Lieutenant-Colonel John By was an English military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and founding Bytown in the process, which would become the Canadian capital, Ottawa. By was born in Lambeth, the second of three sons of George By, of the London Customs House, Mary Bryan. By studied at the Royal Military Academy, he entered Officer Training in the army. He was commissioned in the Royal Artillery on 1 August 1799 but transferred to the Royal Engineers on 20 December the same year. In 1802 he was posted to Canada for the first time, where he worked on the fortification of Quebec City and on improving the navigability of the Saint Lawrence River. During the Napoleonic wars he returned to Europe, where he served in Spain under the Duke of Wellington from 1811 until 1815. With the end of the war By retired from the military, but in 1826 in view of his engineering experience in Canada, he was recalled and returned to Canada to supervise the construction of the Rideau Canal.
Since the canal was to begin in the wild and sparsely populated Ottawa River valley, his first task was the construction of a town to house the men who were to work on the canal, associated services. The resulting settlement, called Bytown in his honour, was renamed after the river; the canal was completed in six years, was acclaimed as an engineering triumph. The huge cost overruns, became a political scandal for the Board of Ordnance. Colonel By was recalled to London to face accusations that he had made a number of unauthorised expenditures; the charges were spurious and a parliamentary committee exonerated him. By petitioned Wellington and other military leaders to review his case, but the damage was done and he never received a formal commendation for his work on the canal, he died in 1836, is buried in the village of Frant in Sussex. By was married three times, first to Elizabeth Baines in 1801, who died in 1814, he remarried in 1818 to Esther March with whom he had two daughters: Harriet Martha By and Esther By Ashburnham.
By was survived by 2 brothers: The family is buried at St Albans Church in Frant. George By – died in 1840 without children Henry By – b. approx. 1789 and died in 1852 and predeceased by his son in 1847 John By's name lives on in a number of contexts: The Byward Market area of Ottawa's Lower Town His statue, executed by Joseph-Émile Brunet and unveiled in 1971, stands in nearby Major's Hill Park Ottawa's Colonel By Secondary School The scenic parkway of Colonel By Drive, which follows the first stretch of the canal 8 km through the city from Rideau street in Lower Town to the falls at Hogs Back The engineering building, Col. By Hall, was unveiled in September 2005 at the University of Ottawa: "Colonel By Hall 161 Louis Pasteur – Colonel By Hall, home to the Faculty of Engineering, is named in honour of Lieutenant-Colonel John By of the Royal Engineers, who led the construction of the Rideau Canal. Completed in 1832, the Rideau Canal was a remarkable engineering endeavour at the time, connecting a series of lakes and rivers to provide a secure supply route from Lake Ontario to Bytown, which became the city of Ottawa 150 years ago.
September 2005"In 1979, to commemorate the bicentenary of his birth, Canada Post issued a stamp bearing his image In Ottawa, Colonel By Day is the name given to the Ontario August civic holiday Colonel By Lake is an artificial lake on the Rideau Canal A sundial behind the present-day site of East Block on Parliament Hill and overlooking the set of locks was used on that site by the Royal Sappers and Miners under Lt Colonel John By, RE in 1826–27 and was restored in 1919. During the construction of the Rideau Canal, Barracks Hill was the site of the military barracks and military hospital. A historical plaque located on the grounds of Colonel By Secondary School states, "Colonel John By was born and educated in England and first came to Canada in 1802; as a member of the Royal Engineers, he worked on the first small locks on the St. Lawrence River as well as the fortifications of Quebec, he returned to England in 1811 and fought in the Peninsular War, but came back to Canada in 1826 to spend five summers heading the construction of the Rideau Canal, the 200 km long waterway, which now connects Ottawa and Kingston.
This formidable task included the building of about 50 dams and 47 locks, without the aid of modern equipment. But the amazing feat was never recognized in Colonel By's own lifetime, he died three years after its completion, never imagining that many thousands of Canadians would admire and value his achievement in the centuries to come. Colonel By's attributes of courage and diligence inspire us to emulate him, in the hopes that we too may somehow serve our country in a way which will benefit future generations."A plaque was erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board at Jones Falls Lockstation commemorating Lieutenant Colonel John By, Royal Engineers, the superintending engineer in charge of the construction of the Rideau Canal. The plaque notes that the 123-mile long Rideau Canal, built as a military route and incorporating 47 locks, 16 lakes, two rivers, a 350-foot-long, 60-foot-high dam at Jones Falls, was completed in 1832. A plaque erected by the Province of Ontario sits in the stairwell of Lambeth Town Hall, in Brixton, England, commemorating By's Lambeth origins.
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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the cultural hub of the Mauricie region; the settlement was founded by French colonists on July 4, 1634, as the second permanent settlement in New France, after Quebec City in 1608. The city's name, French for three rivers, is named for the fact the Saint-Maurice River has three mouths at the Saint Lawrence River. In the English language this city was known as Three Rivers. Since the late 20th century, when there has been more recognition of Quebec and French speakers, French was made an official language, the city is referred to as Trois-Rivières in both English and French; the anglicized name still appears in many areas of the town, bearing witness to the influence of English settlers in the town.
The city's inhabitants are known as Trifluviens. Trois-Rivières is the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Trois-Rivières, its geographical code is 371. Together with the regional county municipality of Les Chenaux, it forms the census division of Francheville; the municipalities within Les Chenaux and the former municipalities that were amalgamated into Trois-Rivières constituted the regional county municipality of Francheville. Trois-Rivières is the seat of the judicial district of the same name; the Trois-Rivières metropolitan area includes the city of Bécancour, situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River across the Laviolette Bridge; the name of Trois-Rivières, which dates from the end of the 16th century, was used by French explorers in reference to the three channels in the Saint-Maurice River formed at its mouth with the Saint Lawrence, as it is divided by two islands and Saint-Quentin island. The city occupies a location known to the French since 1535, when Jacques Cartier, in a trip along the St. Lawrence, stopped to plant a cross on Saint-Quentin island.
But the Three Rivers name is used for the first time in 1599 by Sieur François Gravé Du Pont, a geographer under Champlain, whose records confirmed the name in 1603. As Sieur Gravé Du Pont sailed upriver toward Montreal, he saw what appeared to be three separate tributaries, he did not know two large islands divide the course of the Saint-Maurice River in three parts where the latter flows into the St. Lawrence River. For thousands of years, the area that would become known as Trois-Rivières was frequented by Indigenous peoples; the historic Algonquin and Abenaki peoples used it as a summer stopping place. They would fish and hunt here, as well as gather nuts; the area was rich in resources. The French explorer Jacques Cartier described the site while on his second journey to the New World in 1535; the name "Trois-Rivières", was not given until 1599, by Captain Dupont-Gravé, first appeared on maps of the area dated 1601. In 1603, while surveying the Saint-Lawrence River, Samuel de Champlain recommended establishing a permanent settlement in the area.
Such a village was started on July 1634, by the Sieur de Laviolette. Additional inhabitants of the early city of Trois-Rivières include: Quentin Moral, Sieur de St. Quentin; the city was the second to be founded in New France. Given its strategic location, it played an important role in the colony and in the fur trade with First Nations peoples; the settlement became the seat of a regional government in 1665. Ursuline nuns first arrived at the settlement in 1697, where they founded the first school and helped local missionaries to Christianize the local Aboriginals and developing class of Métis. French sovereignty in Trois-Rivières continued until 1760, when the city was captured as part of the British conquest of Canada during the Seven Years' War. Sixteen years on June 8, 1776, it was the theatre of the Battle of Trois-Rivières during the American Revolutionary War. Trois-Rivières continued to grow in importance throughout this period and beyond. In 1792 it was designated as the seat of a judicial district.
In 1852, the Roman Catholic church made. In 1816, Captain A. G. Douglas, a former adjutant at the British military college at Great Marlow, recommended a military college for Catholic and Protestant boys be established at Trois-Rivières, he proposed it operate in a disused government house and he would be superintendent. Douglas' college was intended as a boarding school to educate the young sons of officers, amongst others, in Latin, English language, French Language, Geography and Mathematics; this preceded the founding of the Royal Military College of Canada in 1876. In 1908, the greater part of the city of Trois-Rivières was destroyed by a fire. Among the surviving buildings were the Ursuline Monastery and the De Tonnancour Manor; as a result of the destruction, a major redesign and renovation of the city was undertaken, including the widening and renewal
Anishinaabe is the autonym for a group of culturally related indigenous peoples in what is known today as Canada and the United States. These include the Odawa, Ojibwe, Oji-Cree, Algonquin peoples; the Anishinaabeg speak Anishinaabemowin, or Anishinaabe languages that belong to the Algonquian language family. They lived in the Northeast Woodlands and Subarctic; the word Anishinaabeg translates to "people from whence lowered." Another definition refers to "the good humans," meaning those who are on the right road or path given to them by the Creator Gitche Manitou, or Great Spirit. Basil Johnston, an Ojibwe historian and author, wrote that the term's literal translation is "Beings Made Out of Nothing" or "Spontaneous Beings." Anishinaabe myths claim. Anishinaabe is mistakenly considered a synonym of Ojibwe. Anishinaabe has many different spellings. Different spelling systems may spell certain consonants differently; the name Anishinaabe is shortened to Nishnaabe by Odawa people. The cognate Neshnabé comes from the Potawatomi, a people long allied with the Odawa and Ojibwe in the Council of Three Fires.
The Nipissing and Algonquin are identified as Anishinaabe, but are not part of the Council of Three Fires. Related to the Ojibwe and speaking a language mutually intelligible with Anishinaabemowin are the Oji-Cree, their most common autonym is Anishinini and they call their language Anishininiimowin. Among the Anishinaabeg, the Ojibwe collectively call the Nipissings and the Algonquins Odishkwaagamii, while those among the Nipissings who identify themselves as Algonquins call the Algonquins proper Omàmiwinini. Not all Anishinaabemowin-speakers call themselves Anishinaabeg; the Ojibwe people who moved to what are now the prairie provinces of Canada call themselves Nakawē and call their branch of the Anishinaabe language Nakawēmowin.. Particular Anishinaabeg groups have different names from region to region. According to Anishinabe tradition, from records of wiigwaasabak, the people migrated from the eastern areas of North America, from along the East Coast. In old stories, the homeland was called Turtle Island.
This comes from the idea that the universe, the Earth, or the continent of North America are all sometimes understood as being the back of a great turtle, a mysterious natural consciousness. The Anishinaabe oral history considers the Anishinaabe peoples as descendents of the Abenaki people and refers to them as the "Fathers". Another Anishinaabe oral history considers the Abenaki as descendents of the Lenape, thus refers to them as "Grandfathers". However, Cree oral traditions consider the Anishinaabe as their descendants, not the Abenakis. A number of complementary origin concepts exist within the oral traditions of the Anishinaabe. According to the oral history, seven great miigis appeared to the Anishinaabe peoples in the Waabanakiing to teach the people about the midewiwin life-style. One great miigis was too spiritually powerful and would kill people in the Waabanakiing whenever they were in its presence; this being returned to the depths of the ocean, leaving the six great miigis to teach the people.
The Anishinaabe are one of the First Nations in Canada. Each of the six miigis established separate doodem for the people. Of these doodem, five clan systems appeared: Awaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonii. A sixth was added. Waabizheshi. After founding the doodem, the six miigis returned to the depths of the ocean as well; some oral histories surmise that if the seventh miigis had stayed, it would have established the Animikii Thunderbird doodem. The powerful miigis returned in a vision relating a prophecy to the people, it said that the Anishinaabeg needed to move west to keep their traditional ways alive, because of the many new settlements and people not of Anishinaabe blood who would soon arrive. The migration path of the Anishinaabe peoples would become a series of smaller Turtle Islands, confirmed by the miigis shells. After receiving assurance from their "Allied Brothers" and "Father" of their safety in crossing other tribal territory, the Anishinaabeg moved inland, they advanced along the St. Lawrence River to the Ottawa River and through to Lake Nipissing, to the Great Lakes.
The first of these smaller Turtle Islands was Mooniyaa. Here the Anishinaabeg divided into two groups: one that travelled up and settled along the Ottawa River, the core group who proceeded to the "second stopping place" near Niagara Falls. By the time the Anishinaabeg established their "third stopping place" near the present city of Detroit, the Anishinaabeg had divided into six distinct nations: Algonquin, Missisauga, Ojibwa and Potawatomi. While the Odawa established their long-held cultural centre on Manitoulin Island, the Ojibwe established their centre in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario, Canada. With expansion of trade with the French and the British, fostered by avai
Philemon Wright was a farmer and entrepreneur who founded what he named Columbia Falls Village known as Wright's Town and Wright's Village to others, the first permanent settlement in the National Capital Region of Canada. Wright's Town became incorporated in 1875 and renamed Hull, in 2002, as a result of a municipal amalgamation, it acquired its present name of the City of Gatineau. Wright was born in Woburn, Massachusetts into the family of Thomas Wright and Elizabeth Chandler, a large and prosperous Woburn family, among the town’s founders, 120 years before. Philemon Wright was raised as a farmer. At the young age of 16, he was thrust into service for two years with the rebel forces in the first years of the American Revolution, leaving service as a sergeant, he fought in several battles including the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. On May 16, 1782, Philemon Wright married Abigail Wyman, a Woburn woman whose ancestors were among the founding families of Charlestown, Massachusetts in 1628.
Charlestown would become Boston. Philemon and Abigail would have a large family of 9 children, their children were: Philemon Jr. 18, Tiberius 13, Mary 10, Ruggles 8, Abigail 6, Christopher Columbus 2, Christiana b. 1803 and Susana b. 1805. Feeling the strain of overpopulation in Massachusetts, Wright first came to see the isolated and unsettled area of the Ottawa Valley in 1796, returned again in 1798, once more in 1799, he decided that the best location for a new settlement would be next to the Chaudière Falls, near the intersection of the Tenàgàtino-sibi or Gatineau and Kitchi-sibi or Ottawa rivers, where he found thousands of acres of good soil. He applied for the lands of the Township of Hull under the "leader and associates" regime and after swearing allegiance to the Crown, received the grant. Wright used his natural leadership abilities to convince a group of Massachusetts settlers to come north with him, he led a group of 33 labouring men. To the area in the winter of 1800. With the help of a native scout, who volunteered to help the group negotiate the treacherous voyage over ice from Kinodjiwan or Long-Sault at Carillon to the Akikodjiwan or Chaudière Falls, the group arrived on the western shore of the Gatineau River where it meets the Ottawa and began to clear land.
At first their objective was to clear what was farmland for their survival. The'Gatteno Farm', as he named it, the Columbia Farms were the first farms created. In 1801, the Columbia Falls Farm was created at the foot of the Chaudière Falls and there, construction began on other enterprises. Wright preferred to call the falls the Columbia Falls; the name Columbia, was used throughout the new settlement: Columbia Pond, the Columbia farm, the Columbia hotel and Columbia road. Wright's settlement became Wright's Town with the shops and other enterprises that were built so that the small community would not be dependent on the expensive practice of importing goods from Montreal. Wright built a hemp and grist mill to fulfill their needs, he built a foundry and trip hammer mill in a stone building large enough for four fires and four bellows operated hydraulically. He built shops for a shoemaker, a tailor, a baker, as well as a tannery for curing leather. Always the opportunist, he saw to it that a brewery and distillery were operating to slake the thirsts of the many employees he employed.
Before long, he and his wife Abigail saw to it that there was a teacher to teach all of the children in the community. The process was long and difficult and by 1806 Wright had nearly exhausted his capital. In an effort to earn money and in order to keep his workers busy in the winter time, he began the cutting of timber, he attempted what was thought impossible: to build a raft of timber and float it all the way to Quebec City. There, it would be sold for export to Britain, he built the first raft at the mouth of the Gatteno River and named it "Columbo". He, his 18 yr-old son Tiberius and just 3 other men began the treacherous journey down the Grand River. Despite taking two months and encountering many hurdles he reached Quebec and sold his 700 logs and 6000 barrel staves; the timber trade on the Ottawa River had begun. He founded several companies, among them a limestone quarry for building-stone and producing cement, The Hull Mining Company and P. Wright & Sons which, in particular, made him a great deal of money exporting timber, during the Napoleonic Wars when Britain was cut off from its traditional Baltic region suppliers.
As a pioneer and an entrepreneur, Wright had few equals. He was the point man for land speculator and government project in the region. According to John Mactaggart, the Royal Engineer in charge of the construction of the Rideau Canal and a contemporary of Philemon Wright, Wright should be credited with having been the person who first suggested the building of the Rideau Canal, once the canal's construction was under way, Wright secured most of the contracts for supplies and craftsmen. Despite his many achievements, he and his community faced near bankruptcy on several occasions, his earliest efforts to establish his settlement exhausted his entire capital and when his town was ravaged by a disastrous fire in 1808, the village was wiped out. A despondent Wright was ready to abandon the venture and po
Kazabazua River is a tributary of the Gatineau River in western Quebec, Canada. The river gives its name to Kazabazua, a village in La Vallée-de-la-Gatineau Regional County Municipality. Derived from the Algonquin language, the name of this river has had many spellings including "Kazaluzu", "Kasubasua", "Cazabasua", "Cazibazouis", "Cazebalzuac", "Cajibajouis"; the name is said to be derived from kachibadjiwan —a reflection of local topography as the Kazabazua becomes an underground river before resurfacing a few dozen metres downstream. The river flows through rapids and passes under a natural stone bridge; the geography of Kazabazua River includes calcitic marble containing crystals of graphite and grossular garnet. The marble has been chemically and mechanically eroded by water from the river to form a karst stone bridge; the inclusion of gneiss in the marble illustrates erosion differential. Both this river and Picanoc River flow directly through local towns and are used for recreational activities such as fishing and swimming.
Cottages and homes are along the riverbanks. The pollution of the Gatineau and Pontiac rivers by both treated and untreated leachate has been a recent concern and "could have devastating effects upon residents and tourism throughout the region." One third of the local watershed—including any toxic effluent that might be present—flows into the Kazabazua River system. When water levels rise, the Kazabazua and Pontiac rivers sometimes back up into Lac Shea causing pollutants that they carry end up in this lake; the Kazabuza and Picanoc rivers are among several local bodies of water in Pontiac Regional County Municipality in which delicate aquatic and semi-aquatic animals such as wood turtles have been studied. List of rivers of Quebec