Gazpacho or Andalusian gazpacho is a cold soup made of raw, blended vegetables. A classic of Spanish cuisine, it originated in the southern region of Andalusia. Gazpacho is eaten in Spain and Portugal during hot summers, as it is refreshing and cool. While there are other recipes called gazpacho, such as gazpacho manchego, the standard usage implies Andalusian gazpacho. There are a number of dishes that are related to Andalusian gazpacho and considered variants thereof, such as ajoblanco, pipirrana, porra antequerana and Portuguese gaspacho. There are many theories as to the origin of gazpacho, including one that says it is a soup of bread, olive oil, water and garlic that arrived in Spain and Portugal with the Romans. Once in Spain, it became a part of Andalusian cuisine in Córdoba and Granada, using stale bread, olive oil and vinegar, similar to ajoblanco. During the 19th century, red gazpacho was created; this version spread internationally, remains known. There are many modern variations of gazpacho with avocados, parsley, watermelon, meat stock and other ingredients instead of tomatoes and bread.
In Andalusia, most gazpacho recipes include stale bread, cucumber, bell pepper, garlic, olive oil, wine vinegar and salt. Northern recipes include cumin and/or pimentón; the following is a typical modern method of preparing gazpacho: Ingredients and measurements: 3 cups of water, 6-10 large red tomatoes, 1 large, green sweet Italian pepper with ribs and seeds removed, 1 cucumber, 1/2 of a large onion or 1 small one, 3.5 fl oz of olive oil, 2.5 fl oz of white wine vinegar, 2 oz of French bread - "a piece about the size of a fist", 1 tablespoon of salt, 1 garlic clove or 2 dessert spoons of minced garlic. Extremenian and castilian recipes add 1 dessert spoon of smoked sweet paprika and 1 teaspoon of cumin. Wash the vegetables and peel the cucumber and onions. Chop all the vegetables and herbs and put them into a large container. Blend the contents of the container until they are liquid or to the desired consistency. Gazpacho is an emulsion, so its texture is achieved by using the appropriate measures and crushing speed.
Add chilled water, olive oil and salt to taste. Add the remaining contents of the container to the liquid. Blend, but do not purée, leaving some texture. Garnish with fresh bell pepper slices, diced tomatoes, cucumber, or other fresh ingredients. Traditionally, gazpacho was made by pounding the vegetables in a mortar with a pestle. A traditional way of preparation is to pound garlic cloves in a mortar, add a little soaked stale bread olive oil and salt, to make a paste. Next ripe tomatoes and vinegar are added to this paste. In the days before refrigeration the gazpacho was left in an unglazed earthenware pot to cool by evaporation, with the addition of some water. Gazpacho may be served alone or with garnishes, such as hard-boiled eggs, chopped ham, chopped almonds, cumin crushed with mint, orange segments, finely chopped green pepper, tomato or cucumber. In Extremadura, local ham was added to the gazpacho itself rather than as a garnish, this is called gazpacho extremeño. Andalusian sources say that gazpacho should be chilled, but not iced.
The ingredients and thickness of gazpacho vary regionally and between families. Similar cold raw soups such as arjamolho in Portugal, porra antequerana and ajoblanco, are popular in Andalusia, although not as widespread as gazpacho. Gazpacho manchego, despite its name, is a meat stew, served hot, not a variation on the cold vegetable soup; the original recipe using bread, vinegar and salt is traditional in the Iberian Peninsula going back to Roman times. Every Andalusian region has its own variety; the humble gazpacho became a deeply rooted food for peasants and shepherds in the south of Spain. The basic gazpacho gave rise to many variants, some called gazpacho, others not. Gazpachos may be classified by colour: the most usual red ones, white ones, green ones; these variants have their basic ingredients in common, including garlic paste which works as an emulsifier, olive oil and salt. In addition to the traditional ingredients, red fruits such as strawberries, etc. may be added, making the gazpacho a bit sweeter.
Gazpacho may be served as tapa. A popular variation comes from the town of Rota in the province of Cadiz. During times of drought there was not enough water to make gazpacho; some people add more bread. In Extremadura, gazpachos are a kind of purée or thick gazpacho known as cojondongo, or cojondongo del gañán, made of breadcrumbs, garlic and vinegar topped with chopped onions and peppers. Gazpacho manchego, as its name implies
The Two-Headed Monster is a comical, light purple Muppet monster on the television show Sesame Street, first appearing in season 9, 1978. The Two-Headed Monster, as the name implies, is an example of bicephaly; the right-hand head has purple hair and a black beard, with upturned horns, whereas the left-hand head has black hair and a purple beard, with downturned horns. They have different personalities, with the left-hand head the more rational and sensible of the two, but slightly grouchier. Speaking in baby-like gibberish except when emphasizing a word, enough for them to communicate with others, the monster, in typical sketches, would sound out words in front of a brick wall, or do something else which involves cooperation, they are dicephalic parapagus twins, as their mother made an appearance in one sketch when they sounded the word "mom". They share a single pair of legs; the creation of this monster was inspired by performers Jerry Nelson and Richard Hunt playing around on the set one day, saying that they were a monster with two heads.
While right-handed performers use their right hands to perform the heads of characters and their left to perform left hands, whoever performs the left half of the monster performs the head with the left hand, the right hand with their right hand. The performers for the Two-Headed Monster are listed in order of the history from the Left Head and the Right Head: Richard Hunt and Peter Friedman Jerry Nelson and Richard Hunt Jerry Nelson and Adam Hunt Jerry Nelson and David Rudman Joey Mazzarino and David Rudman Eric Jacobson and David Rudman The Two-Headed Monster was designed by Jim Henson and built by Caroly Wilcox. "Two-Headed Monster". Sesame Street. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010
Ross Stein is a scientist emeritus at the U. S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California. Stein is cofounder and CEO of Temblor, a startup enabling people to learn their seismic hazard and determine steps to reduce their risk, he graduated magna cum laude from Brown University in 1975, received a Ph. D. from Stanford University in 1980 and was an Observatory Post-Doctoral Fellow at Columbia University in 1981. Stein is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and the Geological Society of America, edited the Journal of Geophysical Research during 1986–1989 and chaired AGU's Board of Journal Editors in 2004–2006, he was a visiting professor at Institut de Physique du Globe and Ecole Normale Supérieure in 1989, 1993, 1999, 2008. Stein co-founded and chairs the Scientific Board of the Global Earthquake Model, a public-private partnership building a worldwide seismic risk model. During 1993–2003, the Science Citation Index reported that Stein was the second-most-cited author in earthquake science.
He received the Eugene M. Shoemaker Distinguished Achievement Award of the USGS in 2000, the Excellence in Outreach Award of the Southern California Earthquake Center in 1999, the Outstanding Contributions and Cooperation in Geoscience Award from NOAA in 1991, he presented the Francis Birch Lecture of the AGU in 1996, the Frontiers of Geophysics Lecture of the AGU in 2001, C. Thomas Crough Memorial Lecture of Purdue University, Andrew C. Lawson Lecture of U. C. Berkeley, the Condon Public Lecture of Oregon State University in 2004, gave the Validus Re Distinguished Lecture in 2007. In 2005, he was keynote speaker at the Smithsonian Institution for the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching. Stein led non-proprietary seismic hazards investigations for Swiss Re, on Istanbul and Tokyo. Stein appeared in Killer Quake. Forces was awarded best feature film of the 2004 Large Format Cinema Association Film Festival, best film and best educational film of the 2005 Giant Screen Theater Association, Grand Prize of the 2005 La Géode International Large Format Film Festival.
R. S. Stein, G. C. P. King and J. Lin, Stress triggering of earthquakes: evidence for the 1994 M=6.7 Northridge, shock, Annali di Geofisica, 37, pp. 1799–1805, 1995 R. S. Stein, Earthquakes: Characteristic or haphazard?, Nature, 378, pp. 443–444, 1995 R. S. Stein, Northridge Earthquake: Which fault and what next?, Nature, 373, pp. 388–389, 1995. R. S. Stein, Comment on "The impact of refraction correction on leveling interpretation in Southern California", by William E. Strange, J. Geohys. Res. 89, pp. 559–561, 1984 R. S. Stein, Coalinga's caveat, EOS, American Geophysical Union Transaction, 65, pp. 791–795, 1984 R. S. Stein, Aerodynamics of the Pterosaur wing, Science, 191, pp. 898, 1976 Perfettini, Hugo. "Stress transfer by the 1988–1989 M=5.3 and 5.4 Lake Elsman foreshocks to the Loma Prieta fault' Unclamping at the site of peak mainshock slip". Journal of Geophysical Research. 104: 20, 169–20, 182. Bibcode:1999JGR...10420169P. Doi:10.1029/1999jb900092. American Geological Institute. "Geophysicist Ross Stein".
Geotimes. Retrieved 1 June 2014. Larson, Tania. "What it's Like to be an Earthquake Scientist—Talking with USGS Geophysicist Ross Stein". People, Land & Water. U. S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 24 September 2016. "Ross Stein, Geophysicist, U. S. Geological Survey & Chair, Scientific Board of the Global Earthquake Model". National Insurance Conference of Canada. Retrieved 1 June 2014. "'Forces of Nature' Now Showing at California Science Center IMAX Theater". Southern California Earthquake Cente. University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014