A game controller, or controller, is an input device used with video games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game to control an object or character in the game. Before the seventh generation of video game consoles, plugging in a controller into one of a console's controller ports were the primary means of using a game controller, although since they have been replaced by wireless controllers, which do not require controller ports on the console but are battery-powered. USB game controllers could be connected to a computer with a USB port. Input devices that have been classified as game controllers include keyboards, gamepads, etc. Special purpose devices, such as steering wheels for driving games and light guns for shooting games, are game controllers. Game controllers have been improved over the years to be as user friendly as possible; the Microsoft Xbox controller, with its shoulder triggers that mimic actual triggers such as those found on guns, has become popular for shooting games.
Some controllers are designed to be best for one type of game, such as steering wheels for driving games, or dance pads for dancing games. One of the first video game controllers was a simple dial and single button, used to control the game Tennis for Two. Controllers have since evolved to include directional pads, multiple buttons, analog sticks, motion detection, touch screens and a plethora of other features. A gamepad known as a joypad, is held in both hands with thumbs and fingers used to provide input. Gamepads can have a number of action buttons combined with one or more omnidirectional control sticks or buttons. Action buttons are handled with the digits on the right hand, the directional input handled with the left. Gamepads are the primary means of input on most modern video game consoles. Due to the ease of use and user-friendly nature of gamepads, they have spread from their origin on traditional consoles to computers, where a variety of games and emulators support their input as a replacement for keyboard and mouse input.
Most modern game controllers are a variation of a standard gamepad. Common additions include shoulder buttons placed along the edges of the pad, centrally placed buttons labeled start and mode, an internal motor to provide haptic feedback; as modern game controllers advance, so too do their user ability qualities. The controllers become smaller and more compact to more and comfortably, fit within the user's hand. Modern examples can be drawn from systems such as Xbox, whose controller has transformed subtly, yet from the original Xbox 360 controller to the Xbox One controller introduced in 2013. A paddle is a controller that features one or more fire buttons; the wheel is used to control movement of the player or of an object along one axis of the video screen. As the user turns the wheel further from the default position, the speed of control in the game become more intensive. Paddle controllers were the first analog controllers and they lost popularity when "paddle and ball" type games fell out of favor.
A variation, the Atari driving controller, appeared on the Atari 2600. Designed for the game Indy 500, it functioned identically in operation and design to the regular paddle controller; the exceptions were that its wheel could be continuously rotated in either direction, that it was missing the extra paddle included on the previous model. Unlike a spinner, friction prevented the wheel from gaining momentum. A joystick is a peripheral that consists of a handheld stick that can be tilted around either of two axes and twisted around a third; the joystick is used for flight simulators. HOTAS controllers, composed of a joystick and throttle quadrant are a popular combination for flight simulation among its most fanatic devotees. Most joysticks are designed to be operated with the user's primary hand, with the base either held in the opposite hand or mounted on a desk. Arcade controllers are joysticks featuring a shaft that has a ball or drop-shaped handle, one or more buttons for in game actions; the layout has the joystick on the left, the buttons on the right, although there are instances when this is reversed.
A trackball is a smooth sphere, manipulated with the palm of one's hand. The user can roll the ball in any direction to control the cursor, it has the advantage that it can be faster than a mouse depending on the speed of rotation of the physical ball. Another advantage is that it requires less space than a mouse, which the trackball was a precursor of. Notable uses of a Trackball as a gaming controller would be games such as Centipede, Marble Madness, Golden Tee Golf and SegaSonic the Hedgehog. A throttle quadrant is a set of one or more levers that are most used to simulate throttles or other similar controls in a real vehicle an aircraft. Throttle quadrants are most popular in conjunction with joysticks or yokes used in flight simulation. A Racing wheel a larger version of a paddle, is used in most racing arcade games as well as more recent racing simulators such as Live for Speed, Grand Prix Legends, GTR2, Richard Burns Rally. While most arcade racing games have been using steering wheels since Gran Trak 10 in 1974, the first steering wheels for home systems appeared on fifth-generation consoles such as the PlayStation and Nintendo 64.
Many are force feedback, designed to give the same feedback as would be experienced when driving a real car, but the realism of this depends on the game. They come with pedals to control the gas and brake. S
In the first millennium BC, Iranian nomads established irrigation systems along the rivers of Central Asia and built towns at Bukhara and Samarqand. These places became wealthy points of transit on what became known as the Silk Road between China and Europe. In the seventh century AD, the Soghdian Iranians, who profited most visibly from this trade, saw their province of Transoxiana overwhelmed by Arabs, who spread Islam throughout the region. Under the Arab Abbasid Caliphate, the eighth and ninth centuries were a golden age of learning and culture in Transoxiana; as Turks began entering the region from the north, they established new states, many of which were Persianate in nature. After a succession of states dominated the region, in the twelfth century, Transoxiana was united in a single state with Iran and the region of Khwarezm, south of the Aral Sea. In the early thirteenth century, that state was invaded by Mongols, led by Genghis Khan. Under his successors, Iranian-speaking communities were displaced from some parts of Central Asia.
Under Timur, Transoxiana began its last cultural flowering, centered in Samarqand. After Timur the state began to split, by 1510 Uzbek tribes had conquered all of Central Asia. In the sixteenth century, the Uzbeks established two strong rival khanates and Khorazm. In this period, the Silk Road cities began to decline as ocean trade flourished; the khanates were weakened by attacks from northern nomads. Between 1729 and 1741 all the Khanates were made into vassals by Nader Shah of Persia. In the early nineteenth century, three Uzbek khanates—Bukhoro and Quqon —had a brief period of recovery. However, in the mid-nineteenth century Russia, attracted to the region's commercial potential and to its cotton, began the full military conquest of Central Asia. By 1876 Russia had incorporated all three khanates into its empire, granting the khanates limited autonomy. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the Russian population of Uzbekistan grew and some industrialization occurred. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Jadidist movement of educated Central Asians, centered in present-day Uzbekistan, began to advocate overthrowing Russian rule.
In 1916 violent opposition broke out in Uzbekistan and elsewhere, in response to the conscription of Central Asians into the Russian army fighting World War I. When the tsar was overthrown in 1917, Jadidists established a short-lived autonomous state at Quqon. After the Bolshevik Party gained power in Moscow, the Jadidists split between supporters of Russian communism and supporters of a widespread uprising that became known as the Basmachi Rebellion; as that revolt was being crushed in the early 1920s, local communist leaders such as Faizulla Khojayev gained power in Uzbekistan. In 1924 the Soviet Union established the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, which included present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became the separate Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in 1929. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, large-scale agricultural collectivization resulted in widespread famine in Central Asia. In the late 1930s, Khojayev and the entire leadership of the Uzbek Republic were purged and executed by Soviet leader Joseph V.
Stalin and replaced by Russian officials. The Russification of political and economic life in Uzbekistan that began in the 1930s continued through the 1970s. During World War II, Stalin exiled entire national groups from the Caucasus and the Crimea to Uzbekistan to prevent "subversive" activity against the war effort. Moscow’s control over Uzbekistan weakened in the 1970s as Uzbek party leader Sharaf Rashidov brought many cronies and relatives into positions of power. In the mid-1980s, Moscow attempted to regain control by again purging the entire Uzbek party leadership. However, this move increased Uzbek nationalism, which had long resented Soviet policies such as the imposition of cotton monoculture and the suppression of Islamic traditions. In the late 1980s, the liberalized atmosphere of the Soviet Union under Mikhail S. Gorbachev fostered political opposition groups and open opposition to Soviet policy in Uzbekistan. In 1989 a series of violent ethnic clashes involving Uzbeks brought the appointment of ethnic Uzbek outsider Islam Karimov as Communist Party chief.
When the Supreme Soviet of Uzbekistan reluctantly approved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Karimov became president of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In 1992 Uzbekistan adopted a new constitution, but the main opposition party, was banned, a pattern of media suppression began. In 1995 a national referendum extended Karimov’s term of office from 1997 to 2000. A series of violent incidents in eastern Uzbekistan in 1998 and 1999 intensified government activity against Islamic extremist groups, other forms of opposition, minorities. In 2000 Karimov was reelected overwhelmingly in an election whose procedures received international criticism; that year, Uzbekistan began laying mines along the Tajikistan border, creating a serious new regional issue and intensifying Uzbekistan’s image as a regional hegemon. In the early 2000s, tensions developed with neighboring states Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. In the mid-2000s, a mutual defense treaty enhanced relations between Russia and Uzbekistan. Tension with Kyrgyzstan increased in 2006 when Uzbekistan demanded extradition of hundreds of refugees who had fled from Andijon into Kyrgyzstan after the riots.
A series of border incidents inflamed tensions with neighboring Tajikistan. In 2006 Karimov continued arbitrary dismissals and shifts of subordinates in the government, including one deputy prime minister. In 1938 A. Okladnikov discovered th
Magdalena Calloway, known professionally as Maggie Calloway, was a Filipino-born actress of the silent film/early sound films eras in the late 1920s and early 1930s. She was one of fourteen children of John W. Calloway, an African-American former soldier in the United States Army, his Filipina wife Mamerta de la Rosa. A vaudeville performer, she starred in silent films in the Philippines and made her screen debut in Nepomeceno's film as a sampaguita vendor in the 1928 silent film Sampaguita. In 1932, she made a silent film, Pugad ng Pag-ibig and the horror film, Ulong Inasnan; as well as appearing in vaudeville in Manila, Calloway performed in Penang, Malaysia and Shanghai, with her husband’s band. She moved to the United States. Calloway died on 30 April, 2000 at the age of 89. 1928 – Sampaguita 1932 – Pugad ng Pag-ibig 1932 - Ulong Inasnan