click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Geely

Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co. Ltd known as Geely, is a Chinese held global automotive company headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province; the group was established in 1986 and entered the automotive industry in 1997 with its Geely Auto brand. It sells passenger vehicles under the Geely Auto, Lynk & Co, PROTON, Volvo brands as well as commercial only vehicles under the London EV Company and Yuan Cheng Auto brands; the group sold over 1.5 million cars in 2018. Geely Group has been manufacturing its own cars before it owned the Swedish passenger car maker Volvo Cars since 2010, when it acquired the company from Ford, it completed the acquisition of British taxi maker The London Electric Vehicle Company in 2013, acquired a majority stake in British sports carmaker Lotus Cars in 2017. ZGH business is divided into five sub-groups: Geely Auto Group which includes the brands Geely Auto, Lynk & Co, PROTON, Lotus. ZGH has global operations spanning the automotive value chain, from research and design to production and service.

Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd, a subsidiary of Geely, is listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. On 13 February 2017, it became a constituent of the Hang Seng Index. Geely means "auspicious" or "lucky" in Chinese. Founding Geely in 1986 as a refrigerator maker with money borrowed from family, Li Shufu transformed the company into a success selling inexpensive products to Chinese consumers. After the purchase of a failing, state-run firm, Geely manufactured motorcycles in the mid-1990s. Small van production began in 1998, a year it received state approval to manufacture automobiles. Car production began in 2002. A subsidiary of the group, Geely Auto, had its IPO on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong in 2004; the company had a booth at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show, a 2006 showing at the Detroit auto show. Geely approached Ford in mid-2008 about a possible takeover of Volvo Cars. On October 28, 2009, it was named as the preferred buyer of Volvo by the American automaker. A deal was reached in late March and completed in early August, 2010.

In 2010, total sales of over 415,000 units gave the company a near 2% market share. Sales were lower than a reported 680,000 units per year production capacity. In December 2011, it was announced that Geely would begin selling Chinese-designed and -manufactured cars in the United Kingdom at the end of 2012, with the first model to go on sale being the Emgrand EC7; the company has stated its intention to begin sales in Italy. In May 2017, Geely confirmed plans to purchase a 51% controlling-stake in Lotus Cars from its owner, DRB-HICOM. Additionally, Geely plans to purchase a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings, to facilitate future export growth in right-hand drive markets. The deals were seen as an important step for the Chinese carmaker in their quest to make inroads into the lucrative ASEAN region. In July 2017 the company purchased an American maker of flying cars. In November 2017, Geely announced completion of the Terrafugia acquisition, including approval from all relevant regulators. In December 2017, Geely invested €3.25 billion into Swedish truck and construction company Volvo Group, a former parent company of Volvo Cars.

The deal made Geely the biggest shareholder by number of shares with an 8.2% stake, second by voting rights, with 15.6%. In 2018, Geely purchased a 9.7 % stake in owner of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In September 2019, Geely led a round of private funding for Volocopter that raised $55 million for the company. Volocopter's other private investors include Daimler AG which owns a stake in the company. Based in China, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group operates all over the world through its many subsidiary brands; the Group's core business activities are within the automotive industry where it controls the following automotive groups and vehicle brands: Geely Auto Group which consists of Geely Auto, Lotus, Lynk & Co and Proton Volvo Car Group which consists of Volvo Cars and Polestar Geely Commercial Vehicles which consists of London Electric Vehicle Company and Yuan Cheng Auto. Other non-automotive businesses are managed under Geely Group; the Group has cultural and educational business under its Mitime Group.

Seven brands are managed under the Geely Auto Group, Geely Auto, Lynk & Co, Polestar, PROTON, Lotus and Volvo Cars. Geely Auto – Listed as Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd. on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and controlled through holdings in Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Geely Auto is ZGH's mainstream brand sold in China and select overseas markets. Geometry - an electric only range of Geely-based cars. Lynk & Co – Owned 50% by Geely Auto, 30% by Volvo Cars, 20% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Lynk & Co is a new globally focused high-end car brand based on technology developed jointly by Geely Auto and Volvo Cars. Polestar - Polestar was founded by Polestar Racing, now called Cyan Racing, as the performance vehicle division in Volvo Cars to explore how the technology behind their racing success could be applied to Volvo road cars. In 2017, Polestar became an independent brand under Volvo Cars focused on high-performance electrified cars, in 2018 was spun out into its own entity, controlled 50% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group and 50% by Volvo Cars.

PROTON – Owned 49.9% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group

Remington Ranch, Texas

Remington Ranch is a master planned community located in unincorporated Harris County, Texas. The development, with 2,100 single-family houses, is located between Interstate 45 and the Hardy Toll Road, it is north of Greenspoint Mall and in proximity to George Bush Intercontinental Airport. In 2003 Dickson Partners, a Houston developer, purchased a 510-acre plot of land from Houston investors; the majority of the purchased land belonged to three families from Houston who, since the 1950s, had owned the land. Dickson intended to develop a new community on that site; as of 2003 the houses were expected to be priced below $200,000. The price range of the houses was planned to be from the $80,000s to the $180,000s. KB Home, one developer, bought 143 acres from Dickson and planned to develop 900 houses priced from $80,000 to $130,000; the remaining single family acreage was to be developed by Newmark Homes and Parkside Homes into 1,200 houses. Two separate parcels of land, with a total of 51 acres of land, were to be used for commercial and other non-single family uses.

Edminster Hinshaw Russ & Associates provided Remington Ranch's land planning and engineering. Mark Powell, vice president of Dickson Partners, said that the access to George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Greenspoint Mall, the Hardy Toll Road, Interstate 45 motivated the company to develop the Remington Ranch property. In 2003 the company was negotiating with the school district in regards to the possibility of selling land for the development of a future elementary or middle school. Powell cited the location in the Spring Independent School District as a factor in purchasing the land. House construction was scheduled to begin in June 2004. Housing sales began in April 2004; the $65 million Remington Ranch development was scheduled to be sold out by 2008. By 2006 the homes offered were priced from the $80,000s to the $150,000s. By 2008 K. Hovanian Homes became a house builder in Remington Ranch. By 2009 Remington Ranch had a high foreclosure rate; the development was scheduled to include a recreation center with an Olympic-sized swimming pool and a playground area.

The plans included the establishment of neighborhood parks. The development has a splash park and a barbecue area. Remington Ranch is zoned to the Spring Independent School District. Most residents are zoned to Milton Cooper Elementary School, while some are zoned to R. J. Hoyland Elementary School. All residents are zoned to Dekaney High School. In February 2017 the district proposed redrawing the attendance boundaries of its middle schools. According to the proposed 2017-2018 middle school map, Remington Ranch will be reassigned from Bammel Middle School to Dueitt Middle School in the Spring census-designated place; when Remington Ranch first opened, it was zoned to Clark Primary and Elementary School and Westfield High School. Cooper opened in 2005; the community was rezoned to Dekaney after Dekaney's opening in August 2007. Hoyland was completed in the summer of 2009. Students have the option to attend Carl Wunsche Sr. High School, a career academy in the district, instead of their home school

William Doolen

William Doolen was a Union Navy sailor in the American Civil War and a recipient of the U. S. military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions at the Battle of Mobile Bay. Born as'William Dolan in 1841 in County Kildare, Doolen immigrated to the United States and was living in Philadelphia, when he joined the U. S. Navy, he served during the Civil War as a coal heaver on the USS Richmond. At the Battle of Mobile Bay on August 5, 1864, he "rendered gallant service" despite heavy fire after receiving a serious wound to the head. For this action, he was awarded the Medal of Honor four months on December 31, 1864. Doolen's official Medal of Honor citation reads: On board the U. S. S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Although knocked down and wounded in the head, Doolen refused to leave his station as shot and shell passed. Calm and courageous, he rendered gallant service throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan despite the enemy's heavy return fire.

Doolen was buried in Cheyenne, Wyoming. First Homesteader in State of Wyoming June 15, 1875 William Doolen at Find a Grave

Scummy Man

Scummy Man is a short film and directed by Paul Fraser and produced by Mark Herbert and Diarmid Scrimshaw, based on the song "When the Sun Goes Down" by the Arctic Monkeys, released on DVD on 10 April 2006 by Domino Recording Company. The film, like the song, focuses on prostitution in Sheffield, uses the same actors as the music video to document a night in the life of the fictional'Nina', a 15-year-old drug addict who works as a prostitute in the Neepsend district; the film stars Lauren Socha as'Nina' and Stephen Graham as George, known by the nickname of'Scummy Man', a violent and manipulative'customer' of'Nina's, who attacks and intimidates both'Nina' and those who try to help her escape prostitution, such as a magician who offers her a job as his assistant in his act. The magician becomes a victim of the Scummy Man's behaviour but is not without his own flaws, as the film-maker begs if anyone is inherently good. In order to achieve a documentary feel for the footage, the film was shot in 16 mm film by Danny Cohen.

The DVD includes an extra film titled Just Another Day, more hopeful and upbeat in tone, focuses on how every day events, such as being offered a lift by a taxicab driver, present opportunity and hope for her future. Just Another Day depicts the same chain of events, but from the perspective of the taxi driver who brings the Scummy Man to Nina, who takes pity on her as she reminds him of his own daughter who died young and would have been the same age as Nina were she still alive; the name of the film comes from a line in "When the Sun Goes Down", describing the "customer" of the girl featured in the song, The film won an award for "Best Music DVD" at the 2007 NME Awards on 1 March 2007. The only band member to appear in the film is Matt Helders, he is offered oral sex by Nina at the beginning of the film, but turns it down, saying he is going to band practice. Besides this and Alex Turner are seen carrying musical equipment through a gate in the credits of Just Another Day, but they do not feature in the film itself.

Arctic Monkeys – "When the Sun Goes Down" lyrics

Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein was a Polish szlachcianka, best known for her 40-year relationship with musician Franz Liszt. She was an amateur journalist and essayist, it is conjectured that she did much of the actual writing of several of Liszt's publications his Life of Chopin, she maintained an enormous correspondence with Liszt and many others, of vital historical interest. She encouraged Hector Berlioz, as is clear from their extensive correspondence. Berlioz dedicated Les Troyens to Princess Carolyne. Karolina Elżbieta Iwanowska was born at her maternal grandfather's home in Monasterzyska, now in western Ukraine but part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a crownland of the Austrian Empire, she was the only child of wealthy parents, Peter Iwanowky and Pauline Podowska, whose massive holdings of land in Podolia included more than 30,000 serfs. On 26 April 1836, just two months after her 17th birthday, Carolyne married Prince Nicholas von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg-Ludwigsburg, an officer in the Russian service, a member of an ancient noble house as the son of Peter Wittgenstein.

They lived together in Kyiv, but she was unhappy in the city and moved to her country home at Woronińce, one of her family's many estates. They had one child together, Marie Pauline Antoinette, who married Prince Konstantin of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Princess Carolyne was a fervent Roman Catholic, but separated from her husband after only a few years of marriage. In 1844 her father died. On February 2, 1847, while on a business trip to Kyiv, she attended a piano recital by Franz Liszt during his third tour of the Russian Empire, at the peak of his international celebrity. After meeting in person, she invited him to Woronińce, first for her daughter's 10th birthday party and for an extended stay. In September 1847, Liszt permanently retired from touring and began living with Carolyne at Woronińce, where he composed significant portions of the Harmonies poétiques et religieuses; the following year, they moved together to the German city of Weimar, where Liszt had been appointed as Kapellmeister Extraordinaire, where the couple would remain for over a decade.

Carolyne wished to regularise their situation and marry Liszt, but since her husband was still living, she had to convince the Roman Catholic authorities that her marriage to him had been invalid. After an intricate process that involved moving to Rome and making two direct papal audiences, she temporarily was successful, the couple planned to marry in Rome on 22 October 1861, Liszt's 50th birthday. Liszt arrived in Rome the previous day, it appears that both her husband and the tsar of Russia managed to quash permission for the marriage at the Vatican. The Russian government impounded her several estates, which made her marriage to Liszt, or anyone, unfeasible. Furthermore, the scandal would have harmed her daughter's marriageability the main reason why the prince put an end to his wife's scheduled remarriage. After the aborted wedding, Carolyne's relationship with Liszt became one of platonic companionship after 1865 when he received minor orders in the Catholic Church and became an abbé. Though they no longer lived together, they remained connected, for example dining together when Liszt was in Rome, naming each other as chief beneficiary of their wills.

Carolyne spent her final several decades in Rome writing extensively on church issues. She was devastated by Liszt's death and survived him only a few months, dying on 9 March 1887 in Rome. Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein was a prolific writer, publishing at least 44 volumes of prose from 1868 to 1887. Most of her works were printed; this work was compared to the liberal heterodoxy of Lamennais, Volumes III and V were placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the Catholic Church's list of banned books. Her preface to the first volume argues that her writings, "which seem to reveal the weaknesses of the Church reveal its strength. By showing the "inner causes" of its weakness, they show at the same time that these causes come from human faults; these are therefore excusable, the government of the Church having been entrusted by the Man-God who established it not to the angels, but to men, always imperfect." She argues that "the ills of the Church are curable," if the Church acknowledges the presence and effects of those ills.

A posthumous publication was La vie chrétienne au milieu du monde et en notre siècle. Entretiens pratiques recueillis et publiés par Henri Lasserre, Paris 1895, she left voluminous correspondence, not only with Liszt but with Berlioz, Émile Ollivier, Mieczysław Kamieński, other figures. Liszt's biographer Alan Walker describes her style as "heavy going, calling for dogged persistence... Some of run to twenty or thirty pages of densely packed prose, there are times when that prose becomes so prolix that it loses touch with reality." Francesco Barberio, Liszt e la Principessa de Sayn-Wittgenstein, Roma: Unione Editrice 1912. Hector Berlioz, Lettres à la princesse, Paris: L'Herne 2001. Briefe von Hector Berlioz an die Fürstin Caroline Sayn-Wi

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Athens)

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a war memorial located in Syntagma Square in Athens, in front of the Old Royal Palace. It is a cenotaph dedicated to the Greek soldiers killed during war, it was sculpted between 1932 by sculptor Fokion Rok. The tomb is guarded by the Evzones of the Presidential Guard; the decision to build a monument was taken by army general and “constitutional dictator” Theodoros Pangalos. In his capacity as Army Minister, an advertisement was placed in the Espera newspaper, requesting a "submission for a study of the construction of a tomb of the Unknown Soldier, in front of the Old Royal Palace, suitable for this purpose". On 9 October 1926, the Army Ministry approved and granted by majority the study made by architect Emmanuel Lazaridis; the location of the monument at the Old Palace was suggested both by the architect himself and by Pangalos, who wish for the Army Ministry to be housed in the building. However in 1929, after fervent reaction and continuous meetings, Eleftherios Venizelos, setting aside his disagreements with Pangalos, decided that the best location would be the original one in Syntagma Square, reasoning that the Monument ought to be in the city centre, much like the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.

The construction committee had given all responsibility for the construction to Lazaridis. He had worked with sculptor Thomas Thomopoulos who had proposed as a central sculpture a representation of the Gigantomachy with an angel lovingly receiving the dead soldier. Despite Lazaridis agreeing to this design, Thomopoulos's sculpture was never built due to lack of funds. In 1930, Lazaridis instead assigned Fokion Rok as sculptor with a unanimous decision of the construction committee; the committee approved a new proposal for the sculpture, a gunner lying on the ground. This design was deemed appropriate owing to its simplicity. For the construction, a large-scale excavation and levelling of terrain took place; the Tomb was unveiled on 25 March 1932 by Prime Minister Andreas Michalakopoulos, with the participation of many foreign delegations, followed by a parade of the monument guard. At the same time, a torch was brought from the monastery of Agia Lavra to light the eternal flame in the centre of the cenotaph.

The Tomb is in the French urban and classical tradition, combined with the modern spirit of Art Deco and with symbolic references to Ancient Greece. The main issue was the integration of the Tomb with Syntagma Square and with the neoclassical Palace and the contribution to the redevelopment of the square; the Tomb is a large-scale Π-shaped retaining wall of limestone. The sculpture is at the centre of the wall. To the left and to the right there are two side staircases while in the centre there is a rectangular raised grave; the stairs of the monuments are purely decorative, as the steps are for observation during ceremonies. The sculpture represents the naked male figure of a dead warrior lying on the ground, he wears an Ancient Greek-style helmet. The representation of the body gives the impression that the Unknown Soldier is ready to arise at any moment. To the left and right of the sculpture are phrases from the works of Thucydides. To the left, "ΜΙΑ ΚΛΙΝΗ ΚΕΝΗ ΦΕΡΕΤΑΙ ΕΣΤΡΩΜΕΝΗ ΤΩΝ ΑΦΑΝΩΝ".

Both are quotes from History of the Peloponnesian War. Over the main sculpture in smaller writing, one reads "ΕΙΣ ΑΦΑΝΗ ΣΤΡΑΤΙΩΤΗ"; the names of battles where many Greek lives were lost in recent history are written into the limestone walls around the sculpture. To the left of the monument, descending by the steps, are inscribed the names of battle locations of the First and Second Balkan War and World War I: Elassona, Lazarades, Porta Pass, Sorovich, Thessaloniki and Korytsa, Gribovo, Pente Pigadia, Aetorrachi, Bizani, Kilkis–Lachanas, Kresna-Tsoumagia, Nevrokopi, Machomea, Sborsko, Erigon, Monastiri, Strymon, Belles and Tzena. To the right of the monument, descending by the steps, are inscribed the names of battle locations of the Russian Civil War and Greco-Turkish War: Cherson, Odissos, Artaki, Proussa, Toumlou Bunar, Dorilaion, Afyonkarahisar and Kale-Groto. To the left and right of the figure of the dead soldier are the names of battle locations of World War II and engagements in which Greeks died: Pindus, Korytsa, Tomoros, Cheimarra, Argyrokastron, 731, Kalpaki, Premeti, Pogradec, Perithori, Crete, El Alamein, Roubikonas, Dodecanese and Cyprus.

Giōrgos Stathakopoulos. Στης Βουλής τα πέριξ: το Μνημείο του Αγνώστου Στρατιώτη και ο Εθνικός Κήπος. Hellenic Parliament Foundation. ISBN 9789606757235. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier