Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of small particules and subsequent cementation of mineral or organic particles on the floor of oceans or other bodies of water at the Earth's surface. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes; the particles that form a sedimentary rock are called sediment, may be composed of geological detritus or biological detritus. Before being deposited, the geological detritus was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, transported to the place of deposition by water, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation. Biological detritus was formed by bodies and parts of dead aquatic organisms, as well as their fecal mass, suspended in water and piling up on the floor of water bodies. Sedimentation may occur as dissolved minerals precipitate from water solution; the sedimentary rock cover of the continents of the Earth's crust is extensive, but the total contribution of sedimentary rocks is estimated to be only 8% of the total volume of the crust.
Sedimentary rocks are only a thin veneer over a crust consisting of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks are deposited in layers as strata; the study of sedimentary rocks and rock strata provides information about the subsurface, useful for civil engineering, for example in the construction of roads, tunnels, canals or other structures. Sedimentary rocks are important sources of natural resources like coal, fossil fuels, drinking water or ores; the study of the sequence of sedimentary rock strata is the main source for an understanding of the Earth's history, including palaeogeography and the history of life. The scientific discipline that studies the properties and origin of sedimentary rocks is called sedimentology. Sedimentology is part of both geology and physical geography and overlaps with other disciplines in the Earth sciences, such as pedology, geomorphology and structural geology. Sedimentary rocks have been found on Mars. Sedimentary rocks can be subdivided into four groups based on the processes responsible for their formation: clastic sedimentary rocks, biochemical sedimentary rocks, chemical sedimentary rocks, a fourth category for "other" sedimentary rocks formed by impacts and other minor processes.
Clastic sedimentary rocks are composed of other rock fragments that were cemented by silicate minerals. Clastic rocks are composed of quartz, rock fragments, clay minerals, mica. Clastic sedimentary rocks, are subdivided according to the dominant particle size. Most geologists use the Udden-Wentworth grain size scale and divide unconsolidated sediment into three fractions: gravel and mud; the classification of clastic sedimentary rocks parallels this scheme. This tripartite subdivision is mirrored by the broad categories of rudites and lutites in older literature; the subdivision of these three broad categories is based on differences in clast shape, grain size or texture. Conglomerates are dominantly composed of rounded gravel, while breccias are composed of dominantly angular gravel. Sandstone classification schemes vary but most geologists have adopted the Dott scheme, which uses the relative abundance of quartz and lithic framework grains and the abundance of a muddy matrix between the larger grains.
Composition of framework grains The relative abundance of sand-sized framework grains determines the first word in a sandstone name. Naming depends on the dominance of the three most abundant components quartz, feldspar, or the lithic fragments that originated from other rocks. All other minerals are considered accessories and not used in the naming of the rock, regardless of abundance. Quartz sandstones have >90% quartz grains Feldspathic sandstones have <90% quartz grains and more feldspar grains than lithic grains Lithic sandstones have <90% quartz grains and more lithic grains than feldspar grainsAbundance of muddy matrix material between sand grains When sand-sized particles are deposited, the space between the grains either remains open or is filled with mud. "Clean" sandstones with open pore space are called arenites. Muddy sandstones with abundant muddy matrix are called wackes. Six sandstone names are possible using the descriptors for grain composition and the amount of matrix. For example, a quartz arenite would be composed of quartz grains and have little or no clayey matrix between the grains, a lithic wacke would have abundant lithic grains and abundant muddy matrix, etc.
Although the Dott classification scheme is used by sedimentologists, common names like greywacke and quartz sandstone are still used by non-specialists and in popular literature. Mudrocks are sedimentary rocks composed of at least 50% silt- and clay-sized particles; these fine-grained particles are transported by turbulent flow in water or air, deposited as the flow calms and the particles settle out of suspension. Most authors presently
Chatsworth, Los Angeles
Chatsworth is a neighborhood in the northwestern San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, United States. The area was home to Native Americans. Chatsworth was colonized by the Spanish beginning in the 18th century; the land was part of a Spanish land grant, Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando, in the 19th century, after the United States took over the land following the Mexican–American War, it was the largest such grant in California. Settlement and development followed. Chatsworth has seven public and eight private schools. There are large open-space and smaller recreational parks as well as a public library and a transportation center. Distinctive features are the Santa Susana Field Laboratory. Overall, Chatsworth has one of the lowest densities of any neighborhood in the city, a high income level. Chatsworth is the home of the Iverson Movie Ranch, a 500-acre area, the most filmed movie ranch in history, as more than 2000 productions used it as a filming location; the 2000 U. S. census counted 35,073 residents in the 15.24-square-mile Chatsworth neighborhood, or 2,301 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for both the city and the county.
In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 37,102. In 2000 the median age for residents was 40, considered old for county neighborhoods; the neighborhood was considered to be ethnically "moderately diverse" for both the city of Los Angeles and its county, with a high percentage of whites and of Asian people, a sizable Hispanic/Latino community. The breakdown was Whites, 65.7%. Korea and the Philippines were the most common places of birth for the 25.2% of the residents who were born abroad—a low figure for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $84,456, considered high for the city; the percentages of families that earned more than $40,000 was considered high for the county. Renters occupied 28.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 71.1%. The average household size of 2.6 people was considered average for Los Angeles. In 2000 there were 2,933 military veterans, or 10.8% of the population, a high percentage compared to the rest of the city.
The percentage of married people was among the county's highest. The rate of 10% of families headed by single parents was low for the city. Chatsworth is flanked by the Santa Susana Mountains on the north, Porter Ranch and Northridge on the east, Canoga Park, West Hills on the south, the Simi Hills, unincorporated Los Angeles County and Ventura County on the west, Twin Lakes, a community founded by San Francisco's George Haight in the early 20th century and unincorporated Los Angeles County which includes a 1,600 acre park with equestrian trails, to the north; this region experiences hot and dry summers, with average daily high temperatures of 90–100 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chatsworth has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Chatsworth was inhabited by the Tongva-Fernandeño, Chumash-Venturaño, Tataviam-Fernandeño Native American tribes. Native American civilizations had inhabited the Valley for an estimated 8,000 years. Stoney Point is the site of the Tongva Native American settlement of Asha'awanga or Momonga, a trading place with the neighboring Tataviam and Chumash people.
The nearby Burro Flats Painted Cave remains a legacy of the Chumash culture's rock art and solstice ceremony spirituality. The first European explorers came into the Chatsworth area on August 5, 1769, led by the Spanish military leader Gaspar de Portolà. With its establishment in 1797 and subsequent Spanish Land Grant by the King of Spain, Mission San Fernando gained dominion over the San Fernando Valley's lands, including future Chatsworth; the Native American trail that had existed from the Tongva-Tatavium village called rancheria Santa Susana to another village, replaced by Mission San Fernando, became the route for missionaries and other Spanish travel up and down California. It was part of the El Camino del Santa Susana y Simi trail that connected the Valley's Mission, Los Angeles pueblo, the southern missions with the Mission San Buenaventura, the Presidio of Monterey, the northward missions; the trail crossed over the Santa Susana Pass to the Simi Valley, through present day city park Chatsworth Park South and the Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park.
In 1795, the Spanish land grant had been issued for Rancho Simi, reconfirmed in 1842 by the Mexican governor. Its lands included part of current Chatsworth, westward from Andora Avenue. In 1821, after the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, the Mission San Fernando became part of Alta California, Mexico. In 1834, the Mexican government began redistributing the mission lands. In 1846, the Mexican land grant for Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando was issued by Governor Pío Pico, it was bounded on the north by Rancho San Francisco and the Santa Susana Mountains, on the west by the Simi Hills, on the east by Rancho Tujunga, on the south by the Montañas de Portesuelo. The Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando received a Federal land patent to retain ownership by the United States Public Land Commission in 1873 and was the single largest land grant in California. In 1869, the grantee's son, Eulogio F. de Celis, returned from Spain to Los Angeles. In 1874, the family sold their northern half of Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando to northern Californians, California State Senator Charles Maclay and his part
Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality, the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state, it is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet the city stands over 1 mile above sea level, though some areas of the city are higher and lower. Colorado Springs is situated near the base of Pikes Peak, which rises 14,115 feet above sea level on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains; the city is home to 24 national governing bodies of sport, including the United States Olympic Committee, the United States Olympic Training Center, USA Hockey. The city had an estimated population of 465,101 in 2016, a metro population of 712,000, ranking as the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, the 42nd most populous city in the United States; the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 712,327 in 2016.
The city is included in the Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong region of urban population along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming following the path of Interstate 25 in both states. The city covers 194.9 square miles. In 2018, Colorado Springs received several accolades: U. S. News named Colorado Springs the number one most desirable place to live in the United States, number two on their list of the 125 Best Places to Live in the USA; the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings found that Colorado Springs was the fastest growing city for Millennials. Thumbtack's annual Small Business Friendliness Survey found Colorado Springs to be the number four most business friendly city in the country; the Ute and Cheyenne peoples were the first recorded inhabiting the area which would become Colorado Springs. Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28.
Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859" during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Denver. In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font and Fountain Colony and downstream of Colorado City. Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed "Colorado Springs", was incorporated; the El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs. On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with two annexations; the second period of annexations was during 1889–90, included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, another North End addition. In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers." By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.
From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill, aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919. Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, in 1927 the original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city. In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942; this was only one of several military presences around Colorado Springs during the war. In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command; the former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U. S. Air Force base; the 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters. Between 1965 and 1968, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city.
In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s. On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition, Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation in September 2008; the city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 194.6 square miles, of which 194.6 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime and government budget issues.
Many of the problems are indirec
Alluvial fans are triangular-shaped deposits of water-transported material referred to as alluvium. They are an example of an unconsolidated sedimentary deposit and tend to be larger and more prominent in arid to semi-arid regions; these alluvial fans form in elevated or mountainous regions where there is a rapid change in slope from a high to low gradient. The river or stream carrying the sediment flows at a high velocity due to the high slope angle, why coarse material is able to remain in the flow; when the slope decreases into a plain or plateau, the stream loses the energy it needs to move its sediment. Deposition subsequently occurs and the sediment spreads out, creating an alluvial fan. Three primary zones occur within an alluvial fan which includes the proximal fan, medial fan, the distal fan. Alluvial fans can exist on a wide spectrum of size scale. For example, alluvial fans can be on the order of only a few meters at its base and can be as large as 150 kilometers with a slope of 1.5-25 degrees.
When numerous rivers/streams converge into a single plain, the fans can combine to form a continuous apron. In arid to semi-arid environments, this is referred to as a bajada and in humid climates the continuous fan apron is called piedmont alluvial fans; as a stream's gradient decreases, it drops coarse-grained material. It makes swagger of the channel and forces it to change direction and build up a mounded or shallow conical fan shape; the deposits are poorly sorted. This fan shape can be explained with a thermodynamic justification: the system of sediment introduced at the apex of the fan will tend to a state which minimizes the sum of the transport energy involved in moving the sediment and the gravitational potential of material in the fan. There will be iso-transport energy lines forming concentric arcs about the discharge point at the apex of the fan, thus the material will tend to be deposited about these lines, forming the characteristic fan shape. The sediment that results from erosion in elevated or mountainous regions flows into the primary streams in the region where the streams act as a drainage system and carries the sediment to the alluvial plain.
Due to the high degree of slope, the river/streams are classified as straight channels. Directly at the mouth of the feeder stream in the alluvial plain, the fan is narrow and is still subjected to high energy from the high degree of slope. Once the sediment exits the feeder stream, the sediment is no longer confined to the channel walls. With this unconfinement, the sediments begin to fan out; the alluvial fan becomes wider with increasing distance from the mouth of the canyon. When there is enough space in the alluvial plain for all of the sediment deposits to fan out without contacting other valleys walls or rivers, an unconfined alluvial fan develops. Unconfined alluvial fans allow sediments to fan out and the shape of the fan is not influenced by other topological features; when the alluvial plain is narrow or short parallel to depositional flow, the fan shape is affected. The biggest natural hazard on alluvial fans are floods and debris flows. Floods on alluvial fans are flash floods: they occur with little to no warning have high velocities and sediment-transporting capability, are of short duration.
Debris flows are a type of landslide, defined as a spatially continuous moving mass of water and material, composed of coarse debris. A modern occurrence of an alluvial fan is photographed in Figure 1 in the semi-arid region between the Kunlun and Altun mountain ranges that form the southern border of the Taklamakan Desert in northwest China; this particular fan is 60 kilometers in total length and is of significance because one part of the alluvial fan is still considered active. An alluvial fan is considered active when there is still a sediment source continually feeding the fan sediment. One portion of the fan has flowing streams that are continually depositing sediment and the fan is still prograding into the alluvial plain; the feeder channels consist of straight channels as well as instances of braided channels because of the large volume of sediment sourced from the local uplands. Various environmental and geologic factors exhibit control on the deposition of alluvial fan deposits; the primary factor in alluvial fan environments is sediment supply.
The sediment that comprise the bedload and suspended load of the regional streams is sourced from the erosion of the associated highlands in the area. Therefore, a high erosion rate corresponds to an increase in sediment in the streams which affects stream morphology. For example, a high sediment load is associated with braided streams entering and within the alluvial plain. Medium to low sediment loads in the feeder stream results in straight channels.4 Alluvial fans are built in response to erosion induced by tectonic uplift to create nearby mountain ranges/highlands. This uplift is necessary for a source of erosion where the sediments are deposited in an alluvial fan regime in the alluvial plain. Tectonics can affect the degree of stream gradients and cause changes in base level which may lead to incision into fan surfaces in the distal zone of the deposit. An increase in precipitation would allow a higher water level in the streams which would allow for a greater amount of sediment to be carried along with it to be deposited in the alluvial plain.
There are three primary zones, or facies, that exist within an alluvial fan deposit which include the proximal fan, medial fan, distal fan with an overal
The Pawnee are a Plains Indian tribe who are headquartered in Pawnee, Oklahoma. Pawnee people are enrolled in the federally recognized Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, they lived in Nebraska and Kansas. In the Pawnee language, the Pawnee people refer to themselves as Chatiks si chatiks or "Men of Men."Historically, the Pawnee lived in villages of earth lodges with adjacent farmlands near the Loup and South Platte rivers. The Pawnee tribal economic activities throughout the year alternated between farming crops and hunting buffalo. In the early 19th century, the Pawnee numbered more than 10,000 people and were one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the west. Although dominating the Loup and Platte river areas for centuries, they suffered from increasing encroachment and attrition by their numerically superior, nomadic enemies: the Sioux (or Lakota and Arapaho; the Pawnee were at war with the Comanche and Kiowa farther south. They had suffered many losses due to Eurasian infectious diseases brought by the expanding Europeans, by 1860, the Pawnee population was reduced to 4,000.
It further decreased, because of disease, crop failure, warfare, to 2,400 by 1873, after which time the Pawnee were forced to move to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Many Pawnee warriors enlisted to serve as Indian scouts in the US Army to track and fight their tribal enemies resisting European-American expansion on the Great Plains. There are 3,200 enrolled Pawnee and nearly all reside in Oklahoma, their tribal headquarters is in Pawnee and their tribal jurisdictional area is in parts of Noble and Pawnee counties. The tribal constitution establishes the government of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma; this government consists of the Resaru Council, the Pawnee Business Council, the Supreme Court. Enrollment into the tribe requires a minimum 1⁄8th blood quantum; the Resaru Council known as the "Chiefs Council" consists of eight members, each serving four-year terms. Each band has two representatives on the Resaru Council selected by the members of the tribal bands, Kitkahaki and Ckiri; the Resaru Council has the right to review all acts of the Pawnee Business Council regarding the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma membership and Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma claims or rights growing out of treaties between the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and the United States according to provision listed in the Pawnee Nation Constitution.
2013–2017Morgan Littlesun, 1st Chief Kitkehahki Band Ralph Haymond, 2nd Chief Kitkehahki Band, 2nd Nasharo Council Chief Matt Reed, 2nd Chief Chaui Band Pat Leading Fox, Sr. 1st Chief Skidi Band Jimmy Horn, 1st Chief Chaui Band, Nasharo Council Treasurer Warren Pratt, Jr. 2nd Chief Skidi Band, Nasharo Council 1st Chief Francis Morris, 1st Chief Pitahauirata Band Lester Moon Eagle, 2nd Chief Pitahauirata Band, Nasharo Council SecretaryCurrentMorgan Littlesun, 2nd Chief Kitkahaki Band Ralph Haymond, Jr. 1st Chief Kitkahaki Band Matt Reed, 1st Chief Cawi Band Jimmy Horn, 2nd Chief Cawi Band Pat Leading Fox, Sr. 2nd Chief, Ckiri Band Warren Pratt, Jr. 1st Chief, Ckiri Band Ron Rice, Sr. 1st Chief, Pitahawirata Band Tim Jim, 2nd Chief, Pitahawirata BandThe Pawnee Business Council is the supreme governing body of the Pawnee Tribe of Oklahoma. Subject to the limitations imposed by the Constitution and applicable Federal law, the Pawnee Business Council shall exercise all the inherent and treaty powers of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma by the enactment of legislation, the transaction of business, by otherwise speaking or acting on behalf of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma on all matters which the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma is empowered to act, including the authority to hire legal counsel to represent the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma.
Current Pawnee Business Council Bruce Pratt, President Darrell Wildcat, Vice President Phammie N. Littlesun, Treasurer Angela Thompson, Secretary Council Seat #1 Council Seat #2 Council Seat #3 Council Seat #4The new Council members were voted in by the people; the Pawnee operate two gaming casinos, three smoke shops, two fuel stations, one truck stop. Their estimated economic impact for 2010 was $10.5 million. Increased revenues from the casinos have helped them provide for education and welfare of their citizens, they operate their housing authority. The Pawnee were divided into two large groupings: the Skidi / Skiri-Federation living in the north and the South Bands. While the Skidi / Skiri-Federation were the most populous group of Pawnee, the Cawi / Chaui Band of the South Bands were the politically leading group, although each band was autonomous; as was typical of many Native American tribes, each band saw to its own. In response to pressures from the Spanish and Americans, as well as neighboring tribes, the Pawnee began to draw closer together.
South Bands called Tuhaáwit by the Skidi-FederationCáwiiʾi, Cawií, variants: Cawi, Chawi, or Tsawi Kítkehahki, Kítkahaahki, variants: Kitkahaki,Kitkehahki, or Kitkehaxki Kitkehahkisúraariksisuʾ or Kítkahaahkisuraariksisuʾ (Kitkahahki band proper ‘real Kitkahahki’ – the larger of two late 19th century divisions
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont or Fremont was an American explorer and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led five expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. During the Mexican–American War, Frémont, a major in the U. S. Army, took control of California from the California Republic in 1846. Frémont was convicted in court-martial for mutiny and insubordination over a conflict of, the rightful military governor of California. After his sentence was commuted and he was reinstated by President Polk, Frémont resigned from the Army. Frémont led a private fourth expedition, which cost ten lives, seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849. Afterwards, Frémont settled in California at Monterey while buying cheap land in the Sierra foothills; when gold was found on his Mariposa ranch, Frémont became a wealthy man during the California Gold Rush, but he was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims, between the dispossession of various land owners during the Mexican–American War and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the Rush.
These cases were settled by the U. S. Supreme Court allowing Frémont to keep his property. Frémont's fifth and final funded expedition, between 1853 and 1854, surveyed a route for a transcontinental railroad. Frémont became one of the first two U. S. senators elected from the new state of California in 1850. Frémont was the first presidential candidate of the new Republican Party, carrying most of the North, he lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrat James Buchanan. Democrats warned. During the American Civil War, he was given command of Department of the West by President Abraham Lincoln. Although Frémont had successes during his brief tenure as Commander of the Western Armies, he ran his department autocratically, made hasty decisions without consulting Washington D. C. or President Lincoln. After Frémont's emancipation edict that freed slaves in his district, he was relieved of his command by President Lincoln for insubordination. In 1861, Frémont was the first commanding Union general who recognized in Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant an "iron will" to fight and promoted him commander at the strategic base near Cairo, Illinois.
Defeating the Confederates at Springfield, Frémont was the only Union General in the West to have a Union victory for 1861. After a brief service tenure in the Mountain Department in 1862, Frémont resided in New York, retiring from the Army in 1864; the same year Frémont was a presidential candidate for the Radical Democracy Party, but he resigned before the election. After the Civil War, Frémont's wealth declined after investing and purchasing an unsuccessful Pacific Railroad in 1866, lost much of his wealth during the Panic of 1873. Frémont served as Governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881 appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Frémont retired from politics and died destitute in New York City in 1890. Historians portray Frémont as controversial and contradictory; some scholars regard him as a military hero of significant accomplishment, while others view him as a failure who defeated his own best purposes. The keys to Frémont's character and personality may lie in his being born illegitimately, his ambitious drive for success, self-justification, passive-aggressive behavior.
Frémont's published reports and maps produced from his explorations contributed to massive American emigration overland into the West starting in the 1840s. In June 1846, Frémont's and his army expedition's return to California, spurred the formation of the California Battalion, his military advice led to the capture of Sonoma, the formation of the Bear Flag Republic. Many people during his lifetime believed his court martial by General Kearny in 1848 was unjustified, his biographer Allan Nevins in 1939 believed that Frémont lived a dramatic lifestyle, one of remarkable successes, one of dismal failures. John Charles Frémont was born on January 21, 1813, the son of Charles Frémon, a French-Canadian immigrant school-teacher, Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter of prominent Virginia planter Col. Thomas Whiting. At age 17, Anne married a wealthy Richmond resident in his early 60s. In 1810, Pryor hired Frémon to tutor his young wife Anne. Pryor confronted Anne when he found out she was having an affair with Frémon.
Anne and Frémon fled to Williamsburg on July 10, 1811 settling in Norfolk, taking with them household slaves Anne had inherited. The couple settled in Savannah, where she gave birth to their son Frémont out of wedlock. Pryor published a divorce petition in the Virginia Patriot, charged that his wife had "for some time past indulged in criminal intercourse"; when the Virginia House of Delegates refused Anne's divorce petition, it was impossible for the couple to marry. In Savannah, Anne took in boarders while Frémon taught dancing. A woman enslaved in the household, Black Hannah, helped raise young John. On December 8, 1818, Frémont's father Frémon died in Norfolk, leaving Anne a widow to take care of John and several young children alone on a limited inherited income. Anne and her family moved to South Carolina. Frémont, knowing his origins and coming from modest means, grew up a proud, restless loner who although self-disciplined, was ready to prove himself and unwilling to play by the rules.
The young Frémont was considered to be "precious and daring," having the a