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Gaston Bachelard

Gaston Bachelard was a French philosopher. He made contributions in the philosophy of science. To the latter he introduced the concepts of epistemological epistemological break, he influenced many subsequent French philosophers, among them Michel Foucault, Louis Althusser, Dominique Lecourt and Jacques Derrida, as well as the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. For Bachelard the scientific object should be constructed and therefore, different from the positivist sciences, information is in continuous construction. Empiricism and rationalism are not regarded as dualism or opposition but complementary, therefore studies of a priori and a posteriori or in other words reason and are dialectic and are part of scientific research. Bachelard was a postal clerk in Bar-sur-Aube, studied physics and chemistry before becoming interested in philosophy. To obtain his doctorate in 1927, he wrote two theses: the main one, Essai sur la connaissance approchée, under the direction of Abel Rey, the complementary one, Étude sur l'évolution d'un problème de physique: la propagation thermique dans les solides, supervised by Léon Brunschvicg.

He was a professor at the University of Dijon from 1930 to 1940 and was appointed chair in the history and philosophy of science at the University of Paris. In 1958 he became a member of the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. Bachelard's studies of the history and philosophy of science in such works as Le nouvel esprit scientifique and La formation de l'esprit scientifique were based on his vision of historical epistemology as a kind of psychoanalysis of the scientific mind. In the English-speaking world, the connection Bachelard made between psychology and the history of science has been little understood. Bachelard demonstrated how the progress of science could be blocked by certain types of mental patterns, creating the concept of obstacle épistémologique. One task of epistemology is to make clear the mental patterns at use in science, in order to help scientists overcome the obstacles to knowledge. Bachelard was critical of Auguste Comte's positivism, which considered science as a continual progress.

To Bachelard, scientific developments such as Einstein's theory of relativity demonstrated the discontinuous nature of the history of sciences. Thus models that framed scientific development as continuous, such as that of Comte and Émile Meyerson, seemed simplistic and erroneous to Bachelard. Through his concept of "epistemological break", Bachelard underlined the discontinuity at work in the history of sciences; however the term "epistemological break" itself is never used by Bachelard, but became famous through Louis Althusser. He showed that new theories integrated old theories in new paradigms, changing the sense of concepts. Thus, non-Euclidean geometry did not contradict Euclidean geometry, but integrated it into a larger framework. Bachelard was a rationalist in the Cartesian sense, although he recommended his "non-Cartesian epistemology" as a replacement for the more standard Cartesian epistemology, he compared "scientific knowledge" to ordinary knowledge in the way we deal with it, saw error as only illusion: "Scientifically, one thinks truth as the historical rectification of a persistent error, experiments as correctives for an initial, common illusion."The role of epistemology is to show the history of the production of concepts.

This explains why "The electric bulb is an object of scientific thought… an example of an abstract-concrete object." To understand the way it works, one has to take the detour of scientific knowledge. Epistemology is thus not a general philosophy. Instead it produces regional histories of science. Bachelard saw how irrational theories simply represented a drastic shift in scientific perspective. For instance, he claimed that the theory of probabilities was just another way of complexifying reality through a deepening of rationality. One of his main theses in The New Scientific Mind was that modern sciences had replaced the classical ontology of the substance with an "ontology of relations", which could be assimilated to something like a process philosophy. For instance, the physical concepts of matter and rays correspond, according to him, to the metaphysical concepts of the thing and of movement. In non-Cartesian epistemology, there is no "simple substance" as in Cartesianism, but only complex objects built by theories and experiments, continuously improved.

Intuition built. These themes led Bachelard to support a sort of constructivist epistemology. In addition to epistemology, Bachelard's work deals with many other topics, including poetry, dreams and the imagination; the Psychoanalysis of Fire and The Poetics of Space are among the m

Jesus G. Bernal

Jesus Gilberto Bernal is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Bernal received his Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, from Yale University in 1986, he received his Juris Doctor from Stanford Law School in 1989. He served as a law clerk to Judge David Vreeland Kenyon of the United States District Court for the Central District of California from 1989 to 1991, he worked as a litigation associate at the law firm of Heller, White & McAuliffe LLP in Los Angeles from 1991 to 1996, where he focused on complex civil litigation. Since 1996 he has been a Deputy Federal Public Defender in the Central District of California, serving at the Los Angeles office from 1996 to 2006 and serving as a Directing Attorney at the Riverside office since 2006. On April 25, 2012, President Obama nominated Bernal to be a United States District Judge for the United States District Court for the Central District of California, to the seat vacated by Judge Stephen G. Larson.

The Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on his nomination on June 6, 2012 and reported his nomination to the floor on July 12, 2012. The Senate confirmed Bernal in a voice vote on December 11, 2012, he received his judicial commission on December 12, 2012. Jesus G. Bernal at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Jesus Bernal at Ballotpedia

Emirates Crown

Emirates Crown is a 63-floor residential tower in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, developed by Bin Shafar Holding and designed by Design & Architecture Bureau. The tower has a structural height of 296 m. Construction of the Emirates Crown began in 2005, was completed in 2008. Upon completion, it stood as the 6th-tallest building in Dubai, 45th-tallest building in the world. Two to five bedroom apartments can be found in the building, as well as some of the most prominent penthouses in Dubai; the amenities include gymnasium, Jacuzzi, kids club, swimming pool, steam room and private storage. Located right across the street from the Dubai International Marine Club in the Dubai Marina district, it's a common living location for yachting enthusiasts. List of tallest buildings in Dubai List of tallest residential buildings in Dubai List of tallest buildings in the United Arab Emirates Emirates Crown on CTBUH Skyscraper Center Emirates Crown on Emporis.com Emirates Crown on SkyscraperPage.com Emirates Crown on Luxhabitat.ae

Stand Up NY

Stand Up NY is a comedy club located in Manhattan’s Upper West Side on 236 West 78th street. Founded in 1986, the club is one of New York City’s oldest, always featuring diverse lineups of well-known and local comedians. Comedians Chris Rock, Jerry Seinfeld, Jon Stewart began their stand-up careers here. Past performers at Stand-Up New York include: Louis C. K. Susie Essman, Mike Birbiglia, Lewis Black, Judah Friedlander, John Oliver, Jay Oakerson, Hannibal Buress, Dave Attell, Anthony Jeselnik, Aziz Ansari, Amy Schumer. Owned by television writer and producer, now Broadway performer Cary Hoffman, the club was bought as it was struggling financially in 2008 by Dani Zoldan and Gabe Waldman, who both frequented the club as teenagers; the two employed prominent interior designer Steve Lewis for the roomy, 110 seat space, composed of both a bar and showroom. Within ten months of Zoldan and Waldman taking over, revenue had tripled; the club offers shows seven days a week with a showcase format, meaning each of the five to seven comedians performs for 10-20 minutes.

A regular week will consist of two shows Sunday through Thursday, three shows on Friday, four shows on Saturday. Stand Up New York hosts open-mics every weekday and rents out the venue for private events. In February of 2012, comedian Chris Rock made an impromptu appearance at the club, hoping to test out new material before presenting at the Academy Awards. Rock could be overhead consoling comedian Jodie Wasserman, whom Rock had bumped from the line-up, saying, “Sorry about that, but I’m presenting at the Oscars.”Actor Zach Galifianakis once worked as a night manager at Stand Up NY. After learning this in May 2013, club owner Dani Zoldan jokingly tweeted at Galifianakis, asking if the Hangover star would be available to work a shift the following night. Much to Zoldan’s surprise, Galifianakis visited the club alone that night. Although the actor turned down an offer to take the stage, Galifianakis stuck around to watch a show and was seen sitting at the bar. In early 2013, Stand-Up NY started a new venture called Stand Up NY Labs: a place where free comedy podcasts and videos are produced featuring comedians affiliated with Stand-Up NY.

Located directly above the club, the Stand Up NY Labs records podcasts such as "Tuesdays with Stories" with Joe List and Mark Normand, "Charlie Murphy Presents" with Charlie Murphy, "We Know Nothing" with Nikki Glaser, "Race Wars" with Kurt Metzger and Sherrod Small, "My Sexy Podcast" with Sabrina Jalees, "Invasion of Privacy" with Joe Santagato and Kate Wolff. Stand Up NY official site Stand Up NY Labs official site

Ian Armstrong (footballer)

Ian Armstrong is an English former footballer who played as a winger or an attacking midfielder. He played 101 league and cup games for Port Vale between 2002 and 2005, before injury forced his early retirement, at the age of 23, he represented England at under-16 and under-18 levels. After coming through the ranks of the Liverpool academy, he signed for Port Vale in summer 2001, he made his Second Division debut at Vale Park under Brian Horton, in a 4–2 win over Notts County on 11 August 2001. He scored his first goal on 5 October, in a 5–0 win over Cambridge United, he made a total of 34 appearances in his maiden season with scoring five goals. He scored eight goals in 34 games in the 2002–03 campaign, including a brace in a 5–1 over Huddersfield Town on 26 April; however a series of injuries dogged his career from the start reduced his impact in 2003–04, he was limited to 22 appearances. Injuries continued in the 2004–05 season, though he did find the net three times in his eight League One appearances.

His injuries led to his retirement in 2005, at the age of 23, following an unsuccessful trial with Brian Horton at Macclesfield Town

List of political parties in Wales

This list of political parties in Wales includes those that hold seats in the Welsh National Assembly, those that contest seats for the Welsh National Assembly, those that have contested seats in the Welsh National Assembly but have since disbanded. Parties represented in the National Assembly for Wales, UK Parliament and European Parliament: Abolish the Welsh Assembly Party - a single issue party that wants to abolish the Welsh Assembly. Cymru Annibynnol - in favour of Welsh independence. Cymru Rydd - Welsh republican party. Cymru Sovereign - a party that seeks both Welsh independence and Wales being outside the European Union. Heath and Birchgrove Independents - county councillor elected in Heath, Cardiff Gwlad Gwlad - a centre-right, Welsh independence party launched on 28 August 2018, as Ein Gwlad. Plaid Rhyddfrydol yng Nghymru - Liberal Party in Wales. Llais Gwynedd - Gwynedd Regionalist party. Llantwit First Independents - standing in Llantwit Major. Governed the Vale of Glamorgan Council in coalition with Labour from 2012 to 2017.

Newport Independents Party, formed in 2017. Pirate Party UK Socialist Party Wales The Cynon Valley Party Wales Green Party Welsh Christian Party Women's Equality Party Balchder Cymru - amalgamated into Mudiad Rhyddhad Cymru and reformed as a political pressure group in 2006. Blaenau Gwent People's Voice Group - party set-up in Blaenau Gwent, its leader, Dai Davies, announced the party would be disbanded. Communist Party of South Wales and the West of England - disbanded in the 1920s. Cymru Goch - evolved into Forward Wales. Forward Wales - Disbanded in 2010. John Marek Independent Party -, evolved into Forward Wales. Putting Llanelli First - registered 2011, deregistered 2016. Respect-The Unity Coalition - Dissolved in 2016. South Wales Socialist Society - amalgamated with the Communist Party of Great Britain in the 1920s. Welsh Republican Movement - most members either returned to Plaid Cymru or joined the Labour Party. Welsh Socialist Alliance - inactive. Welsh Socialist Republican Movement - defunct - its successor was Cymru Goch.

Elections in Wales Politics of Wales Electoral Commission Political make-up of local councils in Wales