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The Gemara is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah. After the Mishnah was published by Judah the Prince, the work was studied exhaustively by generation after generation of rabbis in Babylonia and the Land of Israel, their discussions were written down in a series of books that became the Gemara, which when combined with the Mishnah constituted the Talmud. There are two versions of the Gemara; the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled by scholars of the Land of Israel of the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea, was published between about 350–400 CE. The Talmud Bavli was published about 500 CE by scholars of Babylonia of the academies of Sura and Nehardea. By convention, a reference to the "Gemara" or "Talmud," without further qualification, refers to the Babylonian version; the main compilers were Rav Ashi. The Gemara and the Mishnah together make up the Talmud; the Talmud thus comprises two components: the Mishnah – the core text. The rabbis of the Mishnah are known as Tannaim.

The rabbis of the Gemara are referred to as Amoraim. Because there are two Gemaras, there are in fact two Talmuds: the Jerusalem Talmud, the Babylonian Talmud, corresponding to the Jerusalem Gemara and the Babylonian Gemara; the Gemara is written in Aramaic, the Jerusalem Gemara in Western Aramaic and the Babylonian in Eastern Aramaic, but both contain portions in Hebrew. Sometimes the language changes in the middle of a story. In a narrow sense, the word Gemara refers to the mastery and transmission of existing tradition, as opposed to sevara, which means the deriving of new results by logic. Both activities are represented in the "Gemara" as a literary work; the term "gemara" for the activity of study is far older than its use as a description of any text: thus Pirke Avot, a work long preceding the recording of the Talmud, recommends starting "Mishnah" at the age of 10 and "Gemara" at the age of 15. The analysis of the Amoraim is focused on clarifying the positions and views of the Tannaim.

These debates and exchanges form the "building-blocks" of the gemara. A sugya will comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of the Mishna; every aspect of the Mishnaic text is treated as a subject of close investigation. This analysis is aimed at an exhaustive understanding of the Mishna's full meaning. In the Talmud, a sugya is presented as a series of responsive hypotheses and questions – with the Talmudic text as a record of each step in the process of reasoning and derivation; the Gemara thus takes the form of a dialectical exchange. The disputants here are termed the tartzan; the gemara records the semantic disagreements between Amoraim. Some of these debates were conducted by the Amoraim, though many of them are hypothetically reconstructed by the Talmud's redactors. Are debates formally closed; the distinctive character of the gemara derives from the intricate use of argumentation and debate, described above. In each sugya, either participant may cite scriptural and Amoraic proof to build a logical support for their respective opinions.

The process of deduction required to derive a conclusion from a prooftext is logically complex and indirect. "Confronted with a statement on any subject, the Talmudic student will proceed to raise a series of questions before he satisfies himself of having understood its full meaning." This analysis is described as "mathematical" in approach. Prooftexts quoted to corroborate or disprove the respective opinions and theories will include: verses from the Tanakh: the exact language employed is regarded as significant; the actual debate will centre on the following categories: Why does the Mishna use one word rather than another? If a statement is not clear enough, the Gemara seeks to clarify the Mishna's intention. See: List of Talmudic principles and Category:Talmud concepts and terminologyExploring the logical principles underlying the Mishnah's statements, showing how different understandings of the Mishnah's reasons could lead to differences in their practical application. What underlying principle is entailed in a statement of fact or in a specific instance brought as an illustration?

If a statement appears obvious, the Gemara seeks the logical reason for its necessity. It seeks to answer under which circumstances a statement is true, what qualificat

Meredith L. Patterson

Meredith L. Patterson is an American technologist, science fiction writer, journalist, she has spoken at numerous industry conferences on a wide range of topics. She is a blogger and software developer, a leading figure in the biopunk movement. Patterson lived in and around Houston for 24 years before moving to Iowa City, Iowa, to pursue her Master's degree in linguistics and PhD in computer science. Patterson attended Kingwood High School from 1990 to 1994, she supported herself working as a website designer, technical writer, math teacher, restaurant critic for the Houston Press. She served as the treasurer of the Mars Society Houston branch in 1999; that same year, at age 22, she traveled above the Arctic Circle as a NASA correspondent for a Mars simulation mission. Patterson is known for her work in computational linguistics and its applications to computer security. In 2005, she presented the first parse tree validation technique for stopping SQL injection attacks at the Black Hat conference in Las Vegas.

She has integrated her support vector machine datamining library inside of PostgreSQL to provide a "query-by-example" extension to the SQL language, allowing DBAs to and form complex datamining requests based on example positive and negative inputs. While this work was funded by Google's Summer of Code program, Patterson's datamining work now forms the basis of her startup, which couples the datamining database with acoustic feature extractors allowing users to create playlists from their own music collections and find new music based on the properties of the music they provide as sample inputs. Osogato was launched at SuperHappyDevHouse. Prior to founding Osogato, Patterson worked for Mu Security. Before that, she was a PhD student at the University of Iowa, she did her undergrad work in linguistics at the University of Houston and received her Masters in linguistics from the University of Iowa. Patterson has contributed to multiple open-source database software projects, including SciTools, QBE, written patches to PostgreSQL.

Her "Dejector" library integrates with PostgreSQL to implement the SQL injection approach taken in her Black Hat paper. Patterson is credited with contributing to the Summer of Code project Firekeeper, which her husband, Len Sassaman, mentored. In 2009 at BlackHat, Dan Kaminsky presented joint work with Patterson and Sassaman, revealing pervasive flaws in the Internet's certificate authority infrastructure, their work revealed that existing web browsers could be fooled into accepting fraudulent X.509 certificates. As a science fiction author, Patterson has published numerous short stories in such magazines as Fortean Bureau and Strange Horizons and in compilations such as The Doom of Camelot and The Children of Cthulhu and is credited with contributing to the Steve Jackson Games game GURPS Villains, her poetry has been influenced by her scientific research. Patterson discusses such issues as copyright reform, the Military Commissions Act, Proposition 8 and civil rights issues, programming languages on her personal blog.

Patterson has contributed multiple articles to the blog BoingBoing. In spring of 2008, she published a paper with David Chaum and Len Sassaman in a USENIX workshop criticizing the lack of attention paid to user-privacy in the OLPC computer. A two-time CodeCon presenter, Patterson married the co-organizer of the event, Len Sassaman, after a public proposal at CodeCon 2006; as Sassaman was famous among the geek community, their marriage was held up as an example of a geek power couple. They were together until Sassman's death in 2011. Patterson, diagnosed with autism in adulthood, has stated that "a single-minded focus" has helped her to have an "overwhelmingly positive relationship" with the male-dominated technology community. Although acknowledging that other women have experienced discrimination or sexual assault, she has urged advocacy groups not to minimize the experiences of women who feel welcome, prefers the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology over the Ada Initiative on these grounds.

Data privacy Information privacy Information security Official website Meredith L. Patterson at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

Perfluorosulfonic acids

Perfluorosulfonic acids are chemical compounds of the formula CnFSO3H and thus belong to the family of perfluorinated and polyfluorinated alkyl compounds. The simplest example of a perfluorosulfonic acid is the trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Perfluorosulfonic acids with six or more perfluorinated carbon atoms, i.e. from perfluorohexanesulfonic acid onwards, are referred to as long-chain. Perfluorosulfonic acids are organofluoroanalogues of conventional alkanesulfonic acids, but they are several pKA units stronger, their perfluoroalkyl chain has a hydrophobic character. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, for example, has been used in hard chromium plating. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid was included in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and subsequently in the EU POPs Regulation. Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid including its salts and related compounds was proposed for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention

Anthony Gomes

Anthony Gomes is a Canadian blues and blues rock guitarist and singer. He was born to a French-Canadian mother. After his 1998 debut album release Blues in Technicolor, he began touring the United States and Canada and he has since recorded eight more albums. Gomes resides in St. Louis, United States, playing a fusion of blues with rock and soul, with the Anthony Gomes Band has toured North America and Europe. 1998: Blues in Technicolor 2000: Sweet Stringin' Soul 2002: Unity 2006: Long Way Home reissue of 1997 album 2006: Music Is The Medicine 2008: Anthony Gomes Live 2008: Primary Colors reissue of another 1997 album 2009: New Soul Cowboys 2012: Up 2 Zero 2013:... Before The Beginning 2014: Rebel Blue 2015: Electric Field Holler 2018: Peace, Love & Loud Guitars 1998: Buddy Guy's Legends "Best Unsigned Blues Band" 2003: BluesWax Artist of the Year Official website Fan website

List of Pokémon: Advanced Battle episodes

Pokémon: Advanced Battle is the eighth season of Pokémon, a Japanese anime television series known in Japan as Pocket Monsters: Advanced Generation. It aired in Japan from September 2004 to September 2005 on TV Tokyo and in the United States from September 2005 to July 2006 on Kids' WB; the first 38 episodes of the season are set in the fictional Hoenn region, follow the adventures of the ten-year-old Pokémon trainer Ash Ketchum and his electric mouse partner Pikachu as they collect Gym Badges so they can compete in the Hoenn League competition, as well as the Pokémon coordinator May, who earns Ribbons from Pokémon Contests so she can enter the Hoenn Grand Festival. In episodes 39 to 52 of the season, set in the fictional Kanto region, Ash competes in the Battle Frontier by earning Frontier Symbols from Frontier Brains, while May competes to earn Contest Ribbons so she can enter the Kanto Grand Festival; the episodes were directed by Masamitsu Hidaka and produced by the animation studio OLM.

The Japanese opening songs are "Challenger!!" by Rika Matsumoto for 13 episodes, "Pokemon Symphonic Medley" by Hirokazu Tanaka and Kazumi Mitome for 29 episodes, "Battle Frontier" by Akina Takaya for 11 episodes. The ending songs are "Smile" by Toshiko Ezaki for 6 episodes, "GLORY DAY ~ That Shining Day~" by GARDEN for 35 episodes, "Pokemon Counting Song" by Akiko Kanazawa for 11 episodes; the English opening song is "Unbeatable" by David Rolfe. The division between seasons of Pokémon is based on the English version openings of each episode, may not reflect the actual production season; the English episode numbers are based on their first airing in the United States either on The WB or on Cartoon Network. Subsequent airings of the English version follow the original Japanese order, except in the case of episodes which are no longer shown in English; this season aired first-run episodes in Japan from September 9, 2004, to September 29, 2005. In the United States, it aired from September 17, 2005, to July 8, 2006.

It aired in the United States as part of the 2005-2006 Kids' WB! Saturday morning line-up; this is the last season of Pokémon dubbed into English by 4Kids Entertainment as well as the last season to air on Kids' WB. The series was released on 10 DVD volumes by Viz Media. Viz Media released Pokémon: Advanced Battle – The Complete Collection on DVD on June 12, 2018. In the Japanese version, the episode "The Scheme Team" was the last performance of the late voice actor Hirotaka Suzuoki as Giovanni in the Pokémon series, before his death one year later. Kenta Miyake took over the role of Giovanni afterward. In the episode "Once in a Mawile", the theme opening changes a little, various episodes have been re-aired on Tribune Stations in 2006; the eighth season of Pokémon was licensed by 4Kids Entertainment in North America and other English-speaking territories, was formerly distributed by Warner Bros. Family Entertainment/Warner Bros. Television Animation on US television in North America, when it aired on Kids’ WB! and Cartoon Network.

It is now licensed by The Pokémon Company International and distributed by VIZ Media, LLC and its VizKids unit on both home video and television. This is the last season to have "Pokémon Trainer's Choice" segments, next season, commercial break bumper replaces "Pokémon Trainer's Choice". Pokémon episodes removed from rotation Pokémon US official website Pokémon anime website at TV Tokyo Pokémon: Advanced Generation website at TV Tokyo Pokémon TV Anime at Pokémon JP official website

Salum Barwany

Salum Khalfan Barwany or Salum Khalfani Bar'wani is a Tanzanian CUF politician and Member of Parliament for Lindi Town constituency since 2010. He is the first Tanzanian MP with albinism to be elected to parliament, he was elected to the National Assembly of Tanzania on 2 November 2010 from the district of Lindi Urban in the far south-east, is the first albino to be elected to the Bunge in the country's history. Upon his election, Bar'wani stated: "I am so touched that this is the first time in the electoral history of this country for an albino to be elected by the people in a popular contest to be their representative in parliament – and not through sympathy votes or decisions." Tanzania is a country noted both for a high incidence of albinism, persecution of people with albinism by a cult of witchdoctors with considerable influence and power in rural areas