Swaledale is one of the northernmost dales in the Yorkshire Dales National Park in northern England. It is the dale of the River Swale on the east side of the Pennines in North Yorkshire. Swaledale runs broadly from west to east, from the high moors on the Cumbria–Yorkshire boundary at the watershed of Northern England to the market town of Richmond, where the dale meets the lowlands. Nine Standards Rigg, the prominent ridge with nine ancient tall cairns, rises on the watershed at the head of Swaledale. To the south and east of the ridge a number of smaller dales join to form the narrow valley of upper Swaledale at the small village of Keld. From there, the valley runs south turns east at Thwaite to broaden progressively as it passes Muker, Low Row and Reeth; the Pennine valley ends at Richmond, where an important medieval castle still watches the important ford from the top of a cliff. Below Richmond, the valley sides flatten out and the Swale flows across lowland farmland to meet the Ure just east of Boroughbridge at a point known as Swale Nab.
The Ure becomes the Ouse, the Humber. From the north and its river the Arkle Beck join Swaledale at Reeth. To the south, home of the famous Wensleydale cheese, runs parallel with Swaledale; the two dales are separated by a ridge including Great Shunner Fell, joined by the road over Buttertubs Pass. Swaledale is a typical limestone Yorkshire dale, with its narrow valley-bottom road, green meadows and fellside fields, white sheep and dry stone walls on the glacier-formed valley sides, darker moorland skyline; the upper parts of the dale are striking because of its large old limestone field barns and its profusion of wild flowers. The latter are thanks to the return to the practice of leaving the cutting of grass for hay or silage until wild plants have had a chance to seed. Visible from the valley bottom road are the fading fellside scars of the 18th and 19th century lead mining industry. Ruined stone mine buildings remain, taking on the same colours as the landscape into which they are crumbling.
Swaledale is home to many small but beautiful waterfalls, such as Richmond Falls, Kisdon Force and Catrake Force. Sheep-farming has always been central to economic life in Swaledale, which has lent its name to a breed of round-horned sheep. Traditional Swaledale products are woollens and Swaledale cheese, made from ewe’s milk; these days it is made from cow’s milk. During the 19th century, a major industry in the area was lead mining. Today, tourism has become important, Swaledale attracts thousands of visitors a year, it is popular with walkers because the Coast to Coast Walk passes along it. Unlike Wensleydale it has no large settlements on the scale of Hawes or Leyburn, nor an obvious tourist hook such as former's connection with James Herriot, so, like Coverdale, it enjoys a quieter tone as it is more remote compared to, Wharfedale, much further south and accessible from the West Yorkshire metropolis. In May and June every year, Swaledale hosts the two-week-long Swaledale Festival, which combines a celebration of small-scale music and a programme of guided walks.
The first weekend in August sees the area host the'Ard Rock mountain bike festival, based in Reeth but uses bridleways and private land in both Swaledale and Arkengarthdale. Since 1950, Swaledale has been the host of the Scott Trial, a British motorcycle trials competition run over an off road course of 70 miles, raising money for the "Scott charities", a range of local non-profit making organisations. Swaledale Festival Swaledale Museum Swaledale and Arkengarthdale Archaeology Group
Kerry Bog Pony
The Kerry Bog Pony is a mountain and moorland breed of pony that originated in Ireland. Descended from the Irish Hobby horse, it lived a feral existence in the peat bogs of what is now County Kerry in southwestern Ireland. Local inhabitants used the ponies as pack and cart horses for transporting peat and kelp to the villages; the breed developed physical characteristics including a low weight-to-height ratio and an unusual footfall pattern, which helped it move on soft ground such as peat bogs. The ponies were known for an ability to survive in harsh conditions. War, increasing mechanisation and declines in the local small-farm population resulted in the breed's extinction. In 1994, a local man found and genetically tested a herd of 20 ponies he used as the foundation stock for rebuilding of the breed. In the early 2000s, the breed was recognised by the Irish Department of Agriculture and Food and the European Commission. At the same time and American breed registries were formed; as of 2011, the registered population is more than 300 ponies.
Kerry Bog Ponies stand 10 to 12 hands high. The Irish breed standard calls for mares to stand 10–11 hands and stallions and geldings to stand 11–12 hands, their low weight-to-height ratio enables them to walk on wet ground. Their hind feet tend to track outside their front feet, they exhibit a upright pastern and steep hoof angle compared to other breeds another characteristic that aids their movement in peat bogs. Kerry Bog Ponies are easy keepers, when feral they lived on low-nutrient heather, sphagnum moss and kelp from the shoreline. Overall, they are muscular and strong and their heads have concave profiles, small ears and large eyes, their winter coat is dense, serving as protection from harsh weather. All solid coat colours are found, including dilute colours such as palomino, white markings are common. Pinto-coloured animals are not accepted by the Irish registry; the breed is known by enthusiasts for strength and athleticism, used for driving, as companion animals and for therapeutic riding programs.
Kerry Bog Ponies were known in Ireland as "hobbies" derived from the Gaelic practice of obaireacht, or the calling out of "Hup, Hup" to attract a pony back to the farmyard. It is moorland pony breeds from the British Isles. A 2006 study using mitochondrial DNA found that the Kerry Bog Pony is not related to the other two native Irish breeds, the Irish Draught and the Connemara pony, it has a rare haplogroup more related to other small horse breeds found in western Europe, including the Shetland pony and Icelandic horse. A 2012 study found relationships between the Kerry Bog Pony and the Dartmoor Pony and Exmoor Pony breeds, a lack of common ancestry with the Welsh Pony, as well as reinforcing the lack of relationship to the Connemara; the study suggested that the Kerry Bog Pony population had some amount of crossbreeding with other mountain and moorland breeds as part of the initial attempts to increase the population in the 1990s. The Kerry Bog Pony may have been one of several breeds that contributed to the development of the Gypsy Vanner horse.
The original ancestry of the Kerry Bog Pony is unknown, but there were horses living a feral existence in peat bogs in what is now County Kerry in southwestern Ireland since at least the 1600s. Some enthusiasts claim. In a 1617 book illustration, the horses pictured resemble both the Kerry Bog Pony of today and the original Irish Hobby, showing the two breeds' similar morphology. Kerry Bog Ponies were used to transport peat and kelp, they were known for their ability to navigate through the bogs, around soft spots and over rocks in wet and windy weather, for their strength relative to their small size. Some were used to pull carts; the ponies were turned loose into the peat bogs when they were not needed later re-caught for work. Few if any breeding programs existed. In 1720, Isaac Ware travelled to County Kerry and observed that the horses resembled Asturcón ponies from Spain; the British cavalry became aware of the ponies in 1804, during the Peninsular War, used them as pack animals during the conflict.
The famine of 1845–1852 furthered their decline, as farmers who utilised them died or emigrated. In addition, Spanish donkeys were brought to the island to replace the ponies, when peat declined as a fuel source, pack animals were no longer needed. In the 1850s, farms began to be consolidated, more machinery and large draft horses were employed, further reducing the number of ponies needed; the ponies were left to run feral ignored and sometimes shot at by locals. In 1994, John Mulvihill, who operated the Red Fox Inn at the Kerry Bog Village in Glenbeigh, County Kerry, began a search for remnants of the Kerry Bog Pony population, despite reports that the breed was extinct, he found 20 ponies that resembled those he remembered from his childhood, removed them from the bog to his stables. In 1995, he had blood typing performed on the ponies by Weatherby's Ireland, which identified their DNA markers. Subsequent DNA testing showed them to be a unique breed that formed a separate population from other local ponies and from other breeds in Ireland and Great Britain.
Of these 20 ponies, only one w
The Shetland pony is a British breed of pony originating in the Shetland Isles of Scotland. The ponies range in height at the withers from 70 cm to a permitted maximum of 107 cm, they have a heavy coat and short legs, are considered quite intelligent. They are strong for their size, are used for riding and pack purposes. Shetland ponies originated in the Shetland Isles, located northeast of mainland Scotland. Small horses have been kept on the Shetland Isles since the Bronze Age. People who lived on the islands later crossed the native stock with ponies imported by Norse settlers. Shetland ponies were influenced by the Celtic pony, brought to the islands by settlers between 2000 and 1000 BCE; the harsh climate and scarce food developed the ponies into hardy animals. Shetland ponies were first used for pulling carts, carrying peat and other items, plowing farm land; as the Industrial Revolution increased the need for coal in the mid-19th century, thousands of Shetland ponies travelled to mainland Britain to be pit ponies, working underground hauling coal for their entire lives.
Coal mines in the eastern United States imported some of these animals. The last pony mine in the United States closed in 1971; the Shetland Pony Stud-Book Society is the breed society for the traditional Shetland throughout the world. It was started in 1890 to maintain purity and encourage high-quality animals. In 1957, the Shetland Islands Premium Stallion Scheme was formed to subsidise high-quality registered stallions to improve the breeding stock. In the United States, ponies may be registered with the American Shetland Pony Club and the Shetland Pony Society of North America. A number of pony breeds derive from the traditional Shetland; these include the American Shetland Pony and Pony of the Americas in the United States,:243 and the Deutsches Classic Pony in Germany. Shetland Ponies are hardy and strong, in part because the breed developed in the harsh conditions of the Shetland Isles. In appearance, Shetlands have small heads, sometimes with dished faces spaced eyes and small and alert ears.
The original breed has a short, muscular neck. A short broad back and deep girth are universal characteristics, as is a springy stride. Shetlands have long thick manes and tails and dense double winter coats to withstand harsh weather. Shetlands can be every colour, including skewbald and piebald, but are black, bay, palomino, roan and silver dapple. Registered shetlands are not leopard spotted, nor do they carry the champagne gene, though these colours are sometimes seen in Shetland-sized crossbreds. Shetland ponies are gentle, good-tempered, intelligent by nature, they make good children's ponies, are sometimes noted for having a "brave" character. They can be opinionated or "cheeky", can be impatient and sometimes become uncooperative. Due in part to their intelligence and size, they are spoiled and can be headstrong if not well-trained. For its size, the Shetland is the strongest of all horse and pony breeds, it can pull twice its own weight under circumstances where a draft horse can only pull half its own weight, as well as many being able to carry up to 9 stone – 130 pounds.
Shetland ponies are found worldwide, though in the UK and North America. In general, UK ponies tend to preserve more of the original characteristics of the breed and are stockier than their American cousins. Many ponies are long-lived. Conversely, their small size predisposes some individuals to a greater probability of heart problems than in larger animals, on occasion leading to early death. Shetland ponies, like many hardy small horse and pony breeds, can develop laminitis if on a diet high in non-structural carbohydrates. Therefore, owners must pay careful attention to nutrition, being careful to regulate feed quantity and type. Today, Shetlands are ridden by children and are shown by both children and adults at horse shows in harness driving classes as well as for pleasure driving outside of the show ring. Shetlands are ridden by small children at horse shows, in riding schools and stables as well as for pleasure, they are seen working in commercial settings such as fairs or carnivals to provide short rides for visitors.
They are seen at petting zoos and sometimes are used for therapeutic horseback riding purposes. In the United Kingdom, Shetlands are featured in the Shetland Pony Grand National, galloping around a racecourse with young jockeys. Junior Harness Racing was founded in Queensland by a group of breeders to give young people aged 6–16 an opportunity to obtain a practical introduction to the harness racing industry; the children have the opportunity to drive Shetland ponies in harness under race conditions. No prize money is payable on pony races, although winners and place-getters receive medallions. Miniature Shetlands have been trained as guide horses to take the same role as guide dogs; this task is performed by other miniature horse breeds. The Royal Regiment of Scotland and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, prior to the regiment's formation, adopted the Shetland as its regimental mascot and names them Cruachan. Shetland animal breeds List of domesticated Scottish breeds List of horse breeds Pony Mountain and moorland pony breeds The Shetland Pony Stud-Book Society Pony Breeders of Shetland Association "Shetland Pony", from International Museum of the Horse Shetland Pony Society of North America American Shetlan
A pony is a small horse. Depending on context, a pony may be a horse, under an approximate or exact height at the withers or a small horse with a specific conformation and temperament. There are many different breeds. Compared to other horses, ponies exhibit thicker manes and overall coat, as well as proportionally shorter legs, wider barrels, heavier bone, thicker necks, shorter heads with broader foreheads; the word pony derives from the old French poulenet, meaning foal, a young, immature horse, but this is not the modern meaning. On occasion, people who are unfamiliar with horses may confuse an adult pony with a foal; the ancestors of most modern ponies developed small stature because they lived on the margins of livable horse habitat. These smaller animals were domesticated and bred for various purposes all over the Northern Hemisphere. Ponies were used for driving and freight transport, as children's mounts, for recreational riding, as competitors and performers in their own right. During the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, a significant number were used as pit ponies, hauling loads of coal in the mines.
Ponies are considered intelligent and friendly. They are sometimes described as stubborn or cunning. Properly trained ponies are appropriate. Larger ponies can be ridden by adults, as ponies are strong for their size. In modern use, many organizations define a pony as a mature horse that measures less than 14.2 hands at the withers, but there are a number of exceptions. Different organizations that use a strict measurement model vary from 14 hands to nearly 14.3 hands. Many breeds classify an animal as either horse or pony based on pedigree and phenotype, no matter its height; some full-sized horses may be called ponies for various reasons of tradition or as a term of endearment. For many forms of competition, the official definition of a pony is a horse that measures less than 14.2 hands at the withers. Standard horses are taller; the International Federation for Equestrian Sports defines the official cutoff point at 148 centimetres without shoes and 149 centimetres with shoes, though allows a margin for competition measurement of up to 150 centimetres without shoes, or 151 centimetres with shoes.
However, the term "pony" can be used in general for any small horse, regardless of its actual size or breed. Furthermore, some horse breeds may have individuals who mature under that height but are still called "horses" and are allowed to compete as horses. In Australia, horses that measure from 14 hands to 15 hands are known as a "galloway", ponies in Australia measure under 14 hands. People who are unfamiliar with horses may confuse an adult pony with a immature horse. While foals that will grow up to be horse-sized may be no taller than some ponies in their first months of life, their body proportions are different. A pony can be ridden and put to work, while a foal is too young to be ridden or used as a working animal. Foals, whether they grow up to be horse or pony-sized, can be distinguished from adult horses by their long legs and slim bodies, their heads and eyes exhibit juvenile characteristics. Furthermore, in most cases, nursing foals will be in close proximity to a mare, the mother of the foal.
While ponies exhibit some neoteny with the wide foreheads and small size, their body proportions are similar to that of an adult horse. Ponies developed as a landrace adapted to a harsh natural environment, were considered part of the "draft" subtype typical of Northern Europe. At one time, it was hypothesized that they may have descended from a wild "draft" subspecies of Equus ferus. Studies of mitochondrial DNA indicate that a large number of wild mares have contributed to modern domestic breeds. Domestication of the horse first occurred in the Eurasian steppes with horses of between 13 hands to over 14 hands, as horse domestication spread, the male descendants of the original stallion went on to be bred with local wild mares. Domesticated ponies of all breeds developed from the need for a working animal that could fulfill specific local draft and transportation needs while surviving in harsh environments; the usefulness of the pony was noted by farmers who observed that a pony could outperform a draft horse on small farms.
By the 20th century, many pony breeds had Arabian and other blood added to make a more refined pony suitable for riding. Ponies are seen in many different equestrian pursuits; some breeds, such as the Hackney pony, are used for driving, while other breeds, such as the Connemara pony and Australian Pony, are used for riding. Others, such as the Welsh pony, are used for both driving. There is no direct correlation between its inherent athletic ability. Ponies compete at events that include show hunter, English riding on the flat and western riding classes at horse shows, as well as other competitive events such as gymkhana and combined driving, they are seen in casual pursuits such as trail riding, but a few ponies have performed in international-level competition. Though many exhibitors confine themselves to classes just for ponies, some top ponies
The Dales pony is one of the United Kingdom's native mountain and moorland pony breeds. The breed is known for its strength, stamina, courage and good disposition; the history of the modern Dales pony is linked to the history of lead mining in the Dales area of Yorkshire, it was a working pony descended from a number of breeds. A breed registry was created in 1916, the breed was used extensively by the British Army in both world wars; the Dales pony became extinct during the Second World War, but post-war conservation efforts have had some success in rebuilding the population. Today it is used for many different activities, but population numbers are still low and this has led to it being considered "critical" by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust and "threatened" by The Livestock Conservancy. Breed: Warmblood Type: Mountain Pony Colours: Black and grey Stick size: 135-145cm The Dales pony is ideally 13 to 14 hands; the head is straight and broad between the eyes, with a fine muzzle and incurving ears.
The body is short in the back, with a broad and deep rib cage, long and well-muscled quarters, a well-muscled neck of a good length joining neatly into strong withers and strong sloping shoulders. The legs are muscular, with hard, dense bone defined tendons, flexible pasterns, large round hooves with open heels; the mane and leg feathers are straight and abundant. The majority of Dales ponies are black, though brown, bay and roan colours are acceptable; the only white markings permitted on the head are a star and/or a snip. The hind legs may have a small amount of white, not extending above the fetlock joint, though ponies with excess white markings may be registered in the B register of the stud book. A Dales pony should move with a great deal of energy and power, lifting the hooves well clear of the ground; the over-all impression should be of an alert, courageous but kind animal. Ponies which do not meet the physical standard set by the breed registry may be registered as "B-status", meaning that they are of Dales Pony bloodlines but do not have the proper appearance or gaits.
Foals by Dales stallions and non-Dales mares may be registered as part-breds. Foals out of Dales mares and non-Dales stallions may not be registered, as the stud book wishes to promote breeding of purebred ponies to maintain the current population levels. Horses have used in the Dales area from early times. Horse remains dating to Roman times were found in the Ribchester area of the Dales, during North Pennines Archaeology's excavations at land behind the Black Bull Inn in 2009; the Romans themselves named an ancient British tribe to the east of the Pennines the Gabrantovici, or'horse-riding warriors'. The history of the modern Dales pony is linked to the history of lead mining in the Dales area of England, which stretches from the Derbyshire peaks to the Scottish borders. Lead has been mined in this area since Roman times, Richard Scrope Chancellor of England, owned lead mines at Wensleydale in the 14th century. Iron ore, fuel for smelting, finished lead were all carried on pack ponies, with each pony carrying up to 240 lb at a time.
Pack pony trains of up to 20 ponies worked'loose', under the supervision of one mounted train leader. The modern Dales pony is descended from a number of breeds, with the original working ponies being bred by crossing the Scottish Galloway pony with native Pennine pony mares in the Dales area in the late 1600s. A century Norfolk Cob bloodlines were brought into the breed, which traced back to the Darley Arabian, most Dales ponies today have pedigrees which can trace back directly to this influential horse. Clydesdale, Norfolk Trotter, Yorkshire Roadster blood was added to improve the trotting ability of the Dales; the bloodline of the Welsh Cob stallion Comet was added during the 19th century to increase the size of the Dales ponies, leaving a lasting resemblance between the two breeds. With their agility and speed, the Dales had great success in trotting races of the 18th century and were used in organized hunts; the Fell pony continued to intermingle with the Dales into the early 20th century.
In 1912, Dalesman was chosen as a Fell premium stallion by the Board of Agriculture. In 1924, he was re-registered as a Dales pony; the Dales pony stud book was opened in 1916, with the formation of the Dales Pony Improvement Society, after the introduction of Clydesdale blood threatened to affect the quality of the Dales ponies. Stallion premiums were awarded first by the Board of Agriculture, by the War Office, to ensure that stallions displaying the best of the breed characteristics were used for breeding. Members of the breed served with the British army in Europe during the First World War. In the early 1920s, 200 Dales ponies were purchased by the British army; the army took only the finest stock, with the least amount of draft blood. The specifications for the purchased ponies were specific: all were older than five years, stood 14.0 to 14.2 hands high, weighed at least 1,000 pounds with a girth measurement of 68 inches, were able to pack at least 294 pounds in mountainous terrain. The breed disappeared during the Second World War as ponies were taken for breeding vanners, for work in towns and cities, for use by the British Army as pack and artillery ponies.
Many ponies used by the military in Europe were left behind after the war, in many cases they were slaughtered for food. The population declined during the war
The Suffolk Horse historically known as the Suffolk Punch or Suffolk Sorrel, is an English breed of draught horse. The breed takes the first part of its name from the county of Suffolk in East Anglia, the name "Punch" from its solid appearance and strength, it is a heavy draught horse, always chestnut in colour, traditionally spelled "chesnut" by the breed registries. Suffolk Punches are known as good doers, tend to have energetic gaits; the breed was developed in the early 16th century, remains similar in phenotype to its founding stock. The Suffolk Punch was developed for farm work, gained popularity during the early 20th century. However, as agriculture became mechanised, the breed fell out of favour from the middle part of the century, disappeared completely. Although the breed's status is listed as critical by the UK Rare Breeds Survival Trust and the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, a resurgence in interest has occurred, population numbers are increasing; the breed pulled artillery and non-motorised commercial vans and buses, as well as being used for farm work.
It was exported to other countries to upgrade local equine stock. Today, they are used for draught work and advertising. Suffolk Punches stand 16.1 to 17.2 hands, weigh 1,980 to 2,200 pounds, are always chestnut in colour. The traditional spelling, still used by the Suffolk Horse Society, is "chesnut". Horses of the breed come in many different shades of chestnut. Suffolk horse breeders in the UK use several different colour terms specific to the breed, including dark liver, dull dark and bright. White markings are rare and limited to small areas on the face and lower legs. Equestrian author Marguerite Henry described the breed by saying, "His color is bright chestnut – like a tongue of fire against black field furrows, against green corn blades, against yellow wheat, against blue horizons. Never is he any other color." The Suffolk Punch tends to be shorter but more massively built than other British heavy draught breeds, such as the Clydesdale or the Shire, as a result of having been developed for agricultural work rather than road haulage.
The breed has a arching neck. Legs are strong, with broad joints; the movement of the Suffolk Punch is said to be energetic at the trot. The breed tends to mature early and be long-lived, is economical to keep, needing less feed than other horses of similar type and size, they are hard workers, said to be willing to "pull a laden wagon till dropped."In the past, the Suffolk was criticised for its poor feet, having hooves that were too small for its body mass. This was corrected by the introduction of classes at major shows in which hoof conformation and structure were judged; this practice, unique among horse breeds, resulted in such an improvement that the Suffolk Punch is now considered to have excellent foot conformation. The Suffolk Punch registry is the oldest English breed society; the first known mention of the Suffolk Punch is in William Camden's Britannia, published in 1586, in which he describes a working horse of the eastern counties of England, recognisable as the Suffolk Punch. This description makes them the oldest breed of horse, recognisable in the same form today.
A detailed genetic study shows that the Suffolk Punch is genetically grouped not only with the Fell and Dales British ponies, but with the European Haflinger. They were developed in Norfolk and Suffolk in the east of England, a isolated area; the local farmers developed the Suffolk Punch for farm work, for which they needed a horse with power, health and docility, they bred the Suffolk to comply with these needs. Because the farmers used these horses on their land, they had any to sell, which helped to keep the bloodlines pure and unchanged; the foundation sire of the modern Suffolk Punch breed was a 15.2 hands stallion foaled near Woodbridge in 1768 and owned by Thomas Crisp of Ufford. At this time, the breed was known as the Suffolk Sorrel; this horse was never named, is known as "Crisp's horse". Although it is thought that this was the first horse of the breed, by the 1760s, all other male lines of the breed had died out, resulting in a genetic bottleneck. Another bottleneck occurred in the late 18th century.
In 1784, the breed was described as "15 hands high and compact with bony legs light sorrel in color, tractable, strong" and with "shoulders loaded with flesh". During its development, the breed was influenced by the Norfolk Trotter, Norfolk Cob, the Thoroughbred; the uniform colouring derives in part from a small trotting stallion named Blakes Farmer, foaled in 1760. Other breeds were crossbred in an attempt to increase the size and stature of the Suffolk Punch, as well as to improve the shoulders, but they had little lasting influence, the breed remains much as it was before any crossbreeding took place; the Suffolk Horse Society, formed in Britain in 1877 to promote the Suffolk Punch, published its first stud book in 1880. The first official exports of Suffolks to Canada took place in 1865. In 1880, the first Suffolks were imported into the United States, with more following in 1888 and 1903 to begin the breeding of Suffolk Punches in the US; the American Suffolk Horse Association was established and published its first stud book in 1907.
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate