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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract called a gut or an alimentary canal; this is a tube. In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces; some small bilaterians have no dispose of solid wastes by other means. The human gastrointestinal tract consists of the esophagus and intestines, is divided into the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts; the GI tract includes all structures between the mouth and the anus, forming a continuous passageway that includes the main organs of digestion, the stomach, small intestine, large intestine.

However, the complete human digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion. The tract may be divided into foregut and hindgut, reflecting the embryological origin of each segment; the whole human GI tract is about nine metres long at autopsy. It is shorter in the living body because the intestines, which are tubes of smooth muscle tissue, maintain constant muscle tone in a halfway-tense state but can relax in spots to allow for local distention and peristalsis; the gastrointestinal tract contains trillions of microbes, with some 4,000 different strains of bacteria having diverse roles in maintenance of immune health and metabolism. Cells of the GI tract release hormones to help regulate the digestive process; these digestive hormones, including gastrin, secretin and ghrelin, are mediated through either intracrine or autocrine mechanisms, indicating that the cells releasing these hormones are conserved structures throughout evolution. The structure and function can be described both as gross anatomy and as microscopic anatomy or histology.

The tract itself is divided into upper and lower tracts, the intestines small and large parts. The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth, esophagus and duodenum; the exact demarcation between the upper and lower tracts is the suspensory muscle of the duodenum. This differentiates the embryonic borders between the foregut and midgut, is the division used by clinicians to describe gastrointestinal bleeding as being of either "upper" or "lower" origin. Upon dissection, the duodenum may appear to be a unified organ, but it is divided into four segments based upon function and internal anatomy; the four segments of the duodenum are as follows: bulb, descending and ascending. The suspensory muscle attaches the superior border of the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm; the suspensory muscle is an important anatomical landmark which shows the formal division between the duodenum and the jejunum, the first and second parts of the small intestine, respectively. This is a thin muscle, derived from the embryonic mesoderm.

The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine. In human anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, as in other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the, ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon and anal canal; the small intestine begins at the duodenum and is a tubular structure between 6 and 7 m long. Its mucosal area in an adult human is about 30 m2, its main function is to absorb the products of digestion into the bloodstream. There are three major divisions: Duodenum: A short structure which receives chyme from the stomach, together with pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes and bile from the gall bladder; the digestive enzymes break down proteins, bile emulsifies fats into micelles.

The duodenum contains Brunner's glands which produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. These secretions, in combination with bicarbonate from the pancreas, neutralize the stomach acids contained in the chyme. Jejunum: This is the midsection of the small intestine, it is about 2.5 m long, contains the circular folds known as plicae circulares, villi that increase its surface area. Products of digestion are absorbed into the bloodstream here. Ileum: The final section of the small intestine, it is about 3 m long, contains villi similar to the jejunum. It absorbs vitamin B12 and bile acids, as well as any other remaining nutrients; the large intestine called the colon, consists of the cecum and anal canal. It includes the appendix, attached to the cecum; the colon is further divided into: Cecum and appendix Ascending colon Right colic flexure (flexed portion of the ascending and transverse colon apparent to the

Elizabeth Scarlett

Elizabeth A. Scarlett is an American academic and author, she is a Spanish professor in the Department of Romance Languages & Literatures at the University at Buffalo of the State University of New York. She completed her undergraduate degree in Comparative Literature at Washington University in St. Louis, her graduate degrees at Harvard University, she was a Fulbright Foreign Language Teaching Assistant in 1983-84 in Carcassonne and was an exchange student in 1988-89 at the University of Seville, Spain. Her first book, Under Construction: The Body in Spanish Novels was selected for the 1995 Outstanding Academic Books List by Choice magazine, her second sole-authored book is Religion and Spanish Film: Luis Buñuel, the Franco Era, Contemporary Directors. She co-edited the collection Convergencias Hispánicas: Selected Proceedings and Other Essays on Spanish and Latin American Literature and Linguistics, she has published various articles in refereed journals and peer-edited volumes in North America and in Europe.

Her literary criticism is based on narrative feminism. Her work on film "combines auteurist study with genre analysis" and accentuates the persistence of Catholic imagery and themes in Spanish cinema. Faculty Profile, University at Buffalo Department of Romance Languages & Literatures

Roads Committee

In Jersey, the Roads Committee is the highway authority for Parish roads in each Parish. In accordance with the Loi sur la Voirie it superintends the repair and maintenance of by-roads in the Parish, establishes boundary stones, issues Choses Publiques licenses, examines planning applications that fall within its responsibilities, supervises refuse collection, adjudicates fines during the Visite du Branchage, proposes new road names, as may be necessary, for approval by the Parish Assembly; the Connétable presides over the Roads Committee which includes the Rector and three Principals of the Parish elected for a term of three years by the Parish Assembly. Instructions are passed to Roads Inspectors whose duty it is to ensure that the repairs are carried out. In St. Helier, the larger Roads Committee undertakes additional non-statutory responsibilities with regard to parks and other matters, acts, in the absence of a municipal council, as an advisory body to the Connétable. By convention, the two Procureurs du Bien Public of St. Helier attend meetings of the Roads Committee, but cannot vote

Milk Marketing Board

The Milk Marketing Board was a producer run product marketing board, established by the Agricultural Marketing Act 1933, to control milk production and distribution in the United Kingdom. It functioned as buyer of last resort in the milk market in Britain, thereby guaranteeing a minimum price for milk producers, it participated in the development of milk products, introducing Lymeswold cheese. From the 1950s onwards, there were several memorable advertising campaigns by the Milk Marketing Board. Slogans included "full of natural goodness", "is your man getting enough?", "milk's gotta lotta bottle", "drinka pinta milka day" designed by the advertising agency Ogilvy. In the 1980s, they ran the advert "Accrington Stanley, Who Are They?". The campaigns were on ITV television, but were printed on the returnable milk bottles delivered by milkmen; the Milk Marketing Board sponsored the Milk Race Tour of Britain cycle race from 1958 to 1993, at thirty five years, making it the longest cycle sponsorship in the United Kingdom.

The Milk Marketing Board sponsored the Football League Cup from 1981 to 1986, renaming it the Milk Cup. The board's responsibilities ended, save for residual functions, in April 1994, with deregulation of the milk market in Britain following the Agriculture Act 1993, its former processing division, Dairy Crest, remains in existence as a subsidiary of the Canadian firm Saputo Inc. The Milk Marketing Board was dissolved in January 2002; the Scottish Milk Marketing Board was dissolved in December 2003. The British Milk Council acts as the official successor; the MMB was mentioned in the 1970 Monty Python's Flying Circus episode "It's A Living" in the "Dung" sketch where for every 2 pints of milk purchased, they would get the M4 motorway in the UK

Hili Archaeological Park

Hili Archaeological Park is the location of a Bronze Age site in Al Ain, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates. Hili is the largest Bronze Age site in the UAE and dates from the 3rd millennium BCE. Other remains include settlements, a falaj dating from the Iron Age; some of the site is located outside the park in a protected area. Finds from the site can be seen in the Al Ain National Museum in central Al Ain; the Hili Grand Tomb is a tower measuring 12 m in diameter, reconstructed. The tombs belong to the Umm al-Nar culture. In May 2019, the Abu Dhabi Department of Culture & Tourism reported that fingerprints about 3000 years old were found at Hili II, they belonged to craftsmen who constructed a wall at the site. Al Ain Oasis Tawam Al-Buraimi Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn Hafit period Ibri List of Ancient Settlements in the UAE Qattara Oasis Rumailah, UAE

Hank Williams First Nation

Hank Williams First Nation is a 2004 film directed by Aaron James Sorensen. It is Sorensen's first feature film; the film stars Gordon Tootoosis, Jimmy Herman, Stacy Da Silva, Bernard Starlight, Colin VanLoon. The film follows the story of a seventy-five-year-old Cree tribesman named Martin Fox, reading too many tabloids, begins to believe that Elvis Presley and Princess Diana are still alive after their alleged deaths. From this he begins to wonder. Before Fox's death, joined by his younger brother and teenage nephew, he commits to making a Greyhound bus trip to Nashville, Tennessee to find out more about the country music legend and if he is deceased or still living. Williams is buried in Montgomery, Alabama. Fenando F. Croce called the film a "big-heart slice-of-life" with a unique trajectory and environment. Premiering in competition at the American Film Institute's AFIfest in 2004, the film went on to win several awards at US festivals. Hank Williams First Nation was the 3rd highest grossing Canadian film at the Canadian box office in 2005.

In 2006, the film was adapted into a 6-episode TV series for Canadian broadcaster APTN. It was shot in Peace River and Utah; the film was released in Canada in February 2005. Official website Hank Williams First Nation on IMDb