Hanseaten (class)

The Hanseaten is a collective term for the hierarchy group consisting of elite individuals and families of prestigious rank who constituted the ruling class of the free imperial city of Hamburg, conjointly with the equal First Families of the free imperial cities Bremen and Lübeck. The members of these First Families were the persons in possession of hereditary grand burghership of these cities, including the mayors, the senators, joint diplomats and the senior pastors. Hanseaten refers to the ruling families of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen, but more broadly, this group is referred to as patricians along with similar social groups elsewhere in continental Europe; the three cities since the Congress of Vienna 1815 are each named the "Free and Hanseatic City Hamburg", the "Free Hanseatic City Bremen" and the "Free and Hanseatic City Lübeck", since 1937 the "Hanseatic City Lübeck". Hamburg was one of the oldest stringent civic republics, in which the Hanseatics preserved their constitutional privileges granted in 1189 by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, until the German Revolution of 1918–19 and the Weimar Constitution.

Hamburg was republican, but it was not a democracy, but rather an oligarchy. The Hanseaten were regarded as being of equal rank to the nobility elsewhere in Europe, although the Hanseaten regarded the nobility outside the city republics as inferior to the Hanseaten. Thomas Mann, a member of a Lübeck Hanseatic family, portrayed this class in his Nobel Prize-winning novel Buddenbrooks, for which he received the 1929 Nobel Prize for Literature; the relationship between the Hanseatic and noble families varied depending on the city. The most republican city was Hamburg, where the nobility was banned, from the 13th century to the 19th century, from owning property, participating in the political life of the city republic, from living within its walls. Hamburg, was not a true democracy, but rather an oligarchy, with the Hanseaten as its elite occupying the position held by noble and princely families elsewhere. According to Richard J. Evans, "the wealthy of nineteenth-century Hamburg were for the most part stern republicans, abhorring titles, refusing to accord any deference to the Prussian nobility, determinedly loyal to their urban background and mercantile heritage."

Many grand burghers considered the nobility inferior to Hanseatic families. A marriage between a daughter of a Hanseatic family and a noble was undesired by the Hanseaten. From the late 19th century, being integrated into a German nation state, a number of Hanseatic families were ennobled, but this was met with criticism among their fellow Hanseaten; as the Hanseatic banker Johann von Berenberg-Gossler was ennobled in Prussia in 1889, his sister Susanne, married Amsinck, exclaimed "Aber John, unser guter Name! " Upon hearing of the ennoblement of Rudolph Schröder of the ancient Hanseatic Schröder family, Hamburg First Mayor Johann Heinrich Burchard remarked that the Prussian King could indeed "place" Schröder among the nobles, but he could not "elevate" a Hanseatic merchant. A few prominent families are listed here. Amandus Augustus Abendroth, mayor of Hamburg August Abendroth, lawyer Carl Eduard Abenroth, member of the Hamburg parliament Johann Christoph Albers, merchant representative of Bremen Johann Heinrich Albers, merchant of Bremen/London, art collector Anton Albers der Ältere, merchant of Bremen/Lausanne, painter Rudolf Amsinck, senator of Hamburg Wilhelm Amsinck, mayor of Hamburg Johann Hinrich Gossler, banker Johann Heinrich Gossler and banker Anna Henriette Gossler, married to Ludwig Edwin Seyler Hermann Goßler and First Mayor of Hamburg John von Berenberg-Gossler, Hamburg senator and banker Oskar Goßler, German sculler Gustav Goßler, German sculler Johann Heinrich Burchard, mayor of Hamburg Johannes Leopold Burchard, Hamburg lawyer Wilhelm Amsinck Burchard-Motz, mayor of Hamburg Frédéric de Chapeaurouge, senator of Hamburg Charles Ami de Chapeaurouge, senator of Hamburg Paul de Chapeaurouge, senator of Hamburg Alfred de Chapeaurouge, German politician Hermann von Fehling, German chemist Johann Fehling, Lübeck senator Emil Ferdinand Fehling, mayor of Lübeck, "Dr. Moritz Hagenström" in Buddenbrooks Johann Cesar VI.

Godeffroy, Hamburg merchant Johann Michael Hudtwalcker, Hamburg merchant Martin Hieronymus Hudtwalcker Hamburg senator Nicolaus Hudtwalcker, Hamburg insurance broker Johann Christian Jauch senior, Hamburg merchant and Grand Burgher Auguste Jauch, Hamburg benefactor to the poor Carl Jauch, Grand Burgher, Lord of Wellingsbüttel and cavalry lieutenant in the Hamburg Citizen Militia August Jauch, delegate of the grand burghers to the Hamburg parliament Hans Jauch, German colonel and Freikorps-leader Walter Jauch, founder of Aon Jauch & Hübener Günther Jauch, German television host and producer Heinrich Kellinghusen, Hamburg merchant and first mayor Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann, senat

Cedar Mesa Sandstone

Cedar Mesa Sandstone is a sandstone member of the Cutler Formation, found in southeast Utah, southwest Colorado, northwest New Mexico, northeast Arizona. Cedar Mesa Sandstone is the remains of coastal sand dunes deposited about 245–286 million years ago, during the early Permian period. Coloration varies, but the rock displays a red and white banded appearance as a result of periodic floods which carried iron-rich sediments down from the Uncompahgre Mountains during its formation. Named after topographic Cedar Mesa near the San Juan River in Utah, exposures of Cedar Mesa Sandstone form the spires and canyons found in the Needles and Maze districts of Canyonlands National Park, the inner gorge of White Canyon, the three natural bridges of Natural Bridges National Monument. Geology of the Canyonlands area