Game engine

A game engine known as a game architecture, game framework or gameframe, is a software-development environment designed for people to build video games. Developers use game engines to construct games for consoles, mobile devices, personal computers; the core functionality provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection, scripting, artificial intelligence, streaming, memory management, localization support, scene graph, may include video support for cinematics. Implementers economize on the process of game development by reusing/adapting, in large part, the same game engine to produce different games or to aid in porting games to multiple platforms. In many cases, game engines provide a suite of visual development tools in addition to reusable software components; these tools are provided in an integrated development environment to enable simplified, rapid development of games in a data-driven manner. Game engine developers attempt to "pre-invent the wheel" by developing robust software suites which include many elements a game developer may need to build a game.

Most game engine suites provide facilities that ease development, such as graphics, physics and AI functions. These game engines are sometimes called "middleware" because, as with the business sense of the term, they provide a flexible and reusable software platform which provides all the core functionality needed, right out of the box, to develop a game application while reducing costs and time-to-market — all critical factors in the competitive video game industry; as of 2001, Gamebryo, JMonkeyEngine and RenderWare were such used middleware programs. Like other types of middleware, game engines provide platform abstraction, allowing the same game to be run on various platforms including game consoles and personal computers with few, if any, changes made to the game source code. Game engines are designed with a component-based architecture that allows specific systems in the engine to be replaced or extended with more specialized game middleware components; some game engines are designed as a series of loosely connected game middleware components that can be selectively combined to create a custom engine, instead of the more common approach of extending or customizing a flexible integrated product.

However extensibility is achieved, it remains a high priority for game engines due to the wide variety of uses for which they are applied. Despite the specificity of the name, game engines are used for other kinds of interactive applications with real-time graphical needs such as marketing demos, architectural visualizations, training simulations, modeling environments; some game engines only provide real-time 3D rendering capabilities instead of the wide range of functionality needed by games. These engines rely upon the game developer to implement the rest of this functionality or assemble it from other game middleware components; these types of engines are referred to as a "graphics engine", "rendering engine", or "3D engine" instead of the more encompassing term "game engine". This terminology is inconsistently used as many full-featured 3D game engines are referred to as "3D engines". A few examples of graphics engines are: Crystal Space, Genesis3D, Irrlicht, OGRE, RealmForge, Truevision3D, Vision Engine.

Modern game or graphics engines provide a scene graph, an object-oriented representation of the 3D game world which simplifies game design and can be used for more efficient rendering of vast virtual worlds. As technology ages, the components of an engine may become outdated or insufficient for the requirements of a given project. Since the complexity of programming an new engine may result in unwanted delays, a development team may elect to update their existing engine with newer functionality or components; such a framework is composed of a multitude of different components. The actual game logic has to be implemented by some algorithms, it is distinct from any rendering. The rendering engine generates animated 3D graphics by any of a number of methods. Instead of being programmed and compiled to be executed on the CPU or GPU directly, most rendering engines are built upon one or multiple rendering application programming interfaces, such as Direct3D, OpenGL, or Vulkan which provide a software abstraction of the graphics processing unit.

Low-level libraries such as DirectX, Simple DirectMedia Layer, OpenGL are commonly used in games as they provide hardware-independent access to other computer hardware such as input devices, network cards, sound cards. Before hardware-accelerated 3D graphics, software renderers had been used. Software rendering is still used in some modeling tools or for still-rendered images when visual accuracy is valued over real-time performance or when the computer hardware does not meet needs such as shader support. With the advent of hardware accelerated physics processing, various physics APIs such as PAL and the physics extensions of COLLADA became available to provide a software abstraction of the physics processing unit of different middleware providers and console platforms. Game engines can be written in any programming language like C++, C or Java, though each language is structurally different and may provide different levels of access to specific functions; the audio engine is the component which consists of algorithms related to the loading and output of sound through the clie

1932 Republican National Convention

The 1932 Republican National Convention was held at Chicago Stadium in Chicago, from June 14 to June 16, 1932. It nominated President Herbert Vice President Charles Curtis for reelection. Hoover was unopposed despite a lackluster Republican Party. Nonetheless, the convention pledged itself to maintain a balanced budget. Hoover's managers at the Republican National Convention ran a tight ship by not allowing expressions of concern for the direction of the nation. Hoover was nominated with 98 % of the delegate vote. History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention Republican Party presidential primaries, 1932 1932 United States presidential election 1932 Democratic National Convention Republican Party platform of 1932 at The American Presidency Project Hoover acceptance address at The American Presidency Project Hoover acceptance letter at The American Presidency Project

Interstate 78 in New York

Interstate 78 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Union Township, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, to New York City. In the U. S. state of New York, I-78 extends 0.90 miles. The entirety of I-78 consists of the Holland Tunnel, which crosses under the Hudson River from New Jersey and ends at an exit rotary in Lower Manhattan; the tunnel and its approaches are maintained by the Port Authority of New Jersey. I-78 was planned to take a longer route when the Interstate System within New York City was proposed in the late 1950s; the proposed route of I-78 was to head east via the Williamsburg Bridge to the John F. Kennedy International Airport and north over the Throgs Neck Bridge to I-95 in the Bronx. One unbuilt section of I-78, the Lower Manhattan Expressway, would have connected the Holland Tunnel to the Williamsburg and Manhattan Bridges. Another unbuilt section, the Cross-Brooklyn and Bushwick Expressways, would have extended southeast across Brooklyn, connecting to what is now Nassau Expressway.

A third section would have connected the Nassau Expressway, at the southern edge of Queens near JFK Airport, to the southern end of what is now I-295, in central Queens. Due to opposition from the communities along the expressways' routes, these sections of I-78 were never built; the section of I-78 within New York is 0.9 miles long according to the New York State Department of Transportation, although the Federal Highway Administration considers I-78 to be only 0.5 miles long. It consists of the Holland Tunnel, which connects to I-78 in New Jersey; the Holland Tunnel, a National Historic Landmark, was the world's longest underwater vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The entrance plaza to the westbound tunnel, Freeman Plaza, is a rectangular block, bounded clockwise from the north by Broome, Varick and Hudson Streets. Four entrances feed into the tunnel from all corners of the block, including an entrance from Canal Street, which intersects Hudson and Watts Streets at the southwest corner of the plaza.

The westbound portal is located south of Dominick Street, just north of where the four entrances merge. The exit plaza, referred to the "Holland Tunnel Rotary", is in a square superblock that housed the New York Central Railroad's St. John's Park Terminal, bounded clockwise from the north by Laight, Varick and Hudson Streets. Traffic leaves the tunnel at a portal at the southeast corner of Canal and Hudson Streets heads southeast along the south line of Canal Street and south along the west line of Varick Street to the northeast corner of the plaza. From there, five exits, which are numbered sequentially, split from the rotary. One exit goes to each corner of the superblock. A fifth exit, added in 2004, splits to Varick Street on the superblock's eastern side. A pedestrian overpass crosses the entrance to the plaza and exit 5 at the northeast corner, since the entrance from the tunnel cuts Laight Street. There are four auxiliary routes of I-78 in New York. I-478 is the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel and approaches, connecting I-278 in Brooklyn with the Battery in Manhattan.

It was once planned to continue north along the unbuilt Westway to I-78 at the Holland Tunnel. I-278, the only I-78 spur to leave New York, has a western terminus on Linden, New Jersey, passes northward and eastward through all five boroughs, with its eastern end at the Bruckner Interchange in the Bronx. I-278 was planned to extend northwest to I-78 at Route 24 in New Jersey. I-678 runs from the John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens north to the Bruckner Interchange. I-878, signed as part of NY 878, is a short east–west expressway crossing I-678 at the JFK Airport, running only within Queens, it was planned as part of I-78, connecting to the Bushwick Expressway, I-278, Williamsburg Bridge, Lower Manhattan Expressway. The original I-878 is now the segment of I-278 east of the split with NY 895; when the Interstate numbering was finalized in the late 1950s, the Harrisburg–New York City route, I-78, was assigned to several proposed roads in New York City. It would leave the Holland Tunnel onto the Lower Manhattan Expressway, crossing the East River on the Williamsburg Bridge and following the Bushwick Expressway across Brooklyn to near the Idlewild Airport.

There it would follow the Nassau Expressway along the north boundary of the airport and turn north along the Clearview Expressway through Queens, crossing the East River again on the Throgs Neck Bridge into the Bronx. I-78 would split into two branches, one heading west along the Cross Bronx Expressway to the Bruckner Interchange and the other heading northwest along the Throgs Neck Expressway to the Bruckner Expressway near the south end of the New England Thruway. I-78 would intersect with I-478 in SoHo, Manhattan. Only two sections of I-78 in Queens and the Bronx were built; when the Throgs Neck Bridge and its approaches opened in early 1961, they were signed as I-78. The lack of expressway names on the signs, as specified by federal standards, caused confusion among drivers who knew the highways by their names; the Clearview Expressway was completed to its present extent