International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
Phonetic transcription is the visual representation of speech sounds. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet; the pronunciation of words in many languages, as distinct from their written form, has undergone significant change over time. Pronunciation can vary among dialects of a language. Standard orthography in some languages French and Irish, is irregular and makes it difficult to predict pronunciation from spelling. For example, the words bough and through do not rhyme in English though their spellings might suggest otherwise. In French, the sequence "-ent" is pronounced /ɑ̃/ in accent but is silent in "posent". Other languages, such as Spanish and Italian have a more consistent relationship between orthography and pronunciation. Therefore, phonetic transcription can provide a function, it displays a one-to-one relationship between symbols and sounds, unlike traditional writing systems. Phonetic transcription allows one to step outside orthography, examine differences in pronunciation between dialects within a given language and identify changes in pronunciation that may take place over time.
Phonetic transcription may aim to transcribe the phonology of a language, or it may be used to go further and specify the precise phonetic realisation. In all systems of transcription there is a distinction between broad transcription and narrow transcription. Broad transcription indicates only the most noticeable phonetic features of an utterance, whereas narrow transcription encodes more information about the phonetic variations of the specific allophones in the utterance; the difference between broad and narrow is a continuum. One particular form of a broad transcription is a phonemic transcription, which disregards all allophonic difference, and, as the name implies, is not a phonetic transcription at all, but a representation of phonemic structure. For example, one particular pronunciation of the English word little may be transcribed using the IPA as /ˈlɪtəl/ or. In North American English, there would be no difference at all between the pronunciation of little and the constructed word *liddle.
Indeed, middle. The advantage of the narrow transcription is that it can help learners to get the right sound, allows linguists to make detailed analyses of language variation; the disadvantage is that a narrow transcription is representative of all speakers of a language. Most Americans and Australians would pronounce the /t/ of little as a tap; some people in southern England would say /t/ as and/or the second /l/ as or something similar yielding. A further disadvantage in less technical contexts is that narrow transcription involves a larger number of symbols that may be unfamiliar to non-specialists. To most native English speakers those who don't merge /t/ and /d/ as in unstressed positions; the advantage of the broad transcription is that it allows statements to be made which apply across a more diverse language community. It is thus more appropriate for the pronunciation data in foreign language dictionaries, which may discuss phonetic details in the preface but give them for each entry.
A rule of thumb in many linguistics contexts is therefore to use a narrow transcription when it is necessary for the point being made, but a broad transcription whenever possible. Most phonetic transcription is based on the assumption that linguistic sounds are segmentable into discrete units that can be represented by symbols; the Avestan alphabet is an early phonetic alphabet developed in Sassanian Persia to write down the Avestan-language hymns of Zoroastrianism, or the Avesta, when Avestan was a dead language. The correct pronunciation of the prayers was considered to be important; the International Phonetic Alphabet is one of the most well-known phonetic alphabets. It was created by British language teachers, with efforts from European phoneticians and linguists, it has changed from its earlier intention as a tool of foreign language pedagogy to a practical alphabet of linguists. It is becoming the most seen alphabet in the field of phonetics. Most American dictionaries for native English-speakers—American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Webster's Third New International Dictionary—employ respelling systems based on the English alphabet, with diacritical marks over the vowels and stress marks.
Another encountered alphabetic tradition was created for the transcription of Native American and European languages, is still used by linguists of Slavic, Semitic and Caucasian languages. This is sometimes labeled the Americanist phonetic alphabet, but this is misleading because it has always been u
Kappa is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, Kʹ has a value of 20, it was derived from the Phoenician letter kaph. Letters that arose from kappa include the Roman K and Cyrillic К. Greek proper names and placenames containing kappa are written in English with "c" due to the Romans' transliterations into the Latin alphabet: Constantinople, Crete. All formal modern romanizations of Greek now use the letter "k", however: Thessaloniki, Nikaia; the cursive form ϰ is a simple font variant of lower-case kappa, but it is encoded separately in Unicode for occasions where it is used as a separate symbol in math and science. In mathematics, the kappa curve is named after this letter. Mathematics and statisticsIn graph theory, the connectivity of a graph is given by κ. In differential geometry, the curvature of a curve is given by κ. Kappa statistics such as Cohen's kappa and Fleiss' kappa are methods for calculating inter-rater reliability.
PhysicsIn cosmology, the curvature of the universe is described by κ. In physics, the torsional constant of an oscillator is given by κ as well as Einstein's constant of gravitation. In physics, the coupling coefficient in magnetostatics is represented by κ In fluid dynamics, the von Kármán constant is represented by κ. In thermodynamics, the compressibility of a compound is given by κ. EngineeringIn structural engineering, κ is the ratio of the smaller factored moment to the larger factored moment and is used to calculate the critical elastic moment of an unbraced steel member. In electrical engineering, κ is the multiplication factor, a function of the R/X ratio of the equivalent power system network, used in calculating the peak short-circuit current of a system fault. Κ is used to notate conductivity, the reciprocal of resistivity, rho. Biology and biomedical scienceIn biology and kappa prime are important nucleotide motifs for a tertiary interaction of group II introns. In biology, kappa designates a subtype of an antibody component.
In pharmacology, kappa represents a type of opioid receptor. Psychology and psychiatryIn psychology and psychiatry, kappa represents a measure of diagnostic reliability. EconomicsIn macroeconomics, kappa represents the capital-utilization rate. HistoryIn textual criticism, the Byzantine text-type. Mathematics and statisticsIn set theory, kappa is used to denote an ordinal, a cardinal. ChemistryIn chemistry, kappa is used to denote the denticity of the compound. In pulping, the kappa number represents the amount of an oxidizing agent required for bleaching a pulp. Mathematical KappaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style
Upsilon or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, Υʹ has a value of 400, it is derived from the Phoenician waw. The name of the letter was just “υ”, but the name changed to “υ ψιλόν”, to distinguish it from οι, which had come to have the same pronunciation. In early Greek it was pronounced like English "long" oo. In Classical Greek, it was pronounced like French u or German ü, i.e.. This was the case at least until the year AD 1030. In Modern Greek it is pronounced like continental i or English ee, in diphthongs, or. In ancient Greek, it occurred in both long and short versions, but this distinction has been lost in Modern Greek; as an initial letter in Classical Greek it always carried the rough breathing as reflected in the many Greek-derived English words, such as those that begin with hyper- and hypo-. This rough breathing was derived from an older pronunciation. Upsilon participated as the second element in falling diphthongs, which have subsequently developed in various ways: For instance, after alpha or epsilon it is pronounced or in Modern Greek.
The usage of Y in Latin dates back to the first century BC. It was used to transcribe loanwords from Greek, so it was not a native sound of Latin and was pronounced /u/ or /i/; the latter pronunciation was the most common in the Classical period and was used by uneducated people. The Roman Emperor Claudius proposed introducing a new letter into the Latin alphabet to transcribe the so-called sonus medius, but in inscriptions, the new letter was sometimes used for Greek upsilon instead. Four letters of the Latin alphabet arose from it: V and Y and, much U and W. In the Cyrillic script, the letters U and izhitsa arose from it. In some languages, the name upsilon is used to refer to the Latin letter Y as well as the Greek letter. In particle physics the capital Greek letter Υ denotes an Upsilon particle. Note that the symbol should always look like Υ in order to avoid confusion with a Latin Y denoting the hypercharge. Automobile manufacturer Lancia has a model called the Ypsilon. See Lancia Ypsilon.
In linguistics, the symbol ⟨ʋ⟩ is used to represent a labiodental approximant. In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Υ refers to the mass-to-light ratio. A similar symbol is used for the astrological sign of Aries. Upsilon is known as Pythagoras' letter, or the Samian letter, because Pythagoras used it as an emblem of the path of virtue or vice; as the Roman writer Persius wrote in Satire III: and the letter which spreads out into Pythagorean branches has pointed out to you the steep path which rises on the right. Lactantius, an early Christian author, refers to this: For they say that the course of human life resembles the letter Y, because every one of men, when he has reached the threshold of early youth, has arrived at the place "where the way divides itself into two parts," is in doubt, hesitates, does not know to which side he should rather turn himself. Greek Upsilon Coptic UaLatin UpsilonMathematical UpsilonThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.
Merrifield, Michael. "γ – Mass to Light Ratio". Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value five, it was derived from the Phoenician letter He. Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, Cyrillic Е, È, Ё, Є and Э; the name of the letter was εἶ, but the name was changed to ἒ ψιλόν in the Middle Ages to distinguish the letter from the digraph αι, a former diphthong that had come to be pronounced the same as epsilon. In essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E; the lowercase version has two typographical variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in modern typography and inherited from medieval minuscule, looks like a reversed "3"; the other known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing, looks like a semicircle crossed by a horizontal bar. While in normal typography these are just alternative font variants, they may have different meanings as mathematical symbols.
Computer systems therefore offer distinct encodings for them. In Unicode, the character U+03F5 "Greek lunate epsilon symbol" is provided for the lunate form. In TeX, \ epsilon denotes the lunate form. There is a Latin epsilon or "open e", which looks similar to the Greek lowercase epsilon, it is used as an IPA phonetic symbol. The lunate or uncial epsilon has provided inspiration for the euro sign; the lunate epsilon is not to be confused with the set membership symbol. The symbol ∈, first used in set theory and logic by Giuseppe Peano and now used in mathematics in general for set membership did, evolve from the letter epsilon, since the symbol was used as an abbreviation for the Latin word "est". In addition, mathematicians read the symbol ∈ as "element of", as in "1 is an element of the natural numbers" for 1 ∈ N, for example; as late as 1960, ϵ itself was used for set membership, while its negation "does not belong to" was denoted by ϵ ′. Only did a separate, stylized symbol take the place of epsilon in this role.
In a related context, Peano introduced the use of a backwards epsilon, ∍, for the phrase "such that", although the abbreviation "s.t." is used in place of ∍ in informal cardinals The letter Ε was taken over from the Phoenician letter He when Greeks first adopted alphabetic writing. In archaic Greek writing, its shape is still identical to that of the Phoenician letter. Like other Greek letters, it could face either leftward or rightward, depending on the current writing direction, just as in Phoenician, the horizontal bars always faced in the direction of writing. Archaic writing preserves the Phoenician form with a vertical stem extending below the lowest horizontal bar. In the classical era, through the influence of more cursive writing styles, the shape was simplified to the current E glyph. While the original pronunciation of the Phoenician letter He was, the earliest Greek sound value of Ε was determined by the vowel occurring in the Phoenician letter name, which made it a natural choice for being reinterpreted from a consonant symbol to a vowel symbol denoting an sound.
Besides its classical Greek sound value, the short /e/ phoneme, it could also be used for other -like sounds. For instance, in early Attic before c.500 B. C. it was used both for the long, open /ɛː/, for the long close /eː/. In the former role, it was replaced in the classic Greek alphabet by Eta, taken over from eastern Ionic alphabets, while in the latter role it was replaced by the digraph spelling ΕΙ; some dialects used yet other ways of distinguishing between various e-like sounds. In Corinth, the normal function of Ε to denote /e/ and /ɛː/ was taken by a glyph resembling a pointed B, while Ε was used only for long close /eː/; the letter Beta, in turn, took the deviant shape. In Sicyon, a variant glyph resembling an X was used in the same function as Corinthian. In Thespiai, a special letter form consisting of a vertical stem with a single rightward-pointing horizontal bar was used for what was a raised variant of /e/ in pre-vocalic environments; this tack glyph was used elsewhere as a form of "Heta", i.e. for the sound /h/.
After the establishment of the canonical classic Greek alphabet, new glyph variants for Ε were introduced through handwriting. In the uncial script, the "lunate" shape became predominant. In cursive handwriting, a large number of shorthand glyphs came to be used, where the cross-bar and the curved stroke were linked in various ways; some of them resembled a modern lowercase Latin "e", some a "6" with a connecting stroke to the next letter starting from the middle, some a combination of two small "c"-like curves. Several of these shapes were taken
Omega is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system/Isopsephy, it has a value of 800; the word means "great O", as opposed to omicron, which means "little O". In phonetic terms, the Ancient Greek Ω is a long open-mid o, comparable to the vowel of British English raw. In Modern Greek, Ω represents the same sound as omicron; the letter omega is transcribed ō or o. As the last letter of the Greek alphabet, Omega is used to denote the last, the end, or the ultimate limit of a set, in contrast to alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet. Ω was not part of the early Greek alphabets. It was introduced in the late 7th century BC in the Ionian cities of Asia Minor to denote the long half-open, it is a variant of omicron, broken up with the edges subsequently turned outward. The Dorian city of Knidos as well as a few Aegean islands, namely Paros and Melos, chose the exact opposite innovation, using a broken-up circle for the short and a closed circle for the long /o/.
The name Ωμέγα is Byzantine. The modern lowercase shape goes back to the uncial form, a form that developed during the 3rd century BC in ancient handwriting on papyrus, from a flattened-out form of the letter that had its edges curved further upward. In addition to the Greek alphabet, Omega was adopted into the early Cyrillic alphabet. See Cyrillic omega. A Raetic variant is conjectured to be at the origin or parallel evolution of the Elder Futhark ᛟ. Omega was adopted into the Latin alphabet, as a letter of the 1982 revision to the African reference alphabet, it has had little use. See Latin omega; the uppercase letter Ω is used as a symbol: In chemistry: For oxygen-18, a natural, stable isotope of oxygen. In physics: For ohm – SI unit of electrical resistance. Unicode has a separate code point for the ohm sign, but it is included only for backward compatibility, the Greek uppercase omega character is preferred. In statistical mechanics, Ω refers to the multiplicity in a system; the solid angle or the rate of precession in a gyroscope.
In particle physics to represent the Omega baryons. In astronomy, Ω refers to the density of the universe called the density parameter. In astronomy, Ω refers to the longitude of the ascending node of an orbit. In mathematics and computer science: In complex analysis, the Omega constant, a solution of Lambert's W function In differential geometry, the space of differential forms on a manifold. A variable for a 2-dimensional region in calculus corresponding to the domain of a double integral. In topos theory, the subobject classifier of an elementary topos. In combinatory logic, the looping combinator, In group theory, the omega and agemo subgroups of a p-group, Ω and ℧ In group theory, Cayley's Ω process as a partial differential operator. In statistics, it is used as total set of possible outcomes. In number theory, Ω is the number of prime divisors of n. In notation related to Big O notation to describe the asymptotic behavior of functions. Chaitin's constant; as part of logo or trademark: The logo of Omega Watches SA.
Part of the original Pioneer logo. Part of the Badge of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Part of the mission patch for STS-135, as it was the last mission of the Space Shuttle program; the logo of the God of War video game series based on Greek mythology. In God of War, it is revealed; the logo of E-123 Omega, a Sonic the Hedgehog character. The logo of the Heroes of Olympus series, based on Greek mythology; the logo of the Ultramarines in Warhammer 40,000 The logo of Primal Groudon, the version mascot of Pokémon Omega Ruby. The logo of Darkseid in DC comics One of the logos of professional wrestler Kenny Omega Other The symbol of the resistance movement against the Vietnam-era draft in the United States Year or date of death Used to refer to the lowest-ranked wolf in a pack In eschatology, the symbol for the end of everything In molecular biology, the symbol is used as shorthand to signify a genetic construct introduced by a two-point crossover Omega Particle in the Star Trek universe The final form of NetNavi bosses in some of the Mega Man Battle Network games The personal symbol for Death, as worn by Death in the Discworld series by Terry Pratchett The symbol to represent Groudon in Pokémon Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire A secret boss in the Final Fantasy series called Omega Weapon.
A character from the series Doctor Who called Omega, believed to be one of the creators of the Time Lords on Gallifrey. The minuscule letter ω is used as a symbol: Biochemistry and chemistry: Denotes the carbon atom furthest from the carboxyl group of a fatty acid In biochemistry, for one of the RNA polymerase subunits In biochemistry, for the dihedral angle associated with the peptide group, involving the backbone atoms Cα-C'-N-Cα In biology, for the fitness. In genomics, as a measure of evolution at the protein level Physics Angular velocity or angular frequency In computational fluid dynamics, the specific turbulence dissipation rate In meteorology, the change of pressure with respect to time of a parcel o