In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the SI unit of energy is the joule, the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field, the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass and energy are related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy, any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase the object's total mass just as it increases its total energy. For example, after heating an object, its increase in energy could be measured as a small increase in mass, with a sensitive enough scale.
Living organisms require exergy to stay alive, such as the energy. Human civilization requires energy to function, which it gets from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, or renewable energy; the processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth. The total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified into potential energy, kinetic energy, or combinations of the two in various ways. Kinetic energy is determined by the movement of an object – or the composite motion of the components of an object – and potential energy reflects the potential of an object to have motion, is a function of the position of an object within a field or may be stored in the field itself. While these two categories are sufficient to describe all forms of energy, it is convenient to refer to particular combinations of potential and kinetic energy as its own form. For example, macroscopic mechanical energy is the sum of translational and rotational kinetic and potential energy in a system neglects the kinetic energy due to temperature, nuclear energy which combines utilize potentials from the nuclear force and the weak force), among others.
The word energy derives from the Ancient Greek: translit. Energeia, lit.'activity, operation', which appears for the first time in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century BC. In contrast to the modern definition, energeia was a qualitative philosophical concept, broad enough to include ideas such as happiness and pleasure. In the late 17th century, Gottfried Leibniz proposed the idea of the Latin: vis viva, or living force, which defined as the product of the mass of an object and its velocity squared. To account for slowing due to friction, Leibniz theorized that thermal energy consisted of the random motion of the constituent parts of matter, although it would be more than a century until this was accepted; the modern analog of this property, kinetic energy, differs from vis viva only by a factor of two. In 1807, Thomas Young was the first to use the term "energy" instead of vis viva, in its modern sense. Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis described "kinetic energy" in 1829 in its modern sense, in 1853, William Rankine coined the term "potential energy".
The law of conservation of energy was first postulated in the early 19th century, applies to any isolated system. It was argued for some years whether heat was a physical substance, dubbed the caloric, or a physical quantity, such as momentum. In 1845 James Prescott Joule discovered the generation of heat; these developments led to the theory of conservation of energy, formalized by William Thomson as the field of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics aided the rapid development of explanations of chemical processes by Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Walther Nernst, it led to a mathematical formulation of the concept of entropy by Clausius and to the introduction of laws of radiant energy by Jožef Stefan. According to Noether's theorem, the conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time. Thus, since 1918, theorists have understood that the law of conservation of energy is the direct mathematical consequence of the translational symmetry of the quantity conjugate to energy, namely time.
In 1843, James Prescott Joule independently discovered the mechanical equivalent in a series of experiments. The most famous of them used the "Joule apparatus": a descending weight, attached to a string, caused rotation of a paddle immersed in water insulated from heat transfer, it showed that the gravitational potential energy lost by the weight in descending was equal to the internal energy gained by the water through friction with the paddle. In the International System of Units, the unit of energy is the joule, named after James Prescott Joule, it is a derived unit. It is equal to the energy expended in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre; however energy is expressed in many other units not part of the SI, such as ergs, British Thermal Units, kilowatt-hours and kilocalories, which require a conversion factor when expressed in SI units. The SI unit of energy rate is the watt, a joule per second. Thus, one joule is one watt-second, 3600 joules equal one wa
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city; the city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018, it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County. Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University and is part of Research Triangle Park, together with Durham and Chapel Hill; the "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U. S. Census Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013.
The Raleigh metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 1,214,516 in 2013. Most of Raleigh is located within Wake County, with a small portion extending into Durham County; the towns of Cary, Garner, Wake Forest, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina, Wendell and Rolesville are some of Raleigh's primary nearby suburbs and satellite towns. Raleigh is an early example in the United States of a planned city. Following the American Revolutionary War when the US gained independence, this was chosen as the site of the state capital in 1788 and incorporated in 1792 as such; the city was laid out in a grid pattern with the North Carolina State Capitol in Union Square at the center. During the American Civil War, the city was spared from any significant battle, it fell to the Union in the closing days of the war, struggled with the economic hardships in the postwar period related to the reconstitution of labor markets, over-reliance on agriculture, the social unrest of the Reconstruction Era. Following the establishment of the Research Triangle Park in 1959, several tens of thousands of jobs were created in the fields of science and technology, it became one of the fastest-growing communities in the United States by the early 21st century.
Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, was the first nominal capital of the colony from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role. The colony had no permanent institutions of government until the new capital New Bern was established in 1743. In December 1770, Joel Lane petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly to create a new county. On January 5, 1771, the bill creating Wake County was passed in the General Assembly; the county was formed from portions of Cumberland and Johnston counties. The county was named for the wife of Governor William Tryon; the first county seat was Bloomsbury. New Bern, a port town on the Neuse River 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, was the largest city and the capital of North Carolina during the American Revolution; when the British Army laid siege to the city, that site could no longer be used. Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital in 1788, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast, it was established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital.
The city was named for sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island. The city's location was chosen, in part, for being within 11 mi of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, a popular tavern frequented by the state legislators. No known city or town existed on the chosen city site. Raleigh is one of the few cities in the United States, planned and built to serve as a state capital, its original boundaries were formed by the downtown streets of North, East and South. The plan, a grid with two main axes meeting at a central square and an additional square in each corner, was based on Thomas Holme's 1682 plan for Philadelphia; the North Carolina General Assembly first met in Raleigh in December 1794, granted the city a charter, with a board of seven appointed commissioners and an "Intendant of Police" to govern it. In 1799, the N. C. Minerva and Raleigh Advertiser was the first newspaper published in Raleigh. John Haywood was the first Intendant of Police. In 1808, Andrew Johnson, the nation's future 17th President, was born at Casso's Inn in Raleigh.
The city's first water supply network was completed in 1818, although due to system failures, the project was abandoned. In 1819 Raleigh's first volunteer fire company was founded, followed in 1821 by a full-time fire company. In 1817, the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina was headquartered in Raleigh. In 1831, a fire destroyed the North Carolina State House. Two years reconstruction began with quarried gneiss being delivered by the first railroad in the state. Raleigh celebrated the completions of the new State Capitol and new Raleigh & Gaston Railroad Company in 1840. In 1853, the first State Fair was held near Raleigh; the first institution of higher learning in Raleigh, Peace College, was established in 1857. Raleigh's Historic Oakwood contains many houses from the 19th century that are still in good condition. North Carolina seceded from the Union. After the Civil War began, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance ordered the construction of breastworks around the city as protection from
East Bay Municipal Utility District
East Bay Municipal Utility District, colloquially referred to as "East Bay Mud", is a public utility district which provides water and sewage treatment services for an area of 331 square miles in the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay. As of 2018, EBMUD provides drinking water for 1.4 million people in portions of Alameda County and Contra Costa County in California, including the cities of Richmond, El Cerrito, San Pablo, Lafayette, Orinda, Oakland, Emeryville, Albany, San Leandro, neighboring unincorporated regions, portions of cities such as Hayward and San Ramon. Sewage treatment services are provided for 685,000 people in an 88-square-mile area. EBMUD has an average annual growth rate of 0.8% and is projected to serve 1.6 million people by 2030. Headquartered in Oakland, EBMUD owns and maintains 2 water storage reservoirs on the Mokelumne River, 5 terminal reservoirs, 91 miles of water transmission aqueducts, 4,100 miles of water mains, 6 water treatment plants, 29 miles of wastewater interceptor sewer lines and a regional wastewater treatment facility rated at a maximum treatment capacity of 320 MGD.
Camanche Reservoir Pardee Reservoir Briones Reservoir Lafayette Reservoir San Pablo Reservoir Upper San Leandro Reservoir In 1923, EBMUD was founded due to the rapid population growth and severe drought in the area. The district constructed Pardee Dam on the Mokelumne River in the Sierra Nevada, a large steel pipe Mokelumne Aqueduct to transport the water from Pardee Reservoir across the Central Valley to the San Pablo Reservoir located in the hills of the East Bay region. In subsequent years, EBMUD constructed two additional aqueducts to distribute water to several other East Bay reservoirs. From the various large regional reservoirs, water is transported to treatment plants and delivered to local reservoirs and tanks, thence distributed by gravity to customers. In the 1980s with federal grant funding, EBMUD undertook a major facility expansion to accommodate wet weather waste water overflow; this project took many years of construction for implementation, after the planning and Environmental Impact Statement phases.
In 1994, the EBMUD board of directors approved the Seismic Improvement Plan, a $189 million capital project designed to minimize damage and disruption in the event of a potential earthquake along the Hayward Fault. One of EBMUD's main water supply lines, the Claremont Tunnel, traverses the Hayward Fault, the maximum credible earthquake along the fault could sever the tunnel, built in 1929; some of the major projects included in SIP were the Southern Loop Pipeline, a new 11-mile seismically-reinforced alternate route which would allow restoration of water service. The expected benefit of SIP was avoiding a potential $1.2 billion in lost revenue and damage resulting from a major earthquake. In May 2008, EBMUD announced severe austerity measures for its customers. With the easing of the drought, these measures were rescinded in 2010. EBMUD announced mandatory water rationing again in August 2014; the emergency regulations imposed during this prolonged drought were relaxed effective July 1, 2016, after the drought was declared ended.
As with other public entities, the District has underfunded liabilities for legacy costs. These include $89 million for retiree health. EBMUD has several sources of revenue for both sewage treatment enterprises; these sources include the sale of water, hydroelectric power, system capacity charges, sewage treatment charges, connection fees, wet weather facilities charges and property tax increments. In 2007, the water system was anticipated to generate a total of $375.5 million in revenue. Water sales account for 76 percent of the revenue, with System Capacity Charges generating an additional 7 percent in revenue. Property Tax Revenue is expected to generate an additional 5 percent of revenues, with interest, electric energy sales and other sources making up the remaining 12 percent of revenues. 90 percent of the water used by EBMUD comes from the 577 square mile protected Mokelumne River watershed. EBMUD has water rights for up to 325 million U. S. gallons per day or a total of 364,000 acre-feet per year.
In normal years, EBMUD reservoirs in the East Bay receive an additional 30,000 acre-feet of local water from runoff annually. In dry years and other losses can total more than the local runoff. Runoff from the Mokelumne watershed is not sufficient to meet EBMUD customer needs in times of severe drought. In April 2015, EBMUD declared a Stage 4 critical drought and has set a community-wide goal to reduce water use by 20%. To reach this goal, EBMUD has adopted new water rules that affect all customers and must supplement normal water supplies with water from additional sources, like 33,250 acre-feet from the Central Valley Project. EBMUD has enforced strict water restrictions in order to ensure all conservation measures are being taken. By the end of 2015, EBMUD was projected to have in storage 320,000 to 330,000 acre-feet of water. On May 10, 2016, EBMUD declared an end to the drought emergency, as their reservoirs had more water than average; the board voted to relax many of the water conservation rules and the 25% surcharge, effective July 1, 2016.
It announced that Pardee Reservoir had reached 100 percent of its capacity in January 2017 and had begun releasing excess water into Camanche Reservoir. EBMUD has begun considering
Food waste or food loss is food, discarded or lost uneaten. The causes of food waste or loss are numerous and occur at the stages of producing, processing and consuming. Global food loss and waste amount to between one-third and one-half of all food produced. Loss and wastage occur at all stages of the food supply value chain. In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries much food – about 100 kilograms per person per year – is wasted at the consumption stage. A lot of the time, food loss or food waste is food, lost during any of the four stages of the food supply chain: producers, processors and consumers. Precise definitions are contentious defined on a situational basis. Professional bodies, including international organizations, state governments and secretariats may use their own definitions. Among other things, in what food waste consists of, how it is produced, where or what it is discarded from or generated by. Definitions vary because certain groups do not consider food waste to be a waste material, due to its applications.
Some definitions of what food waste consists of are based on other waste definitions and which materials do not meet their definitions. Lost food may go to landfills, be put back into the food supply chain, or be put to other nonfood productive uses. Under the UN's Save Food initiative, the FAO, UNEP, stakeholders have agreed on the following definition of food loss and waste: Food loss is the decrease in quantity or quality of food. Food loss in the production and distribution segments of the food supply chain is a function of the food production and supply system or its institutional and legal framework. Food waste is any removal of food from the food supply chain, or was at some point fit for human consumption, or which has spoiled or expired caused by economic behaviour, poor stock management or neglect. Important components of this definition include: Food waste is a part of food loss, but the distinction between the two is not defined Food redirected to non-food chains is counted as food loss or waste.
Plants and animals produced for food contain'non-food parts' which are not included in'food loss and waste' In the European Union, food waste was defined as "any food substance, raw or cooked, discarded, or intended or required to be discarded" since 1975 until 2000 when the old directive was repealed by Directive 2008/98/EC, which has no specific definition of food waste. The directive, 75/442/EEC, containing this definition was amended in 1991 with the addition of "categories of waste" and the omission of any reference to national law; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines food waste for the United States as "uneaten food and food preparation wastes from residences and commercial establishments such as grocery stores and produce stands, institutional cafeterias and kitchens, industrial sources like employee lunchrooms". The states remain free to define food waste differently for their purposes, though many choose not to. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, Americans throw away up to 40% of food, safe to eat.
The definitions by the UN and EU have come under criticism for including food that goes to nonfood productive use in their definitions of food waste. According to the authors of one study, this is flawed for two reasons: "First, if recovered food is used as an input, such as animal feed, fertilizer, or biomass to produce output by definition it is not wasted. However, there might be economic losses if the cost of recovered food is higher than the average cost of inputs in the alternative, nonfood use. Second, the definition creates practical problems for measuring food waste because the measurement requires tracking food loss in every stage of the supply chain and its proportion that flows to nonfood uses." The authors of the study argue that only food that ends up in landfills should be counted as food waste. In the US, food waste can occur in significant amounts. In subsistence agriculture, the amounts of food waste are unknown, but are to be insignificant by comparison, due to the limited stages at which waste can occur, given that food is grown for projected need as opposed to a global marketplace demand.
On-farm losses in storage in developing countries in African countries, can be high although the exact nature of such losses is much debated. In the food industry of the United States, the food supply of, the most diverse and abundant of any country in the world, waste occurs from the beginning of food production chain. From planting, crops can be subjected to pest infestations and severe weather, which cause losses before harvest. Since natural forces remain the primary drivers of crop growth, losses from these can be experienced by all forms of outdoor agriculture. On average, farms in the United States lose up to six billion pounds of crops every year because of these unpredictable conditions; the use of machinery in harvesting can cause waste, as harvesters may be unable to discern between ripe and immature crops, or collect only part of a crop. Economic factors, such as regulations and standards for quality and appearance cause food waste.
A hex key, Allen wrench or Allen key, is a simple tool used to drive bolts and screws with hexagonal sockets in their heads. The tool is formed of a single piece of hexagonal rod of hard steel, with blunt ends that are meant to fit snugly into the screw's socket, bent in an "L" shape with unequal arms; the tool is held and twisted by the long arm, creating a large torque at the tip of the short arm. Reversing the tool lets the long arm reach screws in hard-to-reach places; each key is meant to be used with rather tight tolerances. The size of the key increases with the size of the socket, but not in direct proportion. Variants of the tool have the short end inserted in a transverse handle, which may contain multiple keys that can be folded into the handle when not in use; the "Allen" name is a registered trademark, originated by the Allen Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut circa 1910, owned by Apex Tool Group, LLC. Its genericised use is discouraged by this company; the standard generic name used in catalogues and published books and journals is "hex key".
Explained by the geographical and commercial history of the drive type's development, the term "hex key" is best known as "Allen" in the USA, in Spain, as "Inbus" in Germany, as "Unbrako" key or wrench in Scandinavia. In Italy, it is known for the company Officine Egidio Brugola; the term "hex-head" is sometimes used to refer to this type of drive, but this use is not consistent with its more conventional use referring to external-wrenching hexagons. In the fastener industry, the terms "socket head" or "hex socket head" are used for the driven part of the driver–driven pair. A less common synonym is "female hex"; some features of hex keys are: The tool is simple and light. The contact surfaces of the screw or bolt are protected from external damage. There are six contact surfaces between driver. Small bolt heads can be accommodated; the tool allows the use of recessed-head screws. The screw can be held by the key; the torque applied to the screw is constrained by the thickness of the key. The tool is cheap, so it can be included with products requiring end-user assembly.
Either end of the tool can be used to take advantage of torque. The tool can be reconditioned using an electric grinder by removing the worn-out part near the end. High torque is more to damage an internal socket/key than an external hexagon head/wrench It is much more difficult to turn a damaged internal fastener than an external one; the scant documentation available indicates that the idea of a hex socket screw drive was conceived as early as the 1860s to the 1890s, but that such screws were not manufactured until around 1910. Rybczynski describes a flurry of patents for alternative drive types in the 1860s to the 1890s in the US, which are confirmed to include internal-wrenching square and triangle types, but he explains that these were patented but not manufactured due to the difficulties and expense of doing so at the time. P. L. Robertson, of Milton, Canada, first commercialized the square socket in 1908, having perfected and patented a suitable cold forming method, using the right material and the right die design.
In 1909–1910, William G. Allen too patented a method of cold-forming screw heads around a hexagonal die. Published advertisements for the "Allen safety set screw" by the Allen Manufacturing Company of Hartford, exist from 1910. Although it is unlikely that Allen was the first person to think of a hex socket drive, his patent for a manufacturing method and his realized product appear to be the first. In his autobiography, the founder of the Standard Pressed Steel Company, Howard T. Hallowell Sr, presents a version of events in which SPS developed a hex socket drive in-house, independently of Allen, circa 1911. From this came the Unbrako line of products; this account from Hallowell does not mention the Allen patent of 1910, nor the Allen safety set screw product line. Hallowell does describe, the same inspiration mentioned in connection with Allen for a wave of adoption of the hex socket head, beginning with set screws and followed by cap screws; this was an industrial safety campaign, part of the larger Progressive Movement, to get headless set screws onto the pulleys and shafts of the line shafting, ubiquitous in factories of the day.
The headless set screws would be less to catch the clothing of workers and pull them into injurious contact with the running shaft. SPS at the time was a prominent maker of shaft hangers and collars, the latter of which were set in place with set screws. In pursuit of headless set screws with a better drive than a straight slot, Hallowell said, SPS had sourced set screws of square-socket drive from Britain, but they were expensive. (This was only 2 years after Robertson's Canadian
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, plumbing fixtures and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling, waste removal, potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications; the word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes. In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers, although they work with piping as part of their trade, but their work can include some plumbing. Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Persian and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC.
The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire; the Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were covered with lead. Lead was used for piping and for making baths. Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river; the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.
Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings; the use of lead for potable water declined after World War II because of increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was introduced as a safer alternative to lead pipes; the major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are: potable cold and hot tap water supply plumbing drainage venting sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and graywater recovery and treatment systems Rainwater and subsurface water drainage fuel gas piping hydronics, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, like for example the New York City steam system.
A water pipe is a pipe or tube made of plastic or metal, that carries pressurized and treated fresh water to a building, as well as inside the building. For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape; this was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were understood. Lead water pipes were still used in the early 20th century, remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards. Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine. Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft. Wooden pipes were elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries; the pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through. The multiple pipes were sealed together with hot animal fat, they were used in Philadelphia and Montreal in the 1800s, built-up wooden tubes were used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittin