Pulangi Dam

The Pulangi IV Hydroelectric Power Plant known as the Pulangi Dam, is located on the Pulangi River near Maramag in Bukidnon province on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. It uses two reservoirs, produced by damming the Pulangi River, to supply water to a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant. Construction began in 1982; the upper reservoir located at 7°47′11″N 125°1′25″E diverts water into a power channel which parallels the river until it reaches the lower reservoir at 7°42′56″N 125°1′25″E, 7.5 km to the south. At the lower reservoir, water is fed to each of the three 85 MW Francis turbine-generators via a penstock; the Pulangi IV power plant provides 23% of the hydroelectric power generated on Mindanao. Since operation, the reservoirs associated with the power plant have received an estimated 1,500,000 m3 of sediment annually. Of the reservoir's combined 67,000,000 m3 active capacity, 23,000,000 m3 has been filled with silt; the siltation rate was 1 meter annually and caused the dam's reservoir to work at 50% capacity.

The unexpected siltation threatens safe operation of the dams and power generation, in addition to drastically shortening the predicted operational lifespan of the dam. At first, the minimum and maximum water levels were raised and, in 2007, dredging work was performed around the head work of the upper reservoir's head. Selective dredging in the upper reservoir began in 2010, continues as of 2011; the artificial lake created by the reservoir proper is called the Pulangi Lake or the Maramag Basin


Phoenice or Phoenike was an ancient Greek city in Epirus and capital of the Chaonians. It was the location of the Treaty of Phoenice which ended the First Macedonian War, as well as one of the wealthiest cities in Epirus until the Roman conquest. During the early Byzantine period, Phoenice was the; the city is an archaeological park of Albania and is located on a hill above a modern town which bears the same name, Finiq, in modern southern Albania. The city was the political center of the Chaonians, one of the three major Greek tribes in ancient Epirus. From the second half of the 5th century BC, an acropolis was erected, which hosted a number of public buildings, while at the end of the next century the fortifications of the city were expanded as part of Pyrrhus's, leader of united Epirus, defensive strategy; the patron god of the city was Athena Polias. The walls of Phoenice consisted of massive blocks up to 3.60 meters thick, the Chaonians' primary concern being to defend the city against Illyrian attacks.

In circa 233 BC, Queen Deidamia II, the last member of the Aeacid ruling dynasty, was assassinated, the monarchy was abolished in Epirus, the city became the center of the federal government of the Epirote League. In 231 BC, an Illyrian army of Queen Teuta, returning north from a raid in the Peloponnese, captured Phoenice after the town was surrendered by the 800 Gaulish mercenary garrison. An army was sent by the Epirote League to relieve the town, but the Illyrians were forced to withdraw their troops to deal with an internal rebellion. A truce was thus reached, Phoenice and the Illyrians' free-born captives were returned to the Epirotes for a ransom. During their occupation of Phoenice, the Illyrians murdered several Roman merchants in the town, which would lead to the First Illyrian War. In 205 BC, a peace treaty was signed there between the Kingdom of Macedon and the Roman Republic that ended the First Macedonian War. During the Third Macedonian War, Epirus was split into two states with the Molossians siding with the Macedonians and the Chaonians and Thesprotians siding with Rome.

The latter were centered in Phoenice under the leadership of Charops. After the Roman conquest, the region of Epirus was devastated except for the pro-Roman supporters in Chaonia. During the following centuries and nearby Antigoneia did not reveal strong traces of Roman presence. In the early Byzantine era, Emperor Justinian I constructed fortifications on a hill adjacent to Phoenice. During the 5th and 6th centuries, the city was listed as a see of a bishopric and hosted a number of religious buildings including a baptistery and a basilica, which were influenced by the architectural style of the great basilicas of Nikopolis. Phoenice was one of the main settlements in Epirus Vetus together with Nicopolis, Euroia, Anhiasmos, Photike and Ithaka. However, the city vanished after the 6th century and the urban center of the area moved to nearby Mesopotamon. Formal excavations in the area started in 1924 by an Italian Archaeological Mission as a political tool for Mussolini's nationalistic ambitions to the east of the Adriatic.

During 1924–1928, French and Italian archaeologists found a few "Illyrian" artifacts in Phoenice. In fact, the Italian mission headed by the fascist prehistorian, Luigi Ugolini, hoped that the prehistoric graves that would be discovered could be attributed to the Illyrians in order exploit Albanian nationalist sentiment, but the finds themselves were hardly stunning. Ugolini stated that materials found there were related to the Iron Age culture of southern Italy. Ugolini's thesis was politically exploited by the totalitarian regime of Fascist Italy. After 1928, excavations moved to the nearby archaeological sites of Kalivo and Çuka e Aitoit and continued until 1943. After the war, excavations resumed in 1958 by a joint Albanian-USSR archaeological team, which included a thorough topographic survey and mapping. After 1961, when a political rift occurred between Albania and the USSR, excavations continued under Albanian authorities. A complete report of these excavations has not been published.

Some parts of the work were published by Albanian archaeologists Bace and Bushati in 1989, reporting Hellenistic domiciles, Roman houses, other finds dating from the 4th century BC to the 4th century AD. The authors found the opportunity to strengthen the nationalistic paradigm of Illyrian-Albanian continuity by reporting similarities of these houses and the medieval Albanian ones, they found an "egalitarian" nature among the excavated dwellings, in line with the philosophy of communist "self-reliance" promoted by the Albanian state during that period. In June 2012, looters broke into a Hellenistic-era tomb located on the road that connected Phoenice to its hinterland; the looters used heavy construction equipment to dig a trench several meters deep through the hillside, scattering the stones of the tomb in the process. Looting of archeological sites remains a widespread problem in Albania. List of cities in ancient Epirus Treaty of Phoenice Italian Excavation Mission in Phoenice