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Hot Springs, Arkansas

Hot Springs is a resort city in the state of Arkansas and the county seat of Garland County. The city is located in the Ouachita Mountains among the U. S. Interior Highlands, is set among several natural hot springs for which the city is named; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 35,193. In 2017 the estimated population was 36,915; the center of Hot Springs is the oldest federal reserve in the United States, today preserved as Hot Springs National Park. The hot spring water has been popularly believed for centuries to possess healing properties, was a subject of legend among several Native American tribes. Following federal protection in 1832, the city developed into a successful spa town. Incorporated January 10, 1851, the city has been home to Major League Baseball spring training, illegal gambling and gangsters such as Al Capone, horse racing at Oaklawn Park, the Army and Navy Hospital, 42nd President Bill Clinton. One of the largest Pentecostal denominations in the United States, the Assemblies of God, traces its beginnings to Hot Springs.

Today, much of Hot Springs's history is preserved by various government entities. Hot Springs National Park is maintained by the National Park Service, including Bathhouse Row, which preserves the eight historic bathhouse buildings and gardens along Central Avenue. Downtown Hot Springs is preserved as the Central Avenue Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the city contains dozens of historic hotels and motor courts, built during the Great Depression in the Art Deco style. Due to the popularity of the thermal waters, Hot Springs benefited from rapid growth during a period when many cities saw a sharp decline in building; as a result, Hot Springs's architecture is a key part of the city's blend of cultures, including a reputation as a tourist town and a Southern city. A destination for the arts, Hot Springs features the Hot Springs Music Festival, Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival, the Valley of the Vapors Independent Music Festival annually. Members of many Native American tribes had been gathering in the valley for untold numbers of years to enjoy the healing properties of the thermal springs.

In 1673, Father Marquette and Jolliet claimed it for France. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the land to Spain. In December 1804, Dr. George Hunter and William Dunbar made an expedition to the springs, finding a lone log cabin and a few rudimentary shelters used by people visiting the springs for their healing properties. In 1807, a man named Prudhomme became the first settler of modern Hot Springs, he was soon joined by John Perciful and Isaac Cates. On August 24, 1818, the Quapaw Indians ceded the land around the hot springs to the United States in a treaty. After Arkansas became its own territory in 1819, the Arkansas Territorial Legislature requested in 1820 that the springs and adjoining mountains be set aside as a federal reservation. Twelve years in 1832, the Hot Springs Reservation was created by the United States Congress, granting federal protection of the thermal waters; the reservation was renamed Hot Springs National Park in 1921. The outbreak of the American Civil War left Hot Springs with a declining bathing population.

After the Confederate forces suffered defeat in the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, the Union troops advanced toward the Confederate city of Little Rock. Confederate Governor Henry M. Rector moved his state records to Hot Springs. Union forces did not attack Little Rock, the government returned to the capital city on July 14, 1862. Many residents of Hot Springs fled to Texas or Louisiana and remained there until the end of the war. In September 1863, Union forces occupied Little Rock. During this period, Hot Springs became the prey of guerrilla bands loosely associated with either Union or Confederate forces, they pillaged and burned the near-deserted town, leaving only a few buildings standing at the end of the Civil War. After the Civil War, an extensive rebuilding of bathhouses and hotels took place at Hot Springs; the year-round population soared to 1,200 inhabitants by 1870. By 1873 six bathhouses and 24 hotels and boardinghouses stood near the springs. In 1874, Joseph Reynolds announced his decision to construct a narrow-gauge railroad from Malvern to Hot Springs.

Samuel W. Fordyce and two other entrepreneurs financed the construction of the first luxury hotel in the area, the first Arlington Hotel, which opened in 1875. During the Reconstruction Era, several conflicting land claims reached the U. S. Congress and resulted in an April 24, 1876, Supreme Court ruling that the land title of Hot Springs belonged to the federal government. Protests ensued. To deal with the situation, Congress formed the Hot Springs Commission to lay out streets in the town of Hot Springs, deal with land claims, define property lines, condemn buildings illegally on the permanent reservation and define a process for claimants to purchase land; the commission surveyed and set aside 264.93 acres encompassing the hot springs and Hot Springs Mountain to be a permanent government reservation. Another 1,200 acres became the Hot Springs townsite, with 700 acres awarded to claimants; the townsite consisted of 50 miles of streets and alleys. The remaining portion of the original four sections of government land consisted of hills and mountains which were unoccupied, Congress acted on the commission's recommendation in June 1880 by adding those lands to the permanent reservation.

Hot Springs has a rich baseball history. Durin

Nether Skyborry

Nether Skyborry is a Grade 2 listed country house and lies within the parish of Llanfair Waterdine, South Shropshire. The house has ancient origins. Nether Skyborry was extended, impressively, in the late 18th/early 19th century and once had seven bedrooms but, over the years, these have been reduced to a more manageable number; the house still boasts no less than 13 chimneys! There are four other houses close by forming a small hamlet; the Welsh border lies close - the River Teme runs to the south of the hamlet. The Welsh border is just on the other side of the river; the name "Skyborry" is an anglicisation of the Welsh for ysgubor. "Nether" means near or under. The hamlet is downstream of the other hamlet with the Skyborry place name (Skyborry Green - less than 1 mile northwest. Nether Skyborry lies 190–210 metres above sea level, on the northern slope of the Teme valley. Skyborry Media related to Nether Skyborry at Wikimedia Commons

German declension

German declension is the paradigm that German uses to define all the ways articles and sometimes nouns can change their form to reflect their role in the sentence: subject, etc. Declension allows speakers to mark a difference between subjects, direct objects, indirect objects and possessives by changing the form of the word—and/or its associated article—instead of indicating this meaning through word order or prepositions; as a result, German can take a much more fluid approach to word order without the meaning being obscured. In English, a simple sentence must be written in strict word order; this sentence cannot be expressed in any other word order than how it is written here without changing the meaning. A translation of the same sentence from German to English would appear rather different and can be expressed with a variety of word order with little or no change in meaning; as a fusional language, German marks nouns, pronouns and adjectives to distinguish case and gender. For example, all German adjectives have several different forms.

The adjective neu, for example, can be written in five different ways depending on the gender of the noun that it modifies, whether the noun is singular or plural, the role of the noun in the sentence. English lacks such declinations. Modern High German distinguishes between four cases—nominative, accusative and dative—and three grammatical genders—feminine and neuter. Nouns may be either singular or plural. However, the nouns themselves retain several ways of forming plurals which but not always, correspond with the word's gender and structure in the singular. For example, many feminine nouns which, in the singular, end in e, like die Reise, form the plural by adding -n: die Reisen. Many neuter or masculine nouns ending in a consonant, like das Blatt or der Baum form plurals by a change of vowel and appending -er or -e: die Blätter and die Bäume; these and several further plural inflections recall the noun declension classes of Proto-Germanic, but in much reduced form. The definite articles correspond to the English "the".

The indefinite articles correspond to English "a", "an". Note: ein is a numeral which corresponds to English "one". Ein has no plural. Certain adjectival pronouns decline like der: all-, dies-, jed-, jen-, manch-, solch-, welch-; these are sometimes referred to as der-words. The general declension pattern is as shown in the following table: Examples: Adjectival possessive pronouns and kein decline to the article ein; the general declension pattern is as shown in the following table: Examples: Euer is irregular: when it has an ending, the e can be dropped and endings are added to the root eur-, e.g. dative masculine eurem. Only the following nouns are declined according to case: Masculine weak nouns gain an -n at the end in cases other than the singular nominative. E.g. der Student, des Studenten. A handful of masculine "mixed" nouns, the most common of, Name, gain an -ns at the end in the singular genitive, e.g. der Name, des Namens, otherwise behave like weak nouns. The genitive case of other nouns of masculine or neuter gender is formed by adding either -s or -es, e.g. das Bild, des Bildes.

Nouns in plural that do not end in -n or -s gain an -n in the dative case. E.g. der Berg, die Berge, den Bergen. Most of these nouns are either masculine or neuter, but there is a group of feminine nouns that are declined in this way too. While this group comprises only a small minority of feminine nouns, it includes some of the most oft-used nouns in the language. E.g. die Hand, die Hände, den Händen. The irregular neuter noun Herz behaves exactly like the masculine "mixed" nouns, except that it is not inflected in the singular accusative and inflection in the singular dative is optional in spoken German, e.g. das Herz, das Herz, dem Herzen or dem Herz, des Herzens. There is a dative singular marking -e associated with strong masculine or neuter nouns, e.g. der Tod and das Bad, but this is regarded as a specific ending in contemporary usage, with the exception of fossilized phrases, such as zum Tode verurteilt, or titles of creative works, e.g. Venus im Bade: In these cases, the omission of the ending would be unusual.

It retains a certain level of productivity in poetry and music where it may be used to help with meter and rhyme, as well as in elevated prose. Genitive case for personal pronouns is considered archaic and is used only in certain archaic expressions like "ich bedarf seiner"; this is not to be confused with possessive adjectives. Note that unlike in English, "er" and "sie" can refer to any masculine or feminine noun, not just persons, while "es" can refer to a person described by a neuter noun: "das Kind, es...". Pre