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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, the ultimate purpose of science; this discipline overlaps with metaphysics and epistemology, for example, when it explores the relationship between science and truth. Philosophy of science focuses on metaphysical and semantic aspects of science. Ethical issues such as bioethics and scientific misconduct are considered ethics or science studies rather than philosophy of science. There is no consensus among philosophers about many of the central problems concerned with the philosophy of science, including whether science can reveal the truth about unobservable things and whether scientific reasoning can be justified at all. In addition to these general questions about science as a whole, philosophers of science consider problems that apply to particular sciences; some philosophers of science use contemporary results in science to reach conclusions about philosophy itself.

While philosophical thought pertaining to science dates back at least to the time of Aristotle, philosophy of science emerged as a distinct discipline only in the 20th century in the wake of the logical positivist movement, which aimed to formulate criteria for ensuring all philosophical statements' meaningfulness and objectively assessing them. Charles Sanders Peirce and Karl Popper moved on from positivism to establish a modern set of standards for scientific methodology. Thomas Kuhn's 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was formative, challenging the view of scientific progress as steady, cumulative acquisition of knowledge based on a fixed method of systematic experimentation and instead arguing that any progress is relative to a "paradigm," the set of questions and practices that define a scientific discipline in a particular historical period. Subsequently, the coherentist approach to science, in which a theory is validated if it makes sense of observations as part of a coherent whole, became prominent due to W.

V. Quine and others; some thinkers such as Stephen Jay Gould seek to ground science in axiomatic assumptions, such as the uniformity of nature. A vocal minority of philosophers, Paul Feyerabend in particular, argue that there is no such thing as the "scientific method", so all approaches to science should be allowed, including explicitly supernatural ones. Another approach to thinking about science involves studying how knowledge is created from a sociological perspective, an approach represented by scholars like David Bloor and Barry Barnes. A tradition in continental philosophy approaches science from the perspective of a rigorous analysis of human experience. Philosophies of the particular sciences range from questions about the nature of time raised by Einstein's general relativity, to the implications of economics for public policy. A central theme is whether one scientific discipline can be reduced to the terms of another; that is, can chemistry be reduced to physics, or can sociology be reduced to individual psychology?

The general questions of philosophy of science arise with greater specificity in some particular sciences. For instance, the question of the validity of scientific reasoning is seen in a different guise in the foundations of statistics; the question of what counts as science and what should be excluded arises as a life-or-death matter in the philosophy of medicine. Additionally, the philosophies of biology, of psychology, of the social sciences explore whether the scientific studies of human nature can achieve objectivity or are shaped by values and by social relations. Distinguishing between science and non-science is referred to as the demarcation problem. For example, should psychoanalysis be considered science? How about creation science, the inflationary multiverse hypothesis, or macroeconomics? Karl Popper called this the central question in the philosophy of science. However, no unified account of the problem has won acceptance among philosophers, some regard the problem as unsolvable or uninteresting.

Martin Gardner has argued for the use of a Potter Stewart standard for recognizing pseudoscience. Early attempts by the logical positivists grounded science in observation while non-science was non-observational and hence meaningless. Popper argued that the central property of science is falsifiability; that is, every genuinely scientific claim is capable of being proven false, at least in principle. An area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science. Physicist Richard Feynman coined the term "cargo cult science" for cases in which researchers believe they are doing science because their activities have the outward appearance of it but lack the "kind of utter honesty" that allows their results to be rigorously evaluated. A related question is what counts as a good scientific explanation. In addition to providing predictions about future events, society takes scientific theories to provide explanations for events that occur or have occurred.

Philosophers have investigated the criteria by which a scientific theory can be said to have explained a phenomenon, as well as what it means to say a scientific theory has explanatory power. One early and influential theory of scientific explanation is the deductive-nomological model, it says that a successful scientific explanation must deduce the occurrence of the phenomena in question from a scientific law. This view has been subjected to substanti

Nine Men's Misery

Nine Men's Misery is a site in current day Cumberland, Rhode Island, where nine colonists were tortured by the Narragansett Indian tribe during King Philip's War. A stone memorial was constructed in 1676, believed to be the oldest veterans memorial in the United States. On March 26, 1676, during King Philip's War, Captain Michael Pierce led 60 Plymouth Colony troops and 20 Wampanoag Indians in pursuit of Narragansetts who had burned several Rhode Island towns and attacked Plymouth. Pierce's troops caught up with the Narragansett, Nashaway and Podunk fighters, but were ambushed in what is now Central Falls, Rhode Island. Pierce's troops were surrounded by a larger force; the battle was one of the biggest defeats of colonial troops during King Philip's War, with nearly all killed, including Captain Pierce and the Wampanoags. The Narragansetts lost only a handful of warriors. Nine of the colonists who were among the dead were first taken prisoner, along with a tenth man who survived; these men were tortured to death by the Narragansetts at a site in Cumberland, Rhode Island on the Cumberland Monastery and Library property.

The nine dead colonists were buried by English soldiers who found the corpses and created a pile of stones to memorialize the men. This pile is believed to be the oldest veterans' memorial in the United States, a cairn of stones has continuously marked the site since 1676; the "Nine Men's Misery" site was disturbed in 1790 by medical students led by one Dr. Bowen looking for the body of one of the dead colonists named Benjamin Bucklin, said to be unusually large with a double row of teeth, they were stopped by outraged locals. The site was desecrated several more times until 1928, when the monks who owned the cemetery built a cemented stone cairn; the cairn and site can still be visited on the monastery grounds. Pierce's Fight was followed by the burning of Providence three days and the capture and execution of Canonchet, the chief sachem of the Narragansetts; the war was winding down at the time that Pierce's party was destroyed, King Philip himself was killed in August. Bicknell, T.. Addresses and poem in commemoration of the Captain Michael Pierce fight, March 26, 1676.

Helligso. Burge, Kathleen, "A Haunting Attraction in R. I." Boston Globe, December 5, 2007. Lepore, J.. The Name of War: King Philip's War and the Origins of American Identity. Vintage. Schultz, E. & Touglas, M.. King Philip's War: History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict. Countryman Press. Roll of Pierce's Company at Find a Grave Nine Men's Misery Marker, Joseph Bucklin Society, accessdate 17 February 2013 Franko, Nine Men's Misery Part 2 Historical Research, 2003, Joseph Bucklin Society, accessdate 17 February 2013

Parker Place

Parker Place is a 61,000 sq ft shopping mall in Richmond, British Columbia. It is located on No. 3 Road, in Richmond's Golden Village, the main Asian district. It serves the Asian Canadian population of Richmond, it contains about 150 stores. Its Chinese name translates to "Hundred Stores". Most of its stores are mid-sized and there are no real dominant tenants. Parker Place was one of the filming locations in the CBC Television miniseries Dragon Boys. Chinese Canadians in British Columbia Aberdeen Centre Richmond Centre Golden Village Parker Place official site

American Welding Society

The American Welding Society was founded in 1919 as a non-profit organization to advance the science and application of welding and allied joining and cutting processes, including brazing and thermal spraying. Headquartered in Miami and led by a volunteer organization of officers and directors, AWS serves over 73,000 members worldwide and is composed of 22 Districts with 250 Sections and student chapters; the roots of the American Welding Society stretch back to World War I, when the sudden demands of swiftly producing military equipment brought about the need for standardization of the manufacturing industry. An evolving metal joining process, welding became necessary to enhance the war effort. To ensure that industry took advantage of this technology, President Woodrow Wilson called upon a Harvard professor, Comfort A. Adams, to chair the Welding Committee of the Emergency Fleet Corp. Welding performed well in the war effort and its success motivated Adams in 1919 to bring together industry leaders for the purpose of merging the Welding Committee of the Emergency Fleet Corp. and the National Welding Council into a new organization, the purpose of, to provide dependable and objective information on the developing technology of welding.

On March 28, 1919, the American Welding Society was born for that purpose, with Adams serving as its first President. That first year the Society grew to 217 members. In 1920, the first local Section was organized in Pennsylvania. By 1922, the American Welding Society had held its first Annual Meeting. Attendees were told of the formation of Sections in eight cities, of the establishment of the Journal of the American Welding Society. However, the first meeting called into discussion the growing financial issues surrounding the depression and proposed solutions to alleviate it. Financial reports delivered at the meeting stated an income for fiscal year ending March 31, 1922, of $12,683.74. The budget for fiscal year 1922-23 was projected at $15,540, it was clear more earnings were needed, so the Society turned to increasing membership numbers of advertising in the Journal as a solution. The American Welding Society's first headquarters were located in New York City, inside the Engineering Societies Building.

For 42 years the organization held all their business in this building, before making the move to the United Engineering Center, in New York City. In 1971 the Society once again moved their headquarters - this time to Florida; the American Welding Society held this location for 30 years before buying its current property in Doral, Florida - only seven miles northwest of the old facility. In August 2012 the American Welding Society moved from their longtime headquarters just outside Coral Cables to their current location in Doral. During the grand opening of the new building, AWS President William Rice said "Our newly renovated five-story building in Doral offers us what we need, it gives us more than three times the office and meeting space of our previous headquarters, it provides room for our board and educational activities.”The lobby of the headquarters features a bronze sculpture created by sculptor Gregory Johnson and donated to the American Welding Society by President Rice and his wife Cherry.

The publication known as the Welding Journal was born in October 1919 with a different name. The Journal of the American Welding Society was its original title - and it had just one issue under this name. In the first publication, American Welding Society President Comfort A. Adams wrote, "The American Bureau of Welding is the authoritative body to establish the facts. To make the most use of the facts, requires another sort of machinery and the organization that does this is the American Welding Society, its function is not to supply the knowledge but to spread it and assist in putting it to practical uses. It is the Society, for instance, which publishes this Journal, which will push matters of importance to welding and which will open out new fields for its use, it holds regular meetings to discuss matters relating to welding, to act upon the recommendation of the Bureau and to initiate further activities. This division of the work, while it has created some confusion on account of the similarity of the names, is a logical one, will be found effective in operating as was indicated by the experience with the old Welding Committee."Operating costs were too high for the Journal, it was not until 1922 that the publication was reborn under its current name thanks to advertising earnings.

The Society explained the advertising move in their first issue of the newly named Welding Journal. "Advertising is included in this issue, as it was impossible to continue monthly publication without increased revenue. The dues from members of which the National Organization retains half is sufficient to pay the ordinary expenses of the Society. Moreover, several members of the Board of Directors feel that these advertisements are of interest to our members and add to the value of the Journal."Since the move to advertising, the Welding Journal has been published continually and continues to be an resource for issues and advancements concerning all types of materials joining, metal fabrication, construction. It is offered as a benefit to members of the Society, includes information o

Portugal national under-20 football team

The Portugal national under-20 football team is the national under-20 football team of Portugal and is controlled by the Portuguese Football Federation, the governing body for football in Portugal. The U20 team acts as a feeder team for the under-21s and provides further international development for youth players; the team qualified for FIFA U-20 World Cup, depends on U19 results. The Portuguese team has 12 participations in the FIFA U-20 World Cup and 12 in the Toulon Tournament; the Golden Generation was the Generation of the players that won consecutive FIFA Youth Championships in 1989 and 1991. The Courage Generation was the Generation of players, runner up in the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup. *Denotes draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. ** Gold background colour indicates. *** Red border color indicates. * Portugal participated in the 1975, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1993, 2009 tournaments but with the u-21 squad instead of the u-20 squad. FIFA U-20 World Cup Winner: 1989, 1991 Runner-up: 2011 Third place: 1995 Toulon Tournament Winner: 2001, 2003 Runner-up: 1997, 2000, 2005 Third place: 1996, 1998, 2006 Torneio Internacional da Madeira Winner: 1997, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008 Runner-up: 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006 Torneio Campos Verdes Winner: 2007, 2008 Copa El Presidente de La Republica - Ricardo Martinelli Third place: 2011 SBS Cup International Youth Soccer Runner-up: 2012 FIFA U-20 World Cup Toulon Tournament The provisional squad for the 2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup was announced on 10 May 2019.

FIFA U-20 World Cup 1979 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 1989 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 1991 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 1993 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 1995 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 1999 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 2015 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - Portugal 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup squads - PortugalToulon Tournament 2007 Toulon Tournament squads - Portugal 2011 Toulon Tournament squads - Portugal Template:No criteria As of 15 November 2012

M├ętamorphose (renamer)

Métamorphose or Métamorphose file -n- folder renamer is an open source batch renamer. The focus is on legibility and power - there are no codes or formats to remember and all controls are shown, yet rather complicated operations can be done; because it is written in wxPython, it is portable, can run on all major operating systems. Renames folders simultaneously. Recursive selection - loads files in directory and in subdirectories. Undo an operation. Wide use of regular expressions: when selecting items, for search/replace, etc.. Reading of metadata such as ID3 and Exif tags, or creation/modification/last access time. Change length of names. Change case in various ways. Add counting sequences: numerical and Roman numeral. Extensive multilingual and platform support. From the beginning, Métamorphose was conceived to be as usable as possible; as a result of this, there has been extensive testing and adjustments done to ensure all portions of the application are displayed and function properly across different platforms.

Here are the tested and supported operating systems: MS Windows, versions: 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 2003, 2008 and 2008R2 servers. Linux and FreeBSD: using GNOME, KDE, Fluxbox. Mac OS XLikewise, language choice has been important since inception; the GNU gettext system is used, allowing for easy translation of the application, a custom help section loader will show localised help files if they are available. There is support for properly displaying right to left languages. Here are the available languages: Interface and all help files: US English, Italian Interface, some help files: Brazilian Portuguese, Hungarian, Polish, Turkish Interface only: Arabic, Dutch, Russian, Swedish With the first version now completed, work for the next stage of the project has begun. More the focus is on fixing the following shortcomings of the current version: User has no control of order of operations. Only one operation type per rename. Main interface can be confusing to a new user. No way to make 3rd party add-on modules.

Adding more user-requested features. Métamorphose on Github project page review Video tutorial on YouTube