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Garland County, Arkansas

Garland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,024; the county seat is Hot Springs. Garland County comprises AR Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county includes Hot Springs National Park, the only national park in the state of Arkansas as well as the first property to be protected under federal legislation. This area was occupied by the historic Natchitoches people, who frequented the hot springs for their healing powers, their ancestors among regional indigenous peoples had been coming to this area for thousands of years. President Thomas Jefferson requested William Dunbar, a planter and amateur scientist of Natchez, to explore this area. Dunbar led small group of a dozen soldiers and friend George Hunter, a chemist, to the Ouachita Mountains to report on the Indian tribes and springs, they reached Hot Springs in December 1804, where they found a basic cabin used by visitors to the springs. The first European-American settler was Jean Pierre Emanuel Prudhomme, a descendant of French colonists.

An owner of a plantation at Red River, Prudhomme was suffering from illness and sought relief from the springs. In 1807 he built the first permanent European house by the springs. Isaac Cates and John Percival, two trappers from Alabama, joined him. Percival foresaw a great potential for the area and built log cabins in order to rent to visitors to the springs. In 1828, Ludovicus Belding came with wife and children to visit the hot springs. After a few months they built a small hotel for the visitors of the springs. In 1832 President Andrew Jackson signed legislation to protect the hot springs area for recreational use by American citizens as Hot Springs Reservation, the first time such action was taken; this was four years before Arkansas became a state, on June 15, 1836. A dispute among original settlers and their descendants over control of the property was settled by the US Supreme Court in 1877 in favor of the federal government. Hot Springs National Park is managed by the National Park Service.

Garland County is Arkansas' 68th county, formed on April 5, 1873, from portions of Hot Spring and Saline counties. It was named for eleventh governor of Arkansas, it is the only county in the United States with this name. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 735 square miles, of which 678 square miles is land and 57 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 270 Highway 5 Highway 7 Highway 88 Perry County Saline County Hot Spring County Montgomery County Yell County Hot Springs National Park Ouachita National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 88,068 people, 37,813 households, 25,259 families residing in the county; the population density was 130 people per square mile. There were 44,953 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.85% White, 7.80% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 1.49% from two or more races.

2.56 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 37,813 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.20% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, 21.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,724, the median income for a family was $38,079. Males had a median income of $28,117 versus $20,421 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,631.

About 10.50% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. Hot Springs Fountain Lake Lonsdale Mountain Pine Hot Springs Village Lake Hamilton Piney Rockwell Royal Bear Jessieville Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Garland County are listed below. Over the past few election cycles Garland County has trended towards the GOP; the last Democrat to carry this county was Arkansas “favorite son” Bill Clinton in 1996. List of lakes in Garland County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Garland County, Arkansas Garland County government's website Hot Springs, Arkansas Community Guides • What to do and where to find it in Hot Springs

Ruth Shepley

Ruth Shepley was an American stage actress from Providence, Rhode Island who appeared in comedies such as It Pays to Advertise. A Broadway performer, she was trim, with blonde hair, medium height, she was educated in Paris. Shepley was a close friend of Helen Hayes and Douglas Fairbanks Sr.. Shepley's debut as an actress came in 1908 at the Bijou Theatre, she appeared in All For A Girl. Subsequent performances at the same venue included acting in A Gentleman of Leisure, The Brute, The Fatted Calf, Nearly Married, It Pays To Advertise. Quite a few of her early stage work came under the management of George M. Cohan, her most noted production was The Boomerang in which Shepley played the part of Grace Tyler at the Belasco Theatre. In 1921 Shepley appeared at the Cort Theatre in Her Salary Man; the following year she made her first London performance in Lawful Larceny. Her final work as an actress came with Helen Hayes in Ladies and Gentlemen, a production staged in Santa Barbara, California. During World War I Shepley was a captain in the American Women's Voluntary Services.

In World War II she was featured in an eight-month tour of the Pacific Rim in Dear Ruth. The entertainment was under the auspices of the United Services Organization. Shepley married Gordon Sarre in 1920, a union, dissolved in 1932, she was survived by her second husband, the New York surgeon Dr. Beverly C. Smith, whom she married in 1932, she resided at 28 East 73rd Street in Connecticut. Ruth Shepley at the Internet Broadway Database

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 227

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 227 of the United States Reports: Yazoo & Mississippi Valley R. Co. v. Greenwood Grocery Co. 227 U. S. 1 Wynkoop, Crawford Co. v. Gaines, 227 U. S. 4 Virtue v. Creamery Package Mfg. Co. 227 U. S. 8 Cameron Septic Tank Co. v. Knoxville, 227 U. S. 39 Gray v. Taylor, 227 U. S. 51 Michigan Central R. Co. v. Vreeland, 227 U. S. 59 Grant v. United States, 227 U. S. 74 Davis v. Las Ovas Co. 227 U. S. 80 ICC v. Louisville & Nashville R. Co. 227 U. S. 88 Guardian Assurance Co. of London v. Quintana, 227 U. S. 100 De Bary & Co. v. Louisiana, 227 U. S. 108 Texas & New Orleans R. Co. v. Sabine Tram Co. 227 U. S. 111 Heike v. United States, 227 U. S. 131 American R. Co. of P. R. v. Didricksen, 227 U. S. 145 Ross v. Oregon, 227 U. S. 150 United States v. Harvey Steel Co. 227 U. S. 165 Robinson v. Lundrigan, 227 U. S. 173 Guttierrez del Arroyo v. Graham, 227 U. S. 181 Chicago, R. I. & P. R. Co. v. Schwyhart, 227 U. S. 184 Brooklyn Mining & Milling Co. v. Miller, 227 U.

S. 194 United States v. Winslow, 227 U. S. 202 St. Louis Southwestern R. Co. of Tex. v. Alexander, 227 U. S. 218 Scott v. Lattig, 227 U. S. 229 Johnson v. Hoy, 227 U. S. 245 New York Central & Hudson River R. Co. v. Board of Chosen Freeholders of County of Hudson, 227 U. S. 248 St. Louis, I. M. & S. R. Co. v. Edwards, 227 U. S. 265 Porto Rico v. Rosaly y Castillo, 227 U. S. 270 Home Telephone & Telegraph Co. v. Los Angeles, 227 U. S. 278 Winfree v. Northern Pacific R. Co. 227 U. S. 296 Hutchinson v. Valdosta, 227 U. S. 303 Hoke v. United States, 227 U. S. 308 Athanasaw v. United States, 227 U. S. 326 Bennett v. United States, 227 U. S. 333 Harris v. United States, 227 U. S. 340 Stuart v. Union Pacific R. Co. 227 U. S. 342 Northern Pacific R. Co. v. United States, 227 U. S. 355 Wadkins v. Producers Oil Co. 227 U. S. 368 Cordova v. Folgueras y Rijos, 227 U. S. 375 Luke v. Smith, 227 U. S. 379 Porto Rico v. Title Guaranty & Surety Co. 227 U. S. 382 Crenshaw v. Arkansas, 227 U. S. 389 Rogers v. Arkansas, 227 U.

S. 401 James v. Stone & Co. 227 U. S. 410 Lovell v. Newman & Son, 227 U. S. 412 Bartell v. United States, 227 U. S. 427 Troxell v. Delaware, L. & W. R. Co. 227 U. S. 434 United States ex rel. Champion Lumber Co. v. Fisher, 227 U. S. 445 United States ex rel. Foreman v. Meyer, 227 U. S. 452 Hampton v. St. Louis, I. M. & S. R. Co. 227 U. S. 456 Wells, Fargo & Co. v. Neiman-Marcus Co. 227 U. S. 469 Bradley v. Richmond, 227 U. S. 477 United States v. Mason, 227 U. S. 486 Zimmerman v. Harding, 227 U. S. 489 Supreme Ruling of Fraternal Mystic Circle v. Snyder, 227 U. S. 497 Bacon v. Illinois, 227 U. S. 504 Smoot v. Heyl, 227 U. S. 518 Svor v. Morris, 227 U. S. 524 Ross v. Stewart, 227 U. S. 530 Matheson v. United States, 227 U. S. 540 Grand Trunk Western R. Co. v. South Bend, 227 U. S. 544 Southern Pacific Co. v. Portland, 227 U. S. 559 Van Iderstine v. National Discount Co. 227 U. S. 575 Rosaly v. Graham y Frazer, 227 U. S. 584 Ensign v. Pennsylvania, 227 U. S. 592 Southern Pacific Co. v. Schuyler, 227 U. S. 601 Starr v. Long Jim, 227 U.

S. 613 Zavelo v. Reeves, 227 U. S. 625 Marrone v. Washington Jockey Club, 227 U. S. 633 Baxter v. Buchholz-Hill Transp. Co. 227 U. S. 637 Kansas City Southern R. Co. v. Carl, 227 U. S. 639 Missouri, K. & T. R. Co. v. Harriman, 227 U. S. 657 Supreme Court of the United States United States Supreme Court cases in volume 227 United States Supreme Court cases in volume 227 United States Supreme Court cases in volume 227

Zhang Wentian

Zhang Wentian known as Luo Fu, was a high-ranking leader of the Communist Party of China. Born in Nanhui, he attended engineering school in Nanjing and spent a year at the University of California, he joined the Chinese Communist Party in 1925 and was sent to study at Sun Yat-sen University in Moscow, from 1926 to 1930. He was a member of the group known as the 28 Bolsheviks, but switched to supporting Mao Zedong during the Long March, he was General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1943, when the post was abolished. He remained a member of the Politburo, but ranked 12th of 13 in the 7th Politburo and reduced to Alternate Member in the 8th Politburo, he was First Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China from December 1954 to November 1960. He was a participant of the Long March, served as an ambassador to the Soviet Union from April 1951 to January 1955. At the Lushan Conference in 1959 he lost power along with Peng. During the Cultural Revolution he was attacked as an ally of Liu Shaoqi.

On August 30, 1900, Zhang Wentian was born in Deng San Village, Jiangsu Province. Zhang's ancestors migrated to Pudong from Qinghe County to avoid the war, his grandfather Zhang Xiangfu and father Zhang Qimei were farmers, his mother Jin Tianhua had attended a private school. Zhang Wentian was the eldest son of the family. In 1915, he was admitted to the Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries School. After studying for two years, he decided to transfer because he could not physically get used to the studying environment there. In 1917, he entered Nanjing Hohai Engineering College. At this point, Zhang Wentian became exposed to the New Youth, started to lean toward the idea of revolution. After the outbreak of the May Fourth Movement in 1919, Zhang Wentian participated in student movements and began to engage himself in literary creation and translation. In July 1920, Zhang Wentian and his classmate Shen Zemin went to study in Japan, they studied Japanese and other texts in social sciences. In January 1921, Zhang Wentian returned to China, became an editor for Zhonghua Book Company, working with colleagues Zuo Shunsheng, Tian Han, Li Da, He Shuheng.

On January 5, 1922, Zhang Wentian published "China's Source of Chaos and Its Solution". The article stated: "We are so uneasy about this unreasonable society, but what methods should we use to transform it? What should it be transformed into? Nonresistance? Resistance? Anarchism? Socialism? Like the water flowing in the river, it troubles me. However, life cannot continue without a decision. We cannot but go down the socialist road.” In August, Zhang Wentian went to study in University of Berkeley at his own expense. He was not formally enrolled. Zhang Wentian returned home in January 1924, continuing his work as an editor for to Zhonghua Book Company. In October 1924, Zhang Wentian received an invitation from the Juvenile Chinese Society Chengdu branch and took up the job as an English teacher at the Second Chongqing Women's Normal School with colleagues Xiao Chunü and Yang Angong. In May 1925, Zhang Wentian left Sichuan and returned to Shanghai with Xiao Chunü to propagate revolutionary ideas. In June, Zhang Wentian was introduced by Shen Zemin and Dong Yixiang to join the Communist Party of China.

He went to Moscow to study at Sun Yat-sen University in October. While Zhang was studying and teaching in Moscow between 1925 and 1930, Nikolai Bukharin was still in power. Zhang learned about Bukarin's theory of allowing private rural economy through supply and marketing cooperatives, this would deeply influence Zhang's own policy perspectives. Zhang was much respected in the CCP circle for his thorough knowledge of Bukharin, in addition to Marxism and Leninism. In early 1928, some members of the Chinese Communist Party branch at Sun Yat-sen University were dissatisfied with the work of the school branch office; the school branch office ignored the leadership of the party and sought to restructure the Communist Party branch. The power struggle between the two factions in Moscow reached its peak in the summer of 1928, a ten-day meeting was held to discuss the workings of the school office; the secretary of the Soviet Communist Party Committee supported the school branch office. Despite the opposition from majority of students, under the support of minority factions including Bo Gu and others, the vote was passed to support the school branch office.

After the meeting, the proud supporters of the school branch office were given the nickname" 28 Bolsheviks” by the oppositional faction, Zhang Wentian was one of them. On May 19th 1930, Zhang Wentian published "On the Two Lines of Struggle." The article pointed out that the Communist Party not only needs to oppose the right-wing within the party, but needs to oppose the left-wing inside the party. This article was considered to be directed against Li Lisan and his extremism which came to be known as "Li Lisan line". In February 1931, Zhang Wentian returned to Shanghai, soon served as the Minister of Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee. In September of the same year, the provisional central political bureau was established by Bo Gu, Zhang Wentian, Lu Futan, Li Zhusheng, Kang Sheng, Chen Yun, Huang Ping, Liu Shaoqi, Wang Yun Cheng and other nine. After the outbreak of January 28 Incident in 1932, Zhang Wentian was disturbed by the class struggle mode of thinking, which de

Florence Arthaud

Florence Arthaud was a French sailor from Boulogne-Billancourt. She was the daughter of director of the Arthaud publishing house. At age 17, she was in a serious car accident, she was hospitalized for six months and her recovery took two years. She had a daughter with a French professional sailor. In 1989, she recorded a song, "Flo", with Pierre Bachelet about her sailing. In 1990, she won the Route du Rhum for Pierre 1er. In 1997, she won the Transpacific with Bruno Peyron, she sailed in the 1989–90 Whitbread Round the World Race on board Charles Jourdan. In 1990, Arthaud established a new world record for the fastest solo crossing of the North Atlantic, beating the previous record by two days. In 2014, she took part in Sea Shepherd's "GrindStop" campaign against pilot-whale whaling in the Faroe Islands. In 2015, Arthaud took part in Dropped, a reality television show on TF1 in which sportspeople were transported by helicopters into the wilderness. During filming on 9 March 2015, she died in a helicopter collision in Argentina along with nine other people, two of whom were fellow contestants


Polyergus called Amazon ants, is a small genus of 14 described species of "slave-raiding" ants. Its workers are incapable of caring for brood, in part due to their dagger-like, piercing mandibles, but more because in the evolution of their parasitism on certain species of the host genus Formica, they have lost the "behavioral wiring" to carry out rudimentary brood care, or to feed themselves. Polyergus workers exist in essence as a specialized brood-acquiring caste in their mixed Polyergus/Formica colonies, maintaining the Formica worker force by robbing brood pupae, of particular species in the related genus Formica in massive colony-to-colony raids; the captured ants are referred to as "slaves" in scientific and popular literature, though recent attempts have been made to apply other human cultural models, such as describing the Polyergus individuals of a colony as "raiders" or "pirates" or "kidnappers" and the Formica workers as "helper-ants", or "domesticated animals". Biologists describe the system as parasitism by "dulosis" by Polyergus on the host Formica species.

Polyergus obtains its Formica work force by stealing pupae from nearby Formica colonies and carrying them back to its own nest. Back in the Polyergus nest, Formica workers are helped to emerge from the cocoons and pupal exuvia by Formica workers living there; the new workers assimilate the characteristic odor of the mixed-species population of the Polyergus colony—without violence or coercion. The Formica workers that emerge in the mixed-species colony go on to nurse the brood, maintain the nest, feed their adult captors and their mother the queen, perform other colony upkeep duties; as far as is known, all established. However, many contain ergatoids, worker-like forms with large gasters; these may be substitute reproductive individuals after the queen's death, but this has not been proven. To found a new colony, a lone Polyergus queen invades a nest of the host species, or encounters and moves in with a colony-founding queen of the host species and her first few workers. In the latter case, the host queen is allowed to survive until her little colony has reared a sufficient number of host workers to support the parasite queen, something the Polyergus queen cannot do herself.

A young Polyergus queen kills the existing Formica queen and becomes accepted by the Formica workers. These proceed to rear all subsequent Polyergus brood; this complicated and lengthy process fails, as Polyergus colonies are rare, though each mature colony produces dozens or hundreds of new potential queens each year. To counteract the natural mortality of the Formica worker population, Polyergus workers must conduct regular raids over a 6-8 week period, every summer over the 10- to 15-year lifespan of their colony. Lucidus groupPolyergus lucidus Mayr, 1870 – eastern United States, southern Ontario Polyergus longicornis Smith, 1947 – southeastern United States Polyergus montivagus Wheeler, 1915 – New England states to northern Florida in eastern United States, southern Ontario and west to Wisconsin and northern New Mexico, United States Polyergus oligergus Trager, 2013 – Florida, United States Polyergus ruber Trager, 2013 – southeastern United States Polyergus sanwaldi Trager, 2013 – United States, New England west to North Dakotarufescens groupPolyergus rufescens – all of Europe, to western China and Kazakhstan Polyergus breviceps Emery, 1893 – north-central United States, west to Colorado, northern Arizona Polyergus bicolor Wasmann, 1901 – Wisconsin and Michigan, United States, west to North Dakota and south-central Canada Polyergus mexicanus Forel, 1899 – Dakotas and Arkansas, to western United States and Canada, south at high altitude in mountains of Durango, Mexico.

Polyergus topoffi Trager, 2013 – high desert to mid-elevation mountains from Hidalgo, Mexico to southern Arizona, United States Polyergus vinosus Trager, 2013 – southern California to northern Baja California, Mexicosamurai groupPolyergus nigerrimus Marikovsky, 1963 – Mongolia, Tuvan Republic, southern Russia Polyergus samurai Yano, 1911 – Japan, eastern China, southeastern Russiaincertae sedisPolyergus texanus – excluded from Polyergus by Trager Dale Ward. "Ants of Arizona: Polyergus breviceps". Media related to Polyergus at Wikimedia Commons] - from which the text of this article is derived. Video of Polyergus rufescens stealing Serviformica pupae