad Ems, Bad Homburg, Bad Honnef, Bad Kissingen, Bad Kreuznach, Bad Mergentheim, Bad Muskau, Bad Pyrmont, Bad Reichenhall, Bad Saarow, Bad Schandau, Bad Segeberg, Bad Soden, Bad Tölz, Bad Wildbad, Bad Wimpfen, Bad Wildstein, Binz, Heiligendamm, Kampen, Königstein, Schwangau, St. Blasien, Tegernsee, Travemünde and Zingst. Wiesbaden is the largest spa town in Germany. See: List of spa towns in Greece The most famous spa towns in Greece are Aidipsos and Loutraki. See: List of spa towns in Hungary In Hungary, the word fürdő or the more archaic füred, fürdőváros or fürdőhely implies a spa town. Hungary is rich in thermal waters with health benefits, many spa towns are popular tourist destinations. Budapest has several spas, including Turkish style spas dating back to the 16th century.
Eger has a Turkish spa. Other famous spas include the ones at Hévíz, Harkány, Bük, Hajdúszoboszló, Bogács, Bükkszék, the Cave Bath at Miskolctapolca and the Zsóry-fürdő at Mezőkövesd. Bali Batam See: List of spa towns in Italy In Italy, spa towns, called città termale, are numerous all over the country because of the intense geological activity of the territory; these places were used since the Roman age. Mondorf-les-Bains Druskininkai - is known for mineral springs; the name comes from Lithuanian word druska - salt. Birštonas - is known for mineral springs and curative mud applications. Bad Nieuweschans in the North with "Bad" implying a spa town. Valkenburg near Maastricht, which wants to be a "city of wellness". Rotorua Hanmer Springs Ngawha Springs See: List of spa towns in Poland Most spa towns in Poland are located in the Lesser Poland and Lower Silesian Voivodeships; some of them have an affix "Zdrój" in their name, meaning "water spring", to denote their spa status, but this is not a general rule.
Portugal is well known by famous spa towns throughout of the country. Due to its high quality, as well as the landscape where are located, the most important ones are: Caldas da Rainha Caldas das Taipas Caldas de Monchique Caldas de Vizela Pedras Salgadas Vidago Chaves Sao Pedro do Sul Caldas da Felgueira located in Viseu District, 5km from Nelas town. See: List of spa towns in Romania In Romania, the word Băile implies a spa town; the most famous spa towns in Romania are Băile Herculane, Băile Felix, Covasna, Călimănești & Borsec. See: List of spa towns in Serbia Serbia is known for its many spa cities; some of the best known springs are the Vrnjačka Banja, Bukovička Banja, Sokobanja and Niška Banja. The hottest spring in Serbia is at Vranjska Banja. See: Spa towns in Slovakia Slovakia is well known by its spa towns; the most famous is Piešťany. The most important spa towns in Slovakia are: Bardejovské Kúpele Dudince Liptovský Ján Lúčky Piešťany Rajecké Teplice Kúpele Sliač Smrdáky Trenčianske Teplice Turčianske Teplice Bojnice Spa towns in Slove
Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
Ministry of Popular Culture
The Ministry of Popular Culture was a ministry of the Italian government from 1937 to 1944. It was established by the Fascist government in 1922 as the Press Office of the Presidency of the Council, before being renamed to Press Office of the Head of Government in 1925. In 1934 it became the Secretariat for Propaganda, it became a ministry in 1935 and was given its definitive designation in 1937. During its existence, it controlled most of the literary and radio channels in Italy, it was the Italian analogue of the German Reich Ministry of Propaganda. The Ministry famously outlawed the importation and translation of all American comic books, with the lone exception of Mickey Mouse, in 1938; the Ministry was suppressed by the Kingdom of Italy on July 3, 1944, having remained vacant since the overthrow of Benito Mussolini in the 25 Luglio coup a year earlier. During the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini revived the Ministry of Popular Culture and appointed Ferdinando Mezzasoma as its head. Censorship in Italy Reichs Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda
The Regia Marina was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946. In 1946, with the birth of the Italian Republic, the Regia Marina changed its name to Marina Militare; the Regia Marina was established on 17 March 1861 following the proclamation of the formation of the Kingdom of Italy. Just as the Kingdom was a unification of various states in the Italian peninsula, so the Regia Marina was formed from the navies of those states, though the main constituents were the navies of the former kingdoms of Sardinia and Naples; the new Navy inherited a substantial number of ships, both sail- and steam-powered, the long naval traditions of its constituents those of Sardinia and Naples, but suffered from some major handicaps. Firstly, it suffered from a lack of cohesion; these problems were compounded by the continuation of separate officer schools at Genoa and Naples, were not addressed until the opening of a unified Naval Academy at Livorno in 1881. Secondly, unification occurred during a period of rapid advances in naval technology and tactics, as typified by the launch of Gloire by France in 1858, by the appearance of, battle between, USS Monitor and CSS Virginia in 1862.
These innovations made older warships obsolete. Italy did not possess the shipyards or infrastructure to build the modern ships required, but the Minister for the Navy, Admiral Carlo di Persano, launched a substantial programme to purchase warships from foreign yards; the new navy's baptism of fire came on 20 July 1866 at the Battle of Lissa during the Third Italian War of Independence. The battle was fought against the Austrian Empire and occurred near the island of Vis in the Adriatic sea; this was one of the few fleet actions of the nineteenth century, as a major sea battle that involved ramming, it had a profound, though with hindsight a detrimental, effect on warship design and tactics. The Italian fleet, commanded by Admiral Persano, mustered 12 ironclad and 17 wooden-hulled ships, though only one, was of the most modern turret ship design. Despite a marked disadvantage in numbers and equipment, superior handling by the Austrians under Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff resulted in a severe defeat for Italy, which lost two armoured ships and 640 men.
After the war, the Regia Marina passed through some difficult years as the naval budget was reduced, thus impairing the fleet's efficiency and the pace of new construction. In 1881, the battleship Caio Duilio was commissioned, followed in 1882 by the battleship Enrico Dandolo. In 1896 the corvette Magenta completed a circumnavigation of the world; the following year the Regia Marina conducted experiments with Guglielmo Marconi in the use of radio communications. 1909 saw the first use of aircraft with the fleet. An Italian naval officer, Vittorio Cuniberti, was the first in 1903 to envision in a published article the all-big gun battleship design, which would be come to be known as dreadnought. In 1911 and 1912, the Regia Marina was involved in the Italo-Turkish War against forces of the Ottoman Empire; as the majority of the Ottoman fleet stayed behind the relative safety of the Dardanelles, the Italians dominated the Mediterranean during the conflict winning victories against Ottoman light units at the battles of Preveza and Beirut.
In the Red Sea the Italian forces were vastly superior to those of the Ottomans who only possessed a squadron of gunboats there. These were destroyed while attempting to withdraw into the Mediterranean at the Battle of Kunfuda Bay. Before 1914, the Kingdom of Italy built six dreadnought battleships:, but they did not participate in major naval actions in World War I, as they were positioned to intercept a major sortie of the Austro-Hungarian Navy which never came. During the war, the Regia Marina spent its major efforts in the Adriatic Sea, fighting the Austro-Hungarian Navy; the resulting Adriatic Campaign of World War I consisted of Austro-Hungarian coastal bombardments of Italy's Adriatic coast, wider-ranging German/Austro-Hungarian submarine warfare into the Mediterranean. Allied forces limited themselves to blockading the German/Austro-Hungarian navies in the Adriatic, successful in regards to surface units, but failed for the submarines, which found safe harbours and easy passage into and out of the area for the whole of the war.
Considered a minor part of the naval warfare of World War I, it nonetheless tied down significant forces. For most of the war the Italian and Austro-Hungarian navies each kept a passive watch over their adversaries; the Italian fleet lost the pre-dreadnought battleship Benedetto Brin at Brindisi and the dreadnought Leonardo da Vinci at Taranto due to a magazine explosion. In the last part of the war, the Regia Marina developed new weapons: the MAS boats, that sank the Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István in the Adriatic Sea on 10 June 1918.
Sapienza University of Rome
The Sapienza University of Rome called Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy. Formally known as Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", it is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303; the University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe. Most of the Italian ruling class studied at Sapienza. Sapienza educated numerous notable alumni, including many Nobel laureates, Presidents of the European Parliament and European Commissioners, heads of several nations, notable religious figures and astronauts.. In September 2018, it was included in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings Graduate Employability Ranking. Sapienza University of Rome was founded in 1303 with the Papal bull In Supremae praeminentia Dignitatis, issued on 20 April 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies more under his control than the universities of Bologna and Padua, making it the first pontifical university.
In 1431 Pope Eugene IV reorganized the studium with the bull In supremae, in which he granted masters and students alike the broadest possible privileges and decreed that the university should include the four schools of Law, Medicine and Theology. He introduced a new tax on wine. However, the University's days of splendour came to an end during the sack of Rome in 1527, when the studium was closed and the professors dispersed, some were killed. Pope Paul III restored the university shortly after his ascension to the pontificate in 1534. In the 1650s the university became meaning wisdom, a title it retains. In 1703, Pope Clement XI purchased some land with his private funds on the Janiculum, where he made a botanical garden, which soon became the most celebrated in Europe through the labours of the Trionfetti brothers; the first complete history of the Sapienza University was written in 1803-1806 by Filippo Maria Renazzi. University students were newly animated during the 19th-century Italian revival.
In 1870, La Sapienza stopped being the papal university and became the university of the capital of Italy. In 1935 the new university campus, planned by Marcello Piacentini, was completed. Sapienza University has many campuses in Rome but its main campus is the Città Universitaria, which covers 44 ha near the Roma Tiburtina Station; the university has satellite campuses outside Rome, the main of, in Latina. In 2011 a project was launched to build a campus with residence halls near Pietralata station, in collaboration with the Lazio region. In order to cope with the ever-increasing number of applicants, the Rector approved a new plan to expand the Città Universitaria, reallocate offices and enlarge faculties, as well as create new campuses for hosting local and foreign students; the Alessandrina University Library, built in 1667 by Pope Alexander VII, is the main library housing 1.5 million volumes. Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza", a botanical garden Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza San Pietro in Vincoli: the cloister is part of the Engineering School Villa Mirafiori: a Neo-Renaissance palace built during the 19th century, some rooms are decorated with fine frescoes.
The Department of Philosophy is located in this building. Since the 2011 reform, Sapienza University of Rome has 65 departments. Today Sapienza, with 140,000 students and 8,000 among academic and technical and administrative staff, is the largest university in Italy; the university has significant research programmes in the fields of engineering, natural sciences, biomedical sciences and humanities. It offers 10 Masters Programmes taught in English; as of the 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Sapienza is positioned within the 151-200 group of universities and among the top 3% of universities in the world. In 2018, the subject Classics and Ancient history of Sapienza is ranked the 1st in the world by QS World University Rankings by subject; as the same ranking, the subject Archaeology ranks the 9th. In 2016, the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Sapienza University of Rome as the 90th in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings. In order to cope with the large demand for admission to the university courses, some faculties hold a series of entrance examinations.
The entrance test decides which candidates will have access to the undergraduate course. For some faculties, the entrance test is only a mean through which the administration acknowledges the students' level of preparation. Students that do not pass the test can still enroll in their chosen degree courses but have to pass an additional exam during their first year. On 15 January 2008 the Vatican cancelled a planned visit to La Sapienza University by Pope Benedict XVI, to speak at the university ceremony launching the 2008 academic year due to protests by some students and professors; the title of the speech would have been'The Truth Makes Us Good and Goodness is Truth'. Some students and professors protested in reaction to a 1990 speech that Pope Benedict XVI gave in which he, in their opinion, endorsed the actions of the church against Galileo in 1633. Among the prominent scholars who have taught at the Sapienza University of Rome are architects Ernesto Basile and Bruno Zevi.
Albania the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2, it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast; the area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire.
In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans; the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour; the country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy, it provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC, it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean; the term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.
The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë. Nowadays, Albanians call their country Shqipëria; as early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles"; the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.
The territory known as Illyria corresponded to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river. The first accou
Edoardo Alfieri was an Italian fascist politician and diplomat. Alfieri was born in Bologna. In 1911 he finished law studies and soon after joined the nationalist group formed by Enrico Corradini. A volunteer in World War I, he was critical of the merger between Corradini's group and Benito Mussolini's Partito Nazionale Fascista. Nonetheless, he was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies on the PNF list in 1924. Under Mussolini's government, Alfieri was assigned several tasks: between 1929 and 1934, he was co-director of the Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution, deputy secretary of the Corporazioni, deputy secretary for Press and Propaganda from 1935, assuming the duties of Minister Galeazzo Ciano during the latter's mission in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War; when Ciano moved on to become Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dino Alfieri found himself appointed Minister of People's Culture in 1937, declared himself to the Antisemitical racial segregation laws passed in 1938. He was Italy's envoy to the Holy See starting 7 November 1939, five months to Nazi Germany.
A member of the Grand Council of Fascism, he supported Dino Grandi's coup d'état in July 1943, that led to the fall from power of the Italian Fascist government after 21 years and the arrest of Mussolini. When the Wehrmacht occupied Italy, Alfieri fled to Switzerland to save his life. In January 1944, he was sentenced to death in absentia by a kangaroo court during the Verona trial; the Swiss government tolerated his attendance in Switzerland. On 12 November 1946, an Italian court stated his innocence, he was pensioned off. In 1947, he returned to Italy and a year published his memoirs as Due dittatori di fronte. Lettere Inedite Di Vittorio Alfieri Alla Madre, a Mario Bianchi, E a Teresa Mocenni Newspaper clippings about Dino Alfieri in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics Christian Zentner, Friedemann Bedürftig; the Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. Macmillan, New York. ISBN 0-02-897502-2