The Goops books published between 1900 and 1950, were created by the artist, art critic, poet and humorist Gelett Burgess. The characters debuted, conceptually, in the illustrations of Burgess' publication The Lark, in the late 19th century; the Goops appeared in panels in the popular monthly children's publication St. Nicholas, as early as 1898; the Goops series is among his most famous works. The Goops, they lick their fingers, the Goops, they lick their knives. Since the publication of the original Goops book and How to Be Them, in 1900, the series has come to be seen as the quintessential series on teaching children the importance of manners and polite behavior; when you are playing with the girls, you must not pull their pretty curls. Though circulated during the height of Burgess' popularity, some of the Goops books have become difficult to find. Goops and How to Be Them and More Goops and How Not to Be Them are still available. Out-of-print titles such as Goops Encyclopedia and Blue Goops and Red may be found in rare book rooms and antiquarian bookstores.
In addition to the books, Burgess created the syndicated comic strip Goops in 1924 and worked on it through its end in 1925. Elizabeth Metz Butterfield of Jamestown N. Y. set a number of Burgess' Goop poems to music. They were published under the name The Goop Songbook. Goops and How to Be Them Juvenile More Goops and How Not to Be Them Juvenile Goop Tales Juvenile Blue Goops and Red Juvenile The Goop Directory of Juvenile Offenders Juvenile Why Be a Goop? Juvenile New How to Know Them Juvenile Bleiler, Everett; the Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. P. 65. Strickler, Dave. Syndicated Comic Strips and Artists, 1924-1995: The Complete Index. Cambria, California: Comics Access, 1995. ISBN 0-9700077-0-1. Publisher of Goops books Gelett Burgess Center for Creative Expression Toonopedia: Gelett Burgess Goops public domain audiobook at LibriVox U of Toronto Representative Poetry Online: Gelett Burgess Works by Gelett Burgess at Project Gutenberg YouTube videos of Goops
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending from the 1860s to the 1970s, denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency away from the narrative, characteristic for the traditional arts, toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is called contemporary art or postmodern art. Modern art begins with the heritage of painters like Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec all of whom were essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century Henri Matisse and several other young artists including the pre-cubists Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Jean Metzinger and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called Fauvism.
Matisse's two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. It reflected Matisse's incipient fascination with primitive art: the intense warm color of the figures against the cool blue-green background and the rhythmical succession of the dancing nudes convey the feelings of emotional liberation and hedonism. Influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec and other late-19th-century innovators, Pablo Picasso made his first cubist paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube and cone. With the painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Picasso created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. Analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by Synthetic cubism, practiced by Braque, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp and several other artists into the 1920s.
Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, collage elements, papier collé and a large variety of merged subject matter. The notion of modern art is related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier; the date most identified as marking the birth of modern art is 1863, the year that Édouard Manet showed his painting Le déjeuner sur l'herbe in the Salon des Refusés in Paris. Earlier dates have been proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H. Harvard Arnason: "Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a new beginning.... A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years."The strands of thought that led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment, to the 17th century. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant "the first real Modernist" but drew a distinction: "The Enlightenment criticized from the outside....
Modernism criticizes from the inside." The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and accustomed the public to vigorous political and social debate. This gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a "self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper."The pioneers of modern art were Romantics and Impressionists. By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in modern art had begun to emerge: post-Impressionism as well as Symbolism. Influences upon these movements were varied: from exposure to Eastern decorative arts Japanese printmaking, to the coloristic innovations of Turner and Delacroix, to a search for more realism in the depiction of common life, as found in the work of painters such as Jean-François Millet; the advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the tradition-bound academic art that enjoyed public and official favor.
The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through large public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters' unions, while governments held public exhibitions of new fine and decorative arts; the Impressionists argued that people do not see objects but only the light which they reflect, therefore painters should paint in natural light rather than in studios and should capture the effects of light in their work. Impressionist artists formed a group, Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Graveurs which, despite internal tensions, mounted a series of independent exhibitions; the style was adopted by artists in preference to a "national" style. These factors established the view that it was a "movement"; these traits—establishment of a working method integral to the art, establishment of a movement or visible active core of support, international adoption—would be repeated by artistic movements in the Modern period in art
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Le Petit Journal des Refusées
Le Petit Journal des Refusées was a San Francisco-based literary magazine published in 1896. Though the magazine intended to be a quarterly publication, it only produced one issue during its short existence. Deliberately amateurish and playful in content and design, this independent magazine was created by the humorist Gelett Burgess under the pseudonym of James Marrion 2nd. Other known contributors included Burgess’ artist friends Ernest Peixotto, Porter Garnett, Bruce Porter, all of whom were familiar with the popular print culture of their day, as well as the experimental trends being spearheaded by UK- and US-based little magazines. Le Petit Journal des Refusées was published on July 1, 1896, it was part of a wave of over two hundred other short-lived little magazines that surfaced in the United States during the 1890s. Its publication was announced in issue six of The Lark, another magazine founded by Burgess, in a call for submissions: The Century is Coming to a Close! Hurry Up and Get Your Name in Print or You’ll be Left.
There are 63,250,000 people in the United States. 50,000 have suffered amputation of both hands. For the remaining 63,200,000 writers, there are only 7000 periodicals. Though critics today have remarked upon the magazine's innovative graphical language and potential proto-modernist influence, Burgess himself was dismissive of the magazine's accomplishments. In a 1904 letter to Houghton Library benefactor Thomas Newell Metcalf, Burgess wrote that he was “rather ashamed of the thing”, suggesting his work was part of “the riot of foolish magazinelets prevalent”. Le Petit Journal des Refusées was printed on trapezoidal-shaped pieces of old wallpaper, resulting in unique copies with page colours ranging from black-and-white to gold and greens. Cutting of the pages is estimated to have occurred after binding; when opened, the magazine resembled a butterfly. Each copy featured a mixture of hand-drawn and typeset fonts, its letterpress text was an offshoot of Clarendon, a preferred font in the nineteenth century.
Le Petit Journal des Refusées is illustration-heavy, all of its images were hand-drawn. Each page features thick-set, decorative borders crowded with an array of aesthetic choices considered inventive for its time. Examples of the magazine's graphic innovation include a "cubist" sketch in the border of “The Naughty Archer”, a series of animals with textile-patterned bodies surrounding the poem “Abstrosophy”, a chain of vibrating heads joined by their long, curling tongues on the back page of the poem “The Ghost of a Flea”. According to the magazine's editorial page, single copies were priced at 16 cents each, whereas subscriptions, were priced at $16 a year; as suggested by its title, Le Petit Journal des Refusées masquerades as a compilation of works by women authors that have been rejected by a minimum of three other publications. In reference to the women authors he claims to publish in his magazine, Burgess writes, in his editorial: … Some of their productions that have been ruthlessly rejected by less large-hearted and appreciative editors than myself are permitted to witness the light of day for the first and last time…I take pleasure in opening to their crushed and despairing spirits this opportunity to get into print.
The magazine conveys much of its humor through its graphic properties. For example, the page titled “Portrait du rédacteur en chef” does not identify the editor in question. Instead, it depicts a youth in silhouette, a comic rendering which conceals Burgess’ identity; this silhouette is bordered by alternating images of rejection letters and the thick tears shed by female authors whose works were refused by other editors. Critics have argued that the magazine's trapezoidal shape allows it to stand apart from other books on a bookshelf. Le Petit Journal des Refusées parodies the high-art literary magazines of the Decadent Era by imitating and exaggerating their graphic style through the hand-drawn techniques of popular print culture. In addition to European literary and artistic works, Burgess was influenced by a range of publications from the United States – and in particular, the San Francisco Bay Area; the Bay Area publications that influenced Le Petit Journal des Refusées include “college year-books, popular lifestyle magazines, business…catalogues, news journals and…literary art publications”.
Some of the references in Le Petit Journal des Refusées are explicit. The poem titled “The Ghost of a Flea”, for example, is a direct reference to the miniature painting by William Blake; the border for “The Ghost of a Flea” features the iconic cats from Le Chat Noir, the Parisian cabaret and its namesake journal. Meanwhile, the border of “Our Clubbing List” is filled with intertwining “Goops”, the bald-headed characters Burgess created and popularized in The Lark. Burgess explicitly names his influencers in “Our Clubbing List”, an alphabet of the magazine's “admired and disdained contemporaries”, he credits illustrator Aubrey Beardsley amongst his admired contemporaries as “the idol supreme, / Whose drawings are not half so bad / as they seem”. Beardsley's influence is visible in the bold black-and-white graphics of the magazine's cover; the woman on the far right of the cover is reminiscent of the women of Beardsley's The Yellow Book, while the Japanese actor on her left resembles the figures in the Japanese prints popular in the nineteenth century.
The Native American figure next to the Japanese actor belongs to the world of the “Old West” prints produced by Karl Bodmer and his contemporaries. On the left of the Native American figure is a skeleton, a regular figure in the “sophomoric humor wor
Arnold Genthe was a German-born American photographer, best known for his photographs of San Francisco's Chinatown, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, his portraits of noted people, from politicians and socialites to literary figures and entertainment celebrities. Arnold Genthe was born in Berlin, Prussia, to Louise Zober and Hermann Genthe, a professor of Latin and Greek at the Graues Kloster in Berlin. Genthe followed in his father's footsteps. After emigrating to San Francisco in 1895 to work as a tutor for the son of Baron and Baroness J. Henrich von Schroeder, he taught himself photography, he was intrigued by the Chinese section of the city and photographed its inhabitants, from children to drug addicts, Due to his subjects' possible fear of his camera or their reluctance to have pictures taken, Genthe sometimes hid his camera. He sometimes removed evidence of Western culture from these pictures, cropping or erasing as needed. About 200 of his Chinatown pictures survive, these comprise the only known photographic depictions of the area before the 1906 earthquake.
After local magazines published some of his photographs in the late 1890s, he opened a portrait studio. He knew some of the city's wealthy matrons, as his reputation grew, his clientele included Nance O'Neil, Sarah Bernhardt, Nora May French, Jack London. In 1904 he traveled to Western Tangier with the famous watercolorist, Francis McComas. In 1906, the San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed Genthe's studio, his photograph of the earthquake's aftermath, Looking Down Sacramento Street, San Francisco, April 18, 1906, is his most famous photograph. Within a short time, Genthe joined the art colony in Carmel-by-the-Sea, where he fraternized with the literary elite, including George Sterling, Jack London, Harry Leon Wilson, Ambrose Bierce, Mary Austin. Here he was able to pursue his work in color photography. Of his new residence, he wrote, "The cypresses and rocks of Point Lobos, the always varying sunsets and the intriguing shadows of the sand dunes offered a rich field for color experiments."
Although his stay in Carmel was short, he was appointed in 1907 to the Board of Directors of the Art Gallery in Monterey’s luxury Hotel Del Monte, where he insured that the work of important regional art photographers, such as Laura Adams Armer and Anne Brigman, was displayed with his own prints. By the spring of 1907 he had established his residence and studio at 3209 Clay Street in San Francisco, where he continued to enjoy membership in the celebrated Bohemian Club, attend prominent society functions, display his own work, pen newspaper reviews of photo and art exhibitions. In 1911 he moved to New York City, where he remained until his death of a heart attack in 1942, he worked in portraiture, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, John D. Rockefeller all sat for him, his photos of Greta Garbo were credited with boosting her career. He photographed dancers, including Anna Pavlova, Isadora Duncan, Audrey Munson and Ruth St. Denis, his photos were featured in the 1916 book, The Book of the Dance.
Genthe was an early adopter of the autochrome color photography process. He began experimenting with the process in 1905 in California, he claimed credit for the first exhibition of color photographs in America. His subjects included portraits, artistic nudes, landscapes. Genthe owned. Buzzer appeared in portraitures with Genthe's subjects, most notably Broadway actresses to whom the cat warmed. One such sitting in autochrome was with actress Ann Murdock. Text by Will Irwin, images by Arnold Genthe, Pictures of old Chinatown. New York: Moffat, Yard and Co. 1908 Arnold Genthe, The Book of the Dance, Mass.: International Publishers, 1920, c. 1916 Arnold Genthe, foreword by Grace King, Impressions of Old New Orleans, New York: George H. Doran Co. c. 1926 Arnold Genthe, Isadora Duncan: Twenty Four Studies, New York: M. Kennerley 1929. 1984 ISBN 0-486-24592-6 William Bronson, "The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned," Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co. 1959. American National Biography Online. Feb. 2000. Accessed September 2006.
Photos of Buzzer the Cat Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs Division: Genthe Collection "As I Remember" Chapter 10: Earthquake and Fire California Historical Society collection SF MOMA collection autochrome with Ann Murdock and "Buzzer" The Arnold Genthe Photograph Collection at the New-York Historical Society
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman and sculptor, but is known as a painter. Matisse is regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture; the intense colorism of the works he painted between 1900 and 1905 brought him notoriety as one of the Fauves. Many of his finest works were created in the decade or so after 1906, when he developed a rigorous style that emphasized flattened forms and decorative pattern. In 1917 he relocated to a suburb of Nice on the French Riviera, the more relaxed style of his work during the 1920s gained him critical acclaim as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. After 1930, he adopted a bolder simplification of form; when ill health in his final years prevented him from painting, he created an important body of work in the medium of cut paper collage.
His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in Northern France, the oldest son of a prosperous grain merchant, he grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as a court administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification, he first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered "a kind of paradise" as he described it, decided to become an artist disappointing his father. In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau, he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Matisse was influenced by the works of earlier masters such as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Nicolas Poussin, Antoine Watteau, as well as by modern artists, such as Édouard Manet, by Japanese art.
Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired. In 1896, Matisse, an unknown art student at the time, visited the Australian painter John Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of Vincent van Gogh—who had been a friend of Russell—and gave him a Van Gogh drawing. Matisse's style changed completely, he said "Russell was my teacher, Russell explained colour theory to me." The same year, Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, two of which were purchased by the state. With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre. Marguerite and Amélie served as models for Matisse. In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and went on a trip to Corsica. Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, Jules Flandrin.
Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired. The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, Cézanne's Three Bathers. In Cézanne's sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration. Many of Matisse's paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac's essay, "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme", his paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, completing The Slave in 1903. Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910; the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were André Derain.
Matisse's first solo exhibition was without much success. His fondness for bright and expressive colour became more pronounced after he spent the summer of 1904 painting in St. Tropez with the neo-Impressionists Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross. In that year he painted the most important of his works in the neo-Impressionist style, Calme et Volupté. In 1905 he travelled southwards again to work with André Derain at Collioure, his paintings of this period are characterised by flat shapes and controlled lines, using pointillism in a less rigorous way than before. Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne in 1905; the paintings expressed emotion with wild dissonant colours, without regard for the subject's natural colours. Matisse showed Open Woman with the Hat at the Salon. Critic Louis Vauxcelles commented on a lone sculpture surround by an "orgie of pure tones" as "Donatello chez les fauves", referring to a Renaissance-type sculpture that shared the room with them.
His comment was printed on 17 October 1905 in Gil Blas, a daily newspaper, passed
Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but natural and artificial features, local history and culture; this meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, the identification of specific landforms; this is known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form, it is considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, relief shading. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place.
The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now called'local history'. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. Detailed military surveys in Britain were called Ordnance Surveys, this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps; the earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin; the earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812, which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, has been adopted by most other nations as standard.
In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used in medical fields such as neurology. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude and altitude. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are part of the field. A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. Which method to use depend on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, the quality of existing surveys. Surveying helps determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers.
Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. Though remote sensing has sped up the process of gathering information, has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program, the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data; this data must be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. The original American topographic surveys involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Besides their role in photogrammetry and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features.
They have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. Images can be in other spectrum. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images taken starting from different positions from different passes of an aerial photography flight. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be built from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of its rays which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori. Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital E