The Game Boy Advance is a 32-bit handheld game console developed and marketed by Nintendo as the successor to the Game Boy Color. It was released in Japan on March 21, 2001, in North America on June 11, 2001, in Australia and Europe on June 22, 2001, in mainland China on June 8, 2004 as iQue Game Boy Advance; the GBA is part of the sixth generation of video game consoles. The original model did not have an illuminated screen. A newer revision of the aforementioned redesign was released in 2005, which included a backlit screen; the final redesign, the Game Boy Micro, was released in 2005. As of June 30, 2010, the Game Boy Advance series has sold 81.51 million units worldwide. Its successor, the Nintendo DS, was released in November 2004 and is compatible with Game Boy Advance software. Contrary to the previous Game Boy models, which were all following the "portrait" form factor of the original Game Boy, the Game Boy Advance was designed in a "landscape" form factor, putting the buttons to the sides of the device instead of below the screen.
The Game Boy Advance was designed by the French designer Gwénaël Nicolas and his Tokyo-based design studio Curiosity Inc. Word of a successor to the Game Boy Color first emerged at the Nintendo Space World trade show in late August 1999, where it was reported that two new handheld systems were in the works: one of which being an improved version of the GBC with wireless online connectivity, codenamed the Advanced Game Boy, a brand-new 32-bit system, not set for release until the following year. On September 1, 1999, Nintendo announced the Game Boy Advance, revealing details about the system's specifications including online connectivity through a cellular device and an improved model of the Game Boy Camera. Nintendo teased that the handheld would first be released in Japan in August 2000, with the North American and European launch dates slated for the end of the same year. Nintendo announced a partnership with Konami to form Mobile 21, a development studio that would focus on creating technology for the GBA to interact with the [, Nintendo's home console, in development at the time under the name "Dolphin".
On August 21, 2000, IGN showed off images of a GBA development kit running a demonstrational port of Yoshi Story, on August 22, pre-production images of the GBA were revealed in an issue of Famitsu magazine in Japan. On August 24, Nintendo revealed the console to the public in a presentation, revealing the Japanese and North American launch dates, in addition to revealing that 10 games would be available as launch titles for the system; the GBA was featured at Nintendo Space World 2000 from August 24 to 26 alongside several peripherals for the system, including the GBA Link cable, the GameCube - Game Boy Advance link cable, a rechargable battery pack for the system, an infrared communications adaptor which would allow systems to exchange data with each other. In March 2001, Nintendo revealed details about the system's North American launch, including the suggested price of $99.99 and the 15 launch games. Nintendo estimated that around 60 games would be made available for the system by the end of 2001.
In 1996, magazines including Electronic Gaming Monthly, Next Generation, issues 53 and 54 of Total! and the July 1996 issue of Game Informer featured reports of a new Game Boy, codenamed Project Atlantis. Although Nintendo's expectations of releasing the system in at least one territory by the end of 1996 would make that machine seem to be the Game Boy Color, it was described as having a 32-bit RISC processor, a 3-by-2-inch color LCD screen, a link port—a description that more matches the Game Boy Advance, it may have referred to the unnamed, unreleased Game Boy Color successor prototype, revealed at 2009's Game Developers Conference. It was announced that Nintendo of Japan was working on a game for the system called "Mario's Castle". Nintendo tabled the project in 1997, since the original Game Boy was still too popular to merit the release of a successor; the technical specifications of the original Game Boy Advance are, as provided by Nintendo: Backward compatibility for Game Boy and Game Boy Color games is provided by a custom 4.194/8.388 MHz 8080-based coprocessor, while a link port at the top of the unit allows it to be connected to other devices using a Game Link cable or GameCube link cable.
When playing Game Boy or Game Boy Color games on the Game Boy Advance, the L and R buttons can be used to toggle between a stretched widescreen format and the original screen ratio of the Game Boy. Game Boy games can be played using the same selectable color palettes as on the Game Boy Color; every Nintendo handheld system following the release of the Game Boy Advance SP has included a built-in light and rechargeable battery. The Game Boy Advance 2D graphics hardware has scaling and rotation for traditional tiled backgrounds in its modes 1 and 2 and scaling and rotation for bitmaps in modes 3 through 5. On each machine supporting this effect, it is possible to change the scaling and rotation values during the horizontal blanking period of each scanline to draw a flat plane in a perspective projection. More complex effects such as fuzz are possible by using other equations for the position and rotation of each line; the "character mode" supports up to 4 tile map background layers per frame, w
The 155 mm Gun Motor Carriage M40 was an American self-propelled artillery vehicle built on a widened and lengthened Medium Tank M4A3 chassis, but with a Continental engine and with HVSS, introduced at the end of the Second World War. Equipped with a 155 mm M2 gun, it was designed to replace the earlier M12 Gun Motor Carriage, its prototype designation was the T83, but this was changed to the M40 in March 1945. A single pilot vehicle was used in the European Theatre in 1945 by the 991st Field Artillery Battalion, along with a related 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage T89, sometimes equipped with a 155 mm barrel. A total of 311 out of a planned 600 were completed by the Pressed Steel Car Company before the end of the war, 24 of which were converted into M43s. From there it was deployed during the Korean War. After World War II, the M40 was used by the British Army, who designated it 155 mm SP, M40 and called it Cardinal in the tradition of using ecclesiastical names for SP artillery, such as Deacon, Priest and Sexton.
A complete gun section consisted of one M40 GMC and one M4A1 high speed tractor towing an M23 ammunition trailer. Each battery had four gun sections; the M4A1/M23 combo replaced the earlier M30 cargo carrier. The Army planned to use the same T38 chassis for a family of SP artillery: Cargo Carrier T30 - a few built before cancellation in December 1944 to make more chassis available for GMCs 8 inch Howitzer Motor Carriage M43 - 8 in HMC, standardized August 1945, 48 built 250 mm Mortar Motor Carriage T94 - 10 in MMC, began design Feb. 1945, one prototype completed in 1946 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M7B1 - self-propelled 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage based on the M4A3 Sherman chassis. 155 mm Gun Motor Carriage M12 - self-propelled 155 mm Gun Motor Carriage. Cargo Carrier M30 - an M12 with crew and ammunition space in lieu of the gun. One at United States Army Ordnance Museum one at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford one at Royal Artillery Museum, Woolwich one at the Technik Museum, Sinsheim Two M40 GMCs – Arkansas National Guard Mus, Camp Robinson, Little Rock, AR one at City vehicle storage area, Charleston, AR one at the United States Army Field Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, Ok List of "M" series military vehicles M4 Sherman tank M41 Howitzer Motor Carriage G-numbers Hunnicutt, R. P..
Sherman: A History of the American Medium Tank. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-080-5. Ness, Leland. Janes World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-711228-9. World War II vehicles AFV database Training film
A zero-player game or no-player game is a game that has no sentient players. In computer games, the term refers to programs that use artificial intelligence rather than human players; the term can refer to games of pure chance, such as bunco, in which participants cannot take any action or make any decision that meaningfully alters the outcome. Conway's Game of Life, a cellular automaton devised in 1970 by the British mathematician John Horton Conway, is considered a zero-player game because its evolution is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input from humans. In addition, some fighting and real-time strategy games can be put into zero-player mode where one AI plays against another AI. There are various different types of games that can be considered "zero-player"; some games, such as Conway's Game of Life, evolve according to fixed rules from their initial setup. Others such as Snakes and Ladders evolve according to chance, but the players have no decisions to make and have no impact on how the game progresses.
A more complex variation on the above is the case of artificial intelligences playing a game. Humans may have a challenge in designing the AI and giving it sufficient skill to play the game well, but the actual evolution of the game has no human intervention. For solved games the optimum strategy for all players is known. Players can maximize their chances of winning by following these strategies, any deviation would be sub-optimal play. Tic-tac-toe is a trivial example. More complex games have been solved, for example checkers, but in this case learning the optimum strategy is beyond human capabilities. Solutions for more complex games, such as chess or Go must exist but they have yet to be computed. Single-player game Two-player game Multiplayer video game Incremental game known as Idle game Progress Quest Godville