The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation. It was named after Hans Geiger, who invented the principle in 1908, Walther Müller, who collaborated with Geiger in developing the technique further in 1928 to produce a practical tube that could detect a number of different radiation types, it is a gaseous ionization detector and uses the Townsend avalanche phenomenon to produce an detectable electronic pulse from as little as a single ionising event due to a radiation particle. It is used for the detection of gamma radiation, X-rays, alpha and beta particles, it can be adapted to detect neutrons. The tube operates in the "Geiger" region of ion pair generation; this is shown on the accompanying plot for gaseous detectors showing ion current against applied voltage. While it is a robust and inexpensive detector, the G–M is unable to measure high radiation rates efficiently, has a finite life in high radiation areas and cannot measure incident radiation energy, so no spectral information can be generated and there is no discrimination between radiation types.
A G-M tube consists of a chamber filled with a gas mixture at a low pressure of about 0.1 atmosphere. The chamber contains two electrodes, between which there is a potential difference of several hundred volts; the walls of the tube are either metal or have their inside surface coated with a conducting material or a spiral wire to form the cathode, while the anode is a wire mounted axially in the centre of the chamber. When ionizing radiation strikes the tube, some molecules of the fill gas are ionized directly by the incident radiation, if the tube cathode is an electrical conductor, such as stainless steel, indirectly by means of secondary electrons produced in the walls of the tube, which migrate into the gas; this creates positively charged free electrons, known as ion pairs, in the gas. The strong electric field created by the voltage across the tube's electrodes accelerates the positive ions towards the cathode and the electrons towards the anode. Close to the anode in the "avalanche region" where the electric field strength rises exponentially as the anode is approached, free electrons gain sufficient energy to ionize additional gas molecules by collision and create a large number of electron avalanches.
These spread along the anode and throughout the avalanche region. This is the "gas multiplication" effect which gives the tube its key characteristic of being able to produce a significant output pulse from a single original ionising event. If there were to be only one avalanche per original ionising event the number of excited molecules would be in the order of 106 to 108; however the production of multiple avalanches results in an increased multiplication factor which can produce 109 to 1010 ion pairs. The creation of multiple avalanches is due to the production of UV photons in the original avalanche, which are not affected by the electric field and move laterally to the axis of the anode to instigate further ionising events by collision with gas molecules; these collisions produce further avalanches, which in turn produce more photons, thereby more avalanches in a chain reaction which spreads laterally through the fill gas, envelops the anode wire. The accompanying diagram shows this graphically.
The speed of propagation of the avalanches is 2–4 cm per microsecond, so that for common sizes of tubes the complete ionisation of the gas around the anode takes just a few microseconds. This short, intense pulse of current can be measured as a count event in the form of a voltage pulse developed across an external electrical resistor; this can be in the order of volts. The discharge is terminated by the collective effect of the positive ions created by the avalanches; these ions have lower mobility than the free electrons due to their higher mass and move from the vicinity of the anode wire. This creates a "space charge" which counteracts the electric field, necessary for continued avalanche generation. For a particular tube geometry and operating voltage this termination always occurs when a certain number of avalanches have been created, therefore the pulses from the tube are always of the same magnitude regardless of the energy of the initiating particle. There is no radiation energy information in the pulses which means the Geiger–Muller tube cannot be used to generate spectral information about the incident radiation.
In practice the termination of the avalanche is improved by the use of "quenching" techniques. Pressure of the fill gas is important in the generation of avalanches. Too low a pressure and the efficiency of interaction with incident radiation is reduced. Too high a pressure, the “mean free path” for collisions between accelerated electrons and the fill gas is too small, the electrons cannot gather enough energy between each collision to cause ionisation of the gas; the energy gained by electrons is proportional to the ratio “e/p”, where “e” is the electric field strength at that point in the gas, “p” is the gas pressure. Broadly, there are two main types of Geiger tube construction. For alpha particles, low energy beta particles, low energy X-rays, the usual form is a cylindrical end-window tube; this type has a window at one end covered in a thin material through which low-penetrating radiation can pass. Mica is a used material due to its low mass per unit area; the other end houses the electrical connection to the anode.
The pancake tube is a variant of the end window tube, but, designed for use for beta and gamma contamination monitoring. It has the same sensitivity to particles a
Mundolingua is a museum situated in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. Its purpose is to present information and documents relating to language, linguistic diversity and linguistics to the general public; the concept of the museum was launched in 2010 by Mark Oremland, a New Zealander who studied linguistics at Paris Descartes University and who wanted to make this field accessible to the widest possible public. Between 2010 and 2013, the documentary resources were collected, the pedagogical material was designed. In 2013, a team of craftspeople, computer specialists, students and translators worked on building and presenting this material in the different spaces of the museum; the museum was inaugurated on 11 October 2013, by Jean-Pierre Lecoq, mayor of the 6th arrondissement. Split into two levels, the museum presents its information via touchscreens accompanied by recordings, along with games and objects that illustrate the various subjects; the first section deals with language in general – things that apply to all languages: the particularities of human language in contrast with animal communication, double articulation and the vocal apparatus.
Amongst the various objects on the ground floor there is a large head that shows the vocal apparatus, on which the visitor can, by pressing chosen phonetic characters, listen to the corresponding sound and see the physical place of articulation lit up. The second room is dedicated to the acquisition of one’s own language, learning foreign languages and language difficulties. There is a small library, in the booth of a reconstructed language lab one can listen to recordings of 1700 different languages; the basement is a vaulted cellar of 100 square metres, divided into three sections. This section is dedicated to the diversity of their evolution and their alphabets. On the ceiling, there are 3D tree models showing the accepted genealogies of the major language families. There is a globe showing the geographic distribution of these language families. Visuals and audios explain the different ways in which languages evolve and influence one another, along with the idea of language policies. There is a life-sized facsimile of the Rosetta Stone, made by the British Museum.
A large scale model of the braille alphabet enables one to read a phrase in braille. The section that follows is a fun area devoted to codes, humour, invented languages and other games with language. In addition to the visual and audio information, there are board games in different languages, as well as an Enigma machine; the 5th and last section is dedicated to the history of the science of linguistics from the ancient Greeks to Chomsky, along with an alcove on new technologies connected with language, such as machine translation and speech recognition. One can find a variety of machines used in the transmission or recording of language: a telex, a microfiche reader and a typewriter with both normal and phonetic alphabet keyboards; the museum has two levels of visit plans for school groups, including questionnaires to fill out and a workshop. There are thematic evenings, including lectures and debates. Official website
The New South Wales Premier's Literary Awards known as the NSW Premier's Literary Awards, were first awarded in 1979. They are among the richest literary awards in Australia. Notable prizes include the Christina Stead Prize for Fiction, the Kenneth Slessor Prize for Poetry, the Douglas Stewart Prize for Non-Fiction; as of 2019, the Awards are presented by the NSW Government and administered by the State Library of New South Wales in association with Create NSW, with support of Multicultural NSW and the University of Technology Sydney. Total prize money in 2019 was up to A$305,000, with eligibility limited to writers and illustrators with Australian citizenship or permanent resident status; the NSW Premier's Literary Awards were established in 1979 by the New South Wales Premier Neville Wran. Commenting on its purpose, Wran said: "We want the arts to take, be seen to take, their proper place in our social priorities. If governments treat writers and artists with respect and understanding, the community will be more to do the same."
They were the first set of premier's awards offered in Australia. The awards were not presented in 1998; the winners of most of the prizes and awards are decided by a judging panel, with no input from Create NSW or the New South Wales Government. The names of each year's judges are not announced; the judging has been the subject of controversy in the past, when in 2010, the panel decided not to bestow the Play Award on any of the applicants. In November 2011, the NSW Government announced a review of the Premier's Literary Awards for 2012. An independent panel, chaired by journalist Gerard Henderson, reviewed both the Literary and the Premier's History Awards, focussed on the governance, selection criteria and judging processes. Following the review, the Awards are managed by the State Library of NSW, in association with Create NSW; the following prizes and awards are given in the New South Wales Premier's Literary Awards. Christina Stead Prize for Fiction Douglas Stewart Prize for Non-Fiction Kenneth Slessor Prize for Poetry Ethel Turner Prize for Young People's Literature Patricia Wrightson Prize for Children's Literature NSW Multicultural Award UTS Glenda Adams Award for New Writing Nick Enright Prize for Playwriting Script Writing Award NSW Premier's Prize for Literary Scholarship People's Choice Award Special Award NSW Premier's Translation Prize Multicultural NSW Early Career Translator Prize Indigenous Writers Prize Gleebooks Prize The Christina Stead Prize is awarded for a work of fiction that may be either a novel or a collection of stories.
The recipient receives a A$40,000 prize. It is named in honor of an Australian novelist and short-story writer; the first recipient was David Malouf, awarded the Prize for his novella An Imaginary Life in 1979. The most recent recipient was Michelle de Kretser. With this win she equals Peter Carey's record of three wins; the Douglas Stewart Prize is awarded for a prose work, not fiction. The recipient receives a A$40,000 prize, it is named in honor of a noted Australian literary editor. The first recipient was Manning Clark, awarded the Prize for the fourth volume in his series A History of Australia in 1979. Drusilla Modjeska, with three wins, has won the Prize more than any other individual; the most recent recipients are Billy Griffiths and Sarah Krasnostein for 2019. The Kenneth Slessor Prize is awarded for a book of poetry, whether collected poems or a single poem of some length, was first awarded in 1980; the recipient receives a A$30,000 prize. It is named in honor of a noted Australian poet and journalist.
The first recipient was David Campbell. In 2011, NSW poet Jennifer Maiden became the only individual to win the award three times; the latest recipient was Judith Bishop in 2019. The Ethel Turner Prize is awarded for work of fiction, non-fiction or poetry written for young people of secondary school level; the recipient receives a A$30,000 prize. It is named in honor of author of the children's classic, Seven Little Australians; the Children's Literature section of the Premier's Literary Awards began as a single award in 1979, but was redefined in 1999 to create the Patricia Wrightson Prize and the Ethel Turner Prize. The Ethel Turner Award was given to all previous winners in the Children's Literature section; the Prize was first won, jointly, by Patricia Wrightson and Jenny Wagner in 1979. The most recent recipients are James Roy and Noël Zihabamwe for their co-authored novel One Thousand Hills. Australian author Ursula Dubosarsky and writer Jaclyn Moriarty have each won the prize three times.
The Patricia Wrightson Prize is awarded for work of fiction, non-fiction or poetry written for children up to secondary school level. The recipient receives a A$30,000 prize; the Children's Literature section of the Premier's Literary Awards began as a single award in 1979, but was redefined in 1999 to create the Patricia Wrightson Prize and the Ethel Turner Prize. The Patricia Wrightson Prize was created in honour of children's author Patricia Wrightson, who won the first Ethel Turner Prize in 1979; the first recipient was Odo Hirsch, for his debut children's book, Antonio S and the Mystery of Theodore Guzman. The most recent recip
Come Sail Away – The Styx Anthology is a musical album by Styx, released on May 4, 2004. It contains a thorough history of the band; the album encompasses many of the band's most popular and significant songs, ranging from the band's first single from their self-titled album, "Best Thing", through the song "One with Everything", a track included on Styx's most recent album at the time of release, Cyclorama. The most notable omission from the compilation is "Don't Let It End", Dennis DeYoung's top-10 single from their 1983 album, Kilroy Was Here. Another omission includes the top-30 hit "Love at First Sight" from 1990's Edge of the Century. Additionally, no material from their 1999 album, Brave New World, is included; this is the only Styx compilation album to date to combine the original versions of songs from the band's early Wooden Nickel albums with their material. Their Wooden Nickel breakout hit "Lady" was included on the 1995 Greatest Hits collection, but as a note-for-note re-recording, labelled "Lady'95".
As such, this is the first career-spanning collection for the band compiled. In 2006, the album was repackaged as part of the Gold series. Dennis DeYoung - keyboards, vocals Tommy Shaw - guitar, vocals James Young - guitar, vocals Chuck Panozzo - bass, vocals John Panozzo - drums Lawrence Gowan - vocals, keyboards Glen Burtnik - guitar, vocals Todd Sucherman - drums John Curulewski - guitar, vocals
The ɛ̃fini MS-8 is a luxury car, produced and sold by ɛ̃fini from March, 1992 through 1997. The car is a replacement to the Mazda Persona and Eunos 300. Just like the Persona is based on the 1987-1991 Mazda Capella, the MS-8 is based on the 1991-1997 Mazda Cronos; the MS-8 had the same dimensions as the Cronos, the ɛ̃fini MS-6, sharing the 2.5 L V6 engine. The width and engine displacement dimensions have particular significance in Japan, due to dimension regulations, where Japanese consumers pay an additional annual tax for larger vehicles, obligate them to pay more annual road tax; the MS-8 is a hardtop-style sedan in the vein of the Toyota Cresta, Nissan Laurel, Honda Vigor, Mitsubishi Emeraude. Unlike the Cresta or the previous Persona, the MS-8's body has a B-pillar, much thicker below the beltline than it is above. Doing so allows the bodyshell more rigidity; such a B-pillar means. The front passenger seat belt tensioner unit, where the seat belt would recoil for storage when not in use, was located inside the rear passenger doors, the seat belt latch was located on the front headrest support arm, allowing the belt to be properly positioned when the headrest was adjusted for height for the front passenger.
The MS-8's interior design has several unique features. The car is only fitted with a 4-speed automatic gearbox, the gear shifter is mounted on the dashboard next to the air-conditioning controls. Doing so eliminates the floor console between the front seats, allows for a split front bench seat; the display for climate control and factory-equipped audio is located atop the dashboard, in a thin slit right before the windshield defroster. The sunroof is large for its day, extending all the way above the rear seat footwell. Following the 1991 ɛ̃fini RX-7, the MS-8 is available with the Bose Acoustic Wave Guide audio system, a compact subwoofer design; the stereo and CD player were concealed behind a retractable cover in the center of the dashboard below the air conditioning controls, simple functions like the volume, music source and music selection controls were installed remotely on the steering wheel. Four-wheel steering is an extra-cost option. Like the system on the Mazda Sentia, it is designed to minimize turn radius at town speeds, improve stability at highway speed.
Production for the MS-8 ceased when Mazda's multi-brand strategy failed in Japan, the company suffered financial difficulties
"It's Your Song" is a song written by Pam Wolfe and Benita Hill, recorded by American country music artist Garth Brooks. It was released in November 1998 as the only single from his live album Double Live, reaching a peak of number 9 on the U. S. Billboard country singles charts and number 5 on the Canadian RPM country charts that year, as well as peaking at number 62 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100. Both the live recording from Double Live and an alternate studio recording were shipped to radio. Written by Benita Hill and Pam Wolfe, "It's Your Song" is a mid-tempo ballad which Brooks dedicated to his mother. In it, he expresses the motivation that she had on his career. According to Brooks, Hill pitched him the song after hearing that Brooks' mother was suffering from throat cancer. Hill had written the song about her own mother; the live version — the one most heard on radio — and the alternate studio version have a couple of differences. The most noticeable difference can be heard with the final refrain.
In the live version, Brooks becomes emotional when singing the second "It was your song" before composing himself to end the song. Brooks maintains his composure throughout the final refrain in the studio version; the song was given mixed reviews by musical critics: Mark Guarino of the Arlington Heights, Illinois Daily Herald called the song "earnestness at its slickest", while Ann Powers of The New York Times said that it was "splendidly corny". The live version from Double Live and an alternate studio recording were both released to radio at the same time. Brooks considered remixing the song for an alternate music video which would air on VH1, although a music video had been shipped to the country music station CMT. "It's Your Song" debuted at number 33 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts dated for November 14, 1998. It entered the Top 10 at number 10 one week then peaked at number 9 on the chart dated for November 28 before falling to number 10 and beginning its descent. Overall, "It's Your Song" spent 20 weeks on the country charts.
It spent three weeks on the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number 62 there, becoming the first Billboard Hot 100 entry in his career. In addition, "It's Your Song" reached number 5 on the RPM Country Tracks charts in Canada. After its chart run was finished, Brooks released three singles under the pseudonym Chris Gaines as part of an aborted side project, he did not chart on the country charts as Garth Brooks again until "Do What You Gotta Do" in mid-2000. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics