A composting toilet is a type of toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting. This process turns human excreta into compost, it is carried out by microorganisms under controlled aerobic conditions. Most composting toilets use no water for flushing and are therefore "dry toilets". In many composting toilet designs, carbon additives such as sawdust, coconut coir, or peat moss is added after each use; this practice creates air pockets in the human excreta to promote aerobic decomposition. This improves the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and reduces potential odor. Most composting toilet systems rely on mesophilic composting. Longer retention time in the composting chamber facilitates pathogen die-off; the end product can be moved to a secondary system – another composting step – to allow more time for mesophilic composting to further reduce pathogens. Composting toilets, together with the secondary composting step, produce a humus-like endproduct that can be used to enrich soil if local regulations allow this.
Some composting toilets have urine diversion systems in the toilet bowl to collect the urine separately and control excess moisture. A "vermifilter toilet" is a composting toilet with flushing water where earthworms are used to promote decomposition to compost. Composting toilets do not require a connection to septic tanks or sewer systems unlike flush toilets. Common applications include national parks, remote holiday cottages, ecotourism resorts, off-grid homes and rural areas in developing countries; the term "composting toilet" is used quite loosely, its meaning varies by country. For example, in Germany and Scandinavian countries, composting always refers to a predominantly aerobic process; this aerobic composting may take place with an increase in temperature due to microbial action, or without a temperature increase in the case of slow composting or cold composting. If earth worms are used there is no increase in temperature. Composting toilets differ from pit latrines and arborloos, which use less controlled decomposition and may not protect groundwater from nutrient or pathogen contamination or provide optimal nutrient recycling.
They differ from urine-diverting dry toilets where pathogen reduction is achieved through dehydration and where the feces collection vault is kept as dry as possible. Composting toilets aim to have a certain degree of moisture in the composting chamber. Composting toilets can be used to implement an ecological sanitation approach for resource recovery, some people call their composting toilet designs "ecosan toilets" for that reason. However, this is not recommended. Composting toilets have been called "sawdust toilets", which can be appropriate if the amount of aerobic composting taking place in the toilet's container is limited; the "Clivus multrum" is a type of composting toilet which has a large composting chamber below the toilet seat and receives undigested organic material to increase the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Alternatives with smaller composting chambers are called "self-contained composting toilets" since the composting chamber is part of the toilet unit itself. Composting toilets can be suitable in areas such as a rural area or a park that lacks a suitable water supply and sewage treatment.
They can help increase the resilience of existing sanitation systems in the face of possible natural disasters such as climate change, earthquakes or tsunami. Composting toilets can reduce or eliminate the need for a septic tank system to reduce environmental footprint; these types of toilets can be used for resource recovery by reusing sanitized feces and urine as fertilizer and soil conditioner for gardening or ornamental activities. A composting toilet consists of two elements: a place to sit or squat and a collection/composting unit; the composting unit consists of four main parts: storage or composting chamber a ventilation unit to ensure that the degradation process in the toilet is predominantly aerobic and to vent odorous gases a leachate collection or urine diversion system to remove excess liquid an access door for extracting the compostMany composting toilets collect urine in the same chamber as feces, thus they do not divert urine. Adding small amounts of water, used for anal cleansing is no problem for the composting toilet to handle.
Some composting toilets divert urine to prevent the creation of anaerobic conditions that can result from over saturation of the compost, which leads to odors and vector problems. This requires all users to use the toilet in a seated position. Offering a waterless urinal in addition to the toilet can help keep excess amounts of urine out of the composting chamber. Alternatively, in rural areas and boys may be encouraged just to find a tree; the composting chamber can be constructed below ground level. It can include a separate superstructure. A drainage system removes leachate. Otherwise, excess moisture can impede decomposition. Urine diversion can improve compost quality, since urine contains large amounts of ammonia that inhibits microbiological activity. Composting toilets reduce human waste volumes through psychrophilic, thermophilic or mesophilic composting. Keeping the composting chamber insulated and warm protects the composting process from slowing due to low temperatures; the following gases may be emitted during the composting process that takes place in compostin
A latrine is a toilet or an simpler facility, used as a toilet within a sanitation system. For example, it can be a communal trench in the earth in a camp to be used as emergency sanitation, a hole in the ground, or more advanced designs, including pour-flush systems; the term "latrine" is still used in emergency sanitation situations. Nowadays, the word "toilet" is more used than "latrine", except for simple systems like "pit latrine" or "trench latrine"; the use of latrines was a major advancement in sanitation over more basic practices such as open defecation, helped control the spread of many waterborne diseases The word "latrine" is derived from the Latin lavatrina, meaning bath. It is nowadays still used in the term "pit latrine", it has the connotation of something being less hygienic than a standard toilet. It is used to describe communal facilities, such as the shallow-trench latrines used in emergency sanitation situations, e.g. after an earthquake, flood or other natural disaster. Many forms of latrine technology have been used, from simple to more complex.
The more sophisticated the system, the more that the term "toilet" is used instead of "latrine". A pit latrine is a inexpensive toilet, minimally defined as a hole in the ground. More sophisticated pit latrines may include a floor plate, or ventilation to reduce odor and fly and mosquito breeding. Many military units, if intended for extended use, place basic shelters and seating over the pits. A pit is sited well away from any water sources to minimize possible contamination. After prolonged use, a pit is buried. Other types of pit latrines may include the Reed Odourless Earth Closet, the arborloo or treebog, or the twin pit pour-flush pit latrine, popularized by Sulabh International; the shelter that covers such a pit latrine is known in some varieties of English as an outhouse. In a location without longer term sanitation infrastructure, such as for emergency sanitation, a trench latrine is a workable solution, it consists of a pit or a trench in the ground, 4 feet to 5 feet deep and 4 feet to 20 feet long.
A slit-trench latrine consists of a shallow trench, narrow enough to stand with one leg on either side. This type is used either by squatting, with the users' legs straddling the pit, or by various arrangements for sitting or leaning against a support structure; such support may be a log, branch or similar arrangement placed at right angles to the long axis of the pit. This type of latrine is not found in developing countries but can be used for emergency sanitation; the shallow-trench latrine is wider than the latter. It is shallow, with a depth of about 150 mm; this type of latrine is used in the initial phases of emergencies and is a simple improvement on open defecation fields. A rule of thumb in emergency sanitation provision is to allow 0.25 m2 of land per person per day. This means nearly two hectares per week. Men’s and women’s areas should always be separated. An aqua privy is a small septic tank located directly below a dry toilet squatting pan or bowl which has a drop pipe extending below the liquid level in the tank to form a simple water seal to minimise odors.
Campers refer to a cathole -- a shallow scrape. Emergency sanitation Reredorter, medieval monastic latrine
A bidet shower, is a hand-held triggered nozzle, placed near the toilet and delivers a spray of water used for anal cleansing and cleaning of the genitals after using the toilet for defecation and urination. The device is similar to that on a kitchen sink sprayer; the health faucet is a source of water for people who prefer using water rather than other methods of cleansing after defecation or urination. The shower is an alternative for the traditional sources of water for this action, such as the bidet, copper pot or bucket and mug, being more hygienic and compact. There is no contact between the spray of the used water drainage; the user grasps the faucet in the right hand and uses the thumb or forefinger to aim a spray of water at the anus or genitals to assist cleansing after using the toilet. The bidet shower is common in all predominantly Islamic countries and in most parts of Asia where water is considered essential for anal cleansing; this includes Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Cambodia.
In those countries it is installed in Western-style toilet installations. In Thailand, it is common in squat toilet installations; the bidet shower is similar in intent, if not method of use, to the Japanese washlet-style toilet seats, or so-called "electronic bidets". Bidet showers are used by Muslims in Muslim countries and all parts of the Arab world as well as in Asia in order to cleanse themselves with water after using the toilet. Here, water is used instead of, or together with, toilet paper for cleaning after defecation. In Europe, the bidet shower is used for example in Estonia. Bidets are more common bathroom fixtures in many southern European countries
A chemical toilet collects human excreta in a holding tank and uses chemicals to minimize odors. These toilets are but not always, self-contained and movable. A chemical toilet is structured around a small tank, which needs to be emptied frequently, it is not connected to a hole in the ground, nor to a septic tank, nor is it plumbed into a municipal system leading to a sewage treatment plant. When the tank is emptied, the contents are pumped into a sanitary sewer or directly to a treatment plant; the portable toilets used on construction sites and at large gatherings such as music festivals are well-known types of chemical toilet. As they are used for short periods and because of their high prices, they are rented rather than bought including servicing and cleaning. Aircraft lavatories and passenger train toilets were in the past designed as chemical toilets but are nowadays more to be vacuum toilets. A simpler type of chemical toilet may be used on small boats. Many chemical toilets use a blue dye in the bowl water.
In the past, disinfection was carried out by mixing formaldehyde, bleach, or similar chemicals with the toilet water when flushed. Modern formulations work biologically. Chemical toilets are a type of portable toilet and are known by various tradenames, such as Port-a-John and Porta-Potty, Portaloo, or honey bucket; the last two are the names of companies and "Portaloo" is a British and European Community registered trade mark. Chemical toilets are used as a temporary solution, for example on construction sites or large gatherings, because of their durability and convenience. Most chemical toilets have open-front U-shaped toilet seats with a cover, they are constructed out of lightweight molded plastic. Chemical toilets are large enough for a single occupant about 110 cm square by 210 cm high. While the units are free-standing structures, their stability is augmented by the weight of the waste tank, which contains an empty liquid disinfectant dispenser and deodorizer; some include both a urinal.
Most include lockable doors, ventilation near the top, a vent pipe for the holding tank. When wind is blowing over the vent pipe it creates a low pressure area sucking the odor out. Leaving the toilet lid open will reverse the flow of the venting of the tank. Typical specifications: Total Weight: 90 kg - 110 kg Total Width: 1,166 mm Total Depth: 1,215 mm Total Height: 2,316 mm Door Height: 1,975 mm Door Width: 639 mm Portable chemical toilets use a smell-reducing chemical in the holding tank; this chemical is blue so that when it interacts with enough urine and feces, it turns green. This green colour is an indication. A formaldehyde based chemical is used to neutralize odors. Since the chemical solution can splash back onto the buttocks of the user when their excrement drops in, because formaldehyde is irritating to the eyes, skin and throat, it is being replaced by other proprietary blends such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds, with non-staining dyes and nature-identical perfume oils.
Additionally, enzyme hybrids are sometimes used. A much older form of portable toilet chemical is lye. Lye was used during the old "wooden outhouse days". After a person is done using the portable toilet they would sprinkle a bit of lye into the holding tank. Lye can be dangerously corrosive to skin, is used today, they are seen at outdoor work sites construction sites, ranches, camp sites and large banks of dozens of portable toilets allow for ready sanitation at large gatherings such as outdoor music festivals. Several portable toilets arranged in these large banks are referred to as a'sitting' of portable toilets. In the United States, the chemical toilet industry is a $2 billion a year business with the standard model renting for $225 per day and luxury restroom trailer units with flushing toilets going for a few thousand each day. Newer models include toilet paper and antibacterial hand sanitizer dispensers, it has become common for portable toilets to be paired with an internal hand washing station.
These sink stations provide a foot pump to dispense non-potable water to wash one's hands with provided soap dispensers or hand sanitizer stations after using the toilet, along with paper toweling. Another common pairing are portable toilets on trailers known as a "toilet trailer"; these trailers are found in 1–2 toilet configurations with a hand wash ability using either a hand washing station or a plastic barrel full of water. These trailers are seen on agricultural fields or at road construction sites; these restrooms are ideal for situations where the workers are mobile. However, this configuration has proven problematic; when being towed, the high winds blow in from the vents, creating a hurricane effect inside and ejecting any toilet paper rolls from the portable toilet if not secured.'Luxury' portable toilets exist. They are mounted on large "office-like" trailers or made from converted shipping containers, they contain every amenity that a public toilet would have such as running water, flushing toilet, urinals, mirrors and air conditioning and hot water in some cases.
However, these lux
Peveril Castle is a ruined 11th-century castle overlooking the village of Castleton in the English county of Derbyshire. It was the main settlement of the feudal barony of William Peverel, known as the Honour of Peverel, was founded some time between the Norman Conquest of 1066 and its first recorded mention in the Domesday Survey of 1086, by Peverel, who held lands in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire as a tenant-in-chief of the king; the town became the economic centre of the barony. The castle has views across the Hope Cave Dale. William Peveril the Younger inherited his father's estates, but in 1155 they were confiscated by King Henry II. While in royal possession, Henry visited the castle in 1157, 1158, 1164, the first time hosting King Malcolm IV of Scotland. During the Revolt of 1173–1174, the castle's garrison was increased from a porter and two watchmen to a force led by 20 knights shared with the castles of Bolsover and Nottingham; the Earls of Derby had a claim to the Peveril family's estates through marriage, in 1199 William de Ferrers, the fourth earl, paid 2,000 marks for the Peak lordship, although the castle remained under royal control.
The closest Peveril Castle came to seeing battle was in 1216, when King John gave the castle to William de Ferrers, but the castellan refused to relinquish control. Although they were both John's supporters, the king authorised the earl to use force to evict the castellan, who capitulated, although there is no evidence that the castle was assaulted. In 1223 the castle returned to the Crown. In the 13th century there were periods of building work at the castle, by 1300 its final form had been established. Toward the end of the 14th century, the barony was granted to John of Duke of Lancaster. Having little use for the castle, he ordered some of its material to be stripped out for re-use, marking the beginning of its decline. From the time of John of Gaunt to the present day, the castle has been owned and administered by the Duchy of Lancaster. Peveril Castle became less important administratively, by 1609 it was "very ruinous and serveth for no use". In the 19th century, Sir Walter Scott featured the castle in his novel Peveril of the Peak.
The site is situated in a national park, cared for by English Heritage. Peveril Castle is protected as a Grade I listed building. Peveril Castle stands on a limestone outcrop overlooking the west end of Hope Valley, in the midst of an ancient landscape. Overlooking the head of the valley, 2 km to the west, is Mam Tor, a Bronze Age hill fort, 2 miles to the east at Brough-on-Noe is the Roman fort of Navio; the valley formed a natural line of communication and had extra importance due to valuable mineral resources in the area lead. The small Hope Castle lay halfway along the valley; the castle's founder, William Peveril, was a follower of William the Conqueror and was rewarded for supporting him during the Norman Conquest. The first mention of him in England records that in 1068 he was granted the new castle at Nottingham by William the Conqueror, in the process of subduing the Midlands and northern England. An unsubstantiated legend states. By the Domesday Book of 1086, Peveril had become a powerful landowner, with holdings in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.
The exact year he founded the castle is uncertain, although it must have been started by 1086 as it is recorded in the Domesday Book, one of 48 castles mentioned in the survey and the only one in Derbyshire. The castle was recorded as standing at Pechesers, translated as both "Peak's Tail" and "Peak's Arse". Although the earliest Norman castles were built in timber, Peveril Castle seems to have been designed from outset to be built in stone. William Peveril had custody of royal lands such as the district of Hope, although he had his own estates, he relied on continued royal favour to maintain power in this way. In 1100 the new king, Henry I, granted William "his demesne in the Peak", thus the Peak became an independent lordship under William Peveril's control, the castle became an important centre of administration for the area, allowing the collection of taxes. Castleton began to grow as the lordship's economic heart. William Peveril was succeeded by his son, William Peveril the Younger. In the civil war known as The Anarchy between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda, Peveril backed the losing side and his fortunes suffered after his capture at the Battle of Lincoln in 1141.
In 1153 Peveril was suspected of attempting to 4th Earl of Chester. In 1153 the future King Henry II accused Peveril of "plundering and treachery" and threatened to confiscate his estates and hand them over to the Earl of Chester. Two years Henry, now king, followed through his threat; the Earl of Chester was dead by this time, the king kept the property for himself. Once under royal control, Peveril became the administrative centre of the Forest of High Peak. William Peveril the Younger died in 1155, as his only male heir had predeceased him, the family's claim on the confiscated estates was taken up by the husband of William's daughter, Margaret Peveril. Margaret had married Robert de Ferrers, 2nd Earl of Derby. King Henry II visited Peveril Castle three times during his reign. During the first visit, in 1157, he hosted King Malcolm IV of Scotland who paid homage to Henry after ceding Cumberland and Westmorland to the English king. Henry II visited again in 1158 and 1164; when a group of barons led by Henry's sons Henry the Young King, Duke of Brittany, Prince Richard Richard the Lionheart, took part in the Revolt of 1173–1174 aga
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. In particular the term is traditionally used for English Romanesque architecture; the Normans introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including Norman keeps, at the same time monasteries, abbeys and cathedrals, in a style characterised by the usual Romanesque rounded arches and massive proportions compared to other regional variations of the style. These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number of surviving examples. At about the same time a Norman dynasty ruled in Sicily, producing a distinctive variation incorporating Byzantine and Saracen influences, known as Norman architecture, or alternatively as Sicilian Romanesque. Ancient Rome's invention of the arch is the basis of all Norman architecture.
The term may have originated with eighteenth-century antiquarians, but its usage in a sequence of styles has been attributed to Thomas Rickman in his 1817 work An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation which used the labels "Norman, Early English and Perpendicular". The more inclusive term romanesque was used of the Romance languages in English by 1715, was applied to architecture of the eleventh and twelfth centuries from 1819. Although Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbey in Romanesque style just before the Conquest, still believed to be the earliest major Romanesque building in England, no significant remaining Romanesque architecture in Britain can be shown to predate the Conquest, although historians believe that many surviving "Norman" elements in buildings, nearly all churches, may well in fact be Anglo-Saxon; the Norman arch is a defining point of Norman architecture. Grand archways are designed to evoke feelings of awe and are commonly seen as the entrance to large religious buildings such as cathedrals.
Viking invaders arrived at the mouth of the river Seine in 911, at a time when Franks were fighting on horseback and Frankish lords were building castles. Over the next century the population of the territory ceded to the Vikings, now called Normans, adopted these customs as well as Christianity and the langue d'oïl. Norman barons built timber castles on earthen mounds, beginning the development of motte-and-bailey castles, great stone churches in the Romanesque style of the Franks. By 950, they were building stone; the Normans were among the most travelled peoples of Europe, exposing them to a wide variety of cultural influences which became incorporated in their art and architecture. They elaborated on the early Christian basilica plan. Longitudinal with side aisles and an apse they began to add in towers, as at the Church of Saint-Étienne]] at Caen, in 1067; this would form a model for the larger English cathedrals some 20 years later. In England, Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066, Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture.
Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy and in 1042 brought masons to work on the first Romanesque building in England, Westminster Abbey. In 1051 he brought in Norman knights. Following the invasion, Normans constructed motte-and-bailey castles along with churches and more elaborate fortifications such as Norman stone keeps; the buildings show massive proportions in simple geometries using small bands of sculpture. Paying attention to the concentrated spaces of capitals and round doorways as well as the tympanum under an arch; the "Norman arch" is the rounded with mouldings carved or incised onto it for decoration. Chevron patterns termed "zig-zag mouldings", were a frequent signature of the Normans; the cruciform churches had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the great English cathedrals were founded from 1083. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture.
Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style, Norman became a modest style of provincial building. Oxford Castle 1074: church tower doubles as a place of refuge St John's Chapel, Tower of London Durham Cathedral was the first to employ a ribbed vault system with pointed arches Winchester Cathedral Ely Cathedral Peterborough Cathedral Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire St Nicholas Church, Surrey Southwell Minster St Mary the Virgin, Oxfordshire St Swithun's in Nately Scures, Hampshire, an example of a Norman single-cell apsidal church. Norwich Cathedral St Edward's Church St Botolph's Priory, Colchester St John's Abbey, Colchester St Peter’s Church, Rutland – Norman chancel Dunstable PrioryBibliography Sedding, Edmund H. Norman Architecture in Cornwall: a handbook to old ecclesiastical architecture. With over 160 plates. London: Ward & Co. White Tower Rochester Castle Norwich Castle Colchester Castle, the largest Norman castle built and the first stone Keep in England Hedingham Castle, Essex Jew's House, Lincoln Boothby Pagnell Manor, Lincolnshire Oakham Castle, Rutland Moyse's Hall Museum Bury St Edmunds Suffolk Scotland came under early
A flushometer is a metal water-diverter that uses an inline handle to flush tankless toilets or urinals. It is a product of the Sloan Valve Company, it uses water pressure from the water supply system rather than gravity from a raised tank like in previous models. A diaphragm separates a pressure chamber from the main water supply. A narrow passageway leads from the main water supply into the pressure chamber, it is the narrowness of this passage that meters the flow by slowing repressurizing of the pressure chamber after the action of a flush. The diaphragm technology allows the flush valve to let water into the bowl. A main cylinder valve operates down. A groove in this cylinder allows water from the main supply to flow through when it is in a mid position; the valve is shut off at both its bottom positions. A second valve, placed within the main cylinder valve, releases the water in the topmost pressure chamber when the flush lever is activated, sending the main cylinder valve shooting upwards.
The topmost pressure chamber refills through its narrow passageway, pushing the valve cylinder back down gradually. A flush occurs; because the water is shut off, slower water at the end of the cycle that will not activate the siphon serves to refill the bowl. The valve cannot be kept open by holding the flush lever in the activated position, wasting water, because this only sends the main cylinder valve all the way up to its topmost shutoff position. A flush can only occur. A flushometer is installed in a commercial setting, as it provides a high-pressure and better-performing wash and flush than a normal gravity toilet. However, a flushometer requires that the building have a larger supply line than is found in small to medium residential buildings, therefore such buildings use tank-type toilets