A gender role known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their biological or perceived sex. Gender roles are centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations; the specifics regarding these gendered expectations may vary among cultures, while other characteristics may be common throughout a range of cultures. There is ongoing debate as to what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, to what extent they are constructed. Various groups, most notably the feminist movements, have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate; the term gender role was first used by John Money and colleagues in 1954, during the course of his study of intersex individuals, to describe the manners in which these individuals expressed their status as a male or female in a situation where no clear biological assignment existed.
The World Health Organization defines gender roles as "socially constructed roles, behaviors and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women". Debate continues as to what extent gender and gender roles are constructed, to what extent "socially constructed" may be considered synonymous with "arbitrary" or "malleable". Therefore, a concise authoritative definition of gender roles or gender itself is elusive. In the sociology of gender, the process whereby an individual learns and acquires a gender role in society is termed gender socialization. Gender roles are culturally specific, while most cultures distinguish only two, others recognize more. Androgyny, for example, has been proposed as a third gender. Androgynous is a person with qualities pertaining to both the male and female gender. Other societies have claimed to identify more than five genders, some non-Western societies have three genders – man and third gender; some individuals identify with no gender at all.
Many transgender people reject the idea that they are a separate third gender, identify as men or women. However, biological differences between trans women and cisgender women have been treated as relevant in certain contexts those where biological traits may yield an unfair advantage such as sport. Gender role, which refers to the cultural expectations as understood by gender classification, is not the same thing as gender identity, which refers to the internal sense of one's own gender, whether or not it aligns with categories offered by societal norms; the point at which these internalized gender identities become externalized into a set of expectations is the genesis of a gender role. Some theories – which are collectively termed social construction theories – claim that gender behavior is due to social conventions, although opposing theories disagree, such as theories in evolutionary psychology. Most children learn to categorize themselves by gender by the age of three. From birth, in the course of gender socialization, children learn gender stereotypes and roles from their parents and environment.
In a traditional view, males learn to manipulate their physical and social environment through physical strength or dexterity, while girls learn to present themselves as objects to be viewed. Social constructionists state, for example, that gender-segregated children's activities create the appearance that gender differences in behavior reflect an essential nature of male and female behavior; as an aspect of role theory, gender role theory "treats these differing distributions of women and men into roles as the primary origin of sex-differentiated social behavior, their impact on behavior is mediated by psychological and social processes." According to Gilbert Herdt, gender roles arose from correspondent inference, meaning that general labour division was extended to gender roles. Gender roles are considered by social constructionists to be hierarchical, are characterized as a male-advantaged gender hierarchy; the term patriarchy, according to researcher Andrew Cherlin, defines "a social order based on the domination of women by men in agricultural societies".
According to Eagly et al. the consequences of gender roles and stereotypes are sex-typed social behavior because roles and stereotypes are both shared descriptive norms and prescriptive norms. Judith Butler, in works such as Gender Trouble and Undoing Gender, contends that being female is not "natural" and that it appears natural only through repeated performances of gender. Working in the United States, Talcott Parsons developed a model of the nuclear family in 1955, which at that place and time was the prevalent family structure, it compared a traditional view of gender roles with a more liberal view. The Parsons model was used to illustrate extreme positions on gender roles. Model A describes total separation of male and female roles, while Model B describes the complete dissolution of gender roles. However, these structured positions become less a liberal-individualist society, the actual behavior of individuals is somewhere between these poles. According to the interactionist approach, roles are not fixed but are negotiated between individuals.
Bishop Cyril S. Terlecki was a religious and political figure and one of the initiators of the conclusion of the Union of Brest in 1596, he came from a noble family. Members of this family held high ecclesiastical positions in the first half of the 15th century. In the 1560s, he was the archpriest of St. Dmitry in Pinsk. In 1572, the Bishop of Turov-Pinsk, Andrew Rusin, died. In 1575, who at that time was a widower and could accept monastic tonsure, began fighting for the Turov-Pinsk Diocese and during the interregnum received a diploma in Turov-Pinsk diocese. Terlecki supported Prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski. Becoming a bishop, Terlecki demanded rights and privileges of the clergy, collected documents from the historical past of his bishop, made a diocesan archives. Special attention is paid to strengthening the economic situation of the church. Built the Church of St. Ghost in Pinsk, cared for the poor. In 1585 the bishop of Lutsko Ostrozhsky, John-Borzobahatyy Krasenskyy, died. In May 1585, King Stefan Batory appointed Terlecki Lutsko-Ostrog bishop.
In August 1589 Ecumenical Patriarch Jeremias II appointed Terlecki as Exarch – the first for a Ukrainian bishop. Church career 1575 – 1585 – Turov-Pinsk Orthodox bishop 1585 – 1595 – Lutsk-Ostrog Orthodox bishop 1596 – 1607 – Lutsk-Ostrog Uniate BishopUnion Decline of the Orthodox Church in the lands of the Commonwealth led Terlecki and other bishops to seek a rapprochement with the Catholic Church. In June 1590 the congress of bishops in Belha, Terlecki together with other bishops first raised the issue of the necessity of the Orthodox and Catholic churches. In 1594 at the Congress in the Zocalo, Terlecki instructed to negotiate the conclusion of a future union. In June 1595 members of the cathedral at Brest agreed texts of the appeals to the Polish King Sigismund III Vasa and Pope Clement VIII, decided to send a delegation consisting of Terlecki and Ipatii Potii to Rome. Terlecki participated in the Cathedral of Brest in 1596, solemnly proclaimed the conclusion of Metropolis of Kiev´s church union and the Catholic Church.
In 1598 received from King Sigismund III Vasa the title of archimandrite. Buried in Lutsk Cathedral. Encyclopedia of Ukrainian studies. In 10's t / Gl. yet. Kubiyovych Vladimir. – Paris, New York: Young Life, 1954–1989. History of Ukraine Leonid Gaidai in persons, terms and concepts.- Luck: The Tower, 2000. Guide to history in the Ukraine yet. Horseshoe I. and R. Shust.- K.: Genesis, 2001. Ukrainian Soviet encyclopaedic dictionary. – T. 3. – К. 1968. Kyrylo Terletsky at Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Enemies of Promise is a critical and autobiographical work written by Cyril Connolly first published in 1938. It comprises three parts, the first dedicated to Connolly's observations about English literature and the English literary world of his time, the second a list of adverse elements that affect the ability to be a good writer and the last an account of Connolly's early life; the overarching theme of the book is the search for understanding why Connolly, though he was recognised as a leading man of letters and a distinguished critic, failed to produce a major work of literature. This part consists of an erudite discussion of literary styles, with Connolly posing the question of what the following ten years would bring in the world of literature and what sort of writing would last, he summarises the two main styles as follows: "We have seen that there are two styles which it is convenient to describe as the realist, or vernacular, the style of rebels, common-sense addicts, unromantic observers of human destiny – and the Mandarin, the artificial style of men of letters or of those in authority who make letters their spare time occupation."His examples of exponents of the Mandarin style include Lytton Strachey, Virginia Woolf, Marcel Proust, Aldous Huxley and James Joyce, the dominant literary character of the 1920s.
Examples of vernacular or realist exponents include Ernest Hemingway, Somerset Maugham, Christopher Isherwood and George Orwell, the dominant force in the 1930s. Connolly quotes a few lines of The Village by George Crabbe and naturalist, which describe the weeds which choke the rye, he uses this as an analogy for the factors. The blue bugloss represents journalism when pursued out of economic necessity. Thistles represent politics relevant in the left-wing literary atmosphere of the 1930s. Poppies are used to cover all forms of escapism, it is in this chapter that Connolly dwells on the tyranny of "promise" as the burden of expectation. Charlock is a representation of sex, with the most problematic aspects being, on the one hand, homosexuality and, on the other, the tares of domesticity; the Slimy Mallows represent success, the most insidious enemy of literature. Connolly explores what positive advice can be given on how to produce a work of literature that lasts ten years. Working through all the forms, he identifies those.
The last part is an autobiographical outline of his life until he left Eton at 18. Most of the material relates with two preceding chapters, he comments "Somewhere in the facts I have recorded lurk the causes of that sloth by which I have been disabled, somewhere lies the sin whose guilt is at my door, increased by compound interest faster than promise, through them run those romantic ideas and fallacies, those errors of judgement against which the validity of my criticism must be measured."In "The Branching Ogham", Connolly describes his early life as a single child living variously with his army father in South Africa, his aunt at Clontarf Castle in Ireland and with his grandmother in England. His grandmother spoilt him and at his early school he notes he was popular "for I had embarked on the career, to occupy me for the next ten years of trying to be funny"; as a child in Ireland he had a sympathy for the romantic vision of Irish nationalism but was unable to live the part. "White Samite" is his recollection of his schooldays at St Wulfric's, where the ethos of "character" went hand in hand with romanticism in literature.
He absorbed the "purple patch" approach to literature but rejected "character" inspired in different ways by Cecil Beaton and George Orwell. He wrote "year by year, the air, the discipline, the teaching, the association with other boys and the driving will of Flip took effect on me": he became a popular wit and achieved a scholarship to Eton. Connolly's first two years at Eton he recalls as the "Dark Ages", where he was subjected to arbitrary beatings and bullying, which affected his nerves, he got a bad report, he established a friendship with one of his tormentors Godfrey Meynell, a boy of an identical background but who instead followed a military career and won a posthumous Victoria Cross on the North West Frontier. Another senior with whom he established rapport was Roger Mynors. "I was now fifteen, inky, untidy, a bad fag, a coward at games, lazy at work, unpopular with my masters and superiors, anxious to curry favour and yet to bully whom I dared." "Renaissance" marks a settled period for Connolly at the end of his second year establishing his popularity and friendship with others with a shared interest in literature, Dadie Rylands among others.
It includes the start of a semi-romantic brother substitute friendship with "Nigel". The chapter digresses into extensive details of school personalities and intrigues, an insight into the world of Eton. "The art of getting on at school depends on a mixture of enthusiasm with moral cowardice and social sense". The chapter concludes with Connolly's "first trip abroad" to Paris and a mortifying experience when he was lured into a brothel; the "Background of the Lilies" refers to the pre-Raphaelite culture in vogue at Eton and discusses the contributions to Connolly's development of five key teachers, including Hugh Macnaughten, "an ogre for the purple patch", who personified the romantic pre-Raphaelite tradition and the ruling philosophy of Platonism, headmaster Cyril Alington, a worldly teacher with the cult of light verse such as Winthrop Mackworth Praed and Eton's own J. K. Stephen. Connolly's criticism is expressed: "For the culture of the lilies, rooted in the past, divorced from reality, dependent on a dead foreign to
"This Picture" is a single by British alternative rock band Placebo, from their fourth studio album, Sleeping with Ghosts, released on 9 June 2003. It was the second single off of the album. "This Picture" was remixed by Junior Sanchez for the bonus remix CD of Once More with Feeling. It tells the story of a relationship involving sadomasochism and an abusive female in a position of dominance. In the lyrics, the phrase "ashtray girl" is meant to refer to a woman who uses her partner as an "emotional ashtray"; as singer/lyricist Brian Molko commented, prior to its performance at a concert, There's an old story that somebody told me once about James Dean. For those of you who don't know this yet, James Dean was gay. Yes, I'm sorry, it's true, he had a particular fetish. That's kind of an image that's always stayed with me, part of the inspiration for this song; this Picture was released by Hut Recordings on 9 June 2003. Dale Price of Drowned in Sound regarded it as one of the best songs on Sleeping with Ghosts and compared it favourably to the band's earlier single "You Don't Care About Us".
The single peaked at no. 23 in the UK Singles Chart. The music video features the Italian actress Asia Argento. CD Australian CD version 7" DVD "This Picture" Interview footage "This Picture" "Jackie" - audio track
"Der gute Kamerad" known by its incipit as Ich hatt' einen Kameraden is a traditional lament of the German Armed Forces. The text was written by German poet Ludwig Uhland in 1809, its immediate inspiration was the deployment of Badener troops against the Tyrolean Rebellion. In 1825, the composer Friedrich Silcher set it based on the tune of a Swiss folk song; the song is about the immediate experience of a soldier losing a comrade in battle, detached from all political or national ideology. The song has become traditional in obsequies of the Military of Austria, the Austrian firebrigades and the prussianized Chilean Army and the National Army of Colombia, it is used to some degree in the French Army in the Foreign Legion. When the song is played, soldiers are to salute, an honour otherwise reserved for national anthems only; the song is played at civil ceremonies, most when the deceased had been affiliated with the military. It is commonly sung at the funerals of members of a Studentenverbindung.
The song is played on Volkstrauertag, the German Remembrance Day, at memorials for the fallen. The above text is Uhland's original version. Various variants have been recorded over the years. Heyman Steinthal in an 1880 article in Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie noted a variant he heard sung by a housemaid, Die Kugel kam geflogen / Gilt sie mir? Gilt sie dir?. Steinthal argued that this version was an improvement over Uhland's text, making reference to the concept of a "fateful bullet" in military tradition and giving a more immediate expression of the fear felt by the soldier in the line of fire. A Berber language translation has been written by Ait-Amrane Mohamed in 1947 in tribute to a friend of his who had died; the Berber text was made famous by the Algerian kabyle singer Idir during the seventies. A different text was used by another famous Algerian singer called Ferhat Imazighen imula; the tune is used for the eponymous Spanish Civil War song about the death of Hans Beimler. German playwright Carl Zuckmayer in 1966 used the song's line "Als wär's ein Stück von mir" as the title for his hugely successful autobiography.
Kurt Oesterle Die heimliche deutsche Hymne, Schwäbisches Tagblatt 15 November 1997 Uli Otto, Eginhard König: Ich hatt’ einen Kameraden…, Mainz 1999. Ich hatt' einen Kameraden, old recording by the French Foreign Legion Ich hatt' einen Kameraden: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Translation into several languages, including English
Rebecca Musser is an author and activist. She is known for being a wife of the late Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints prophet Rulon Jeffs and for her escape and involvement in legal proceedings after leaving the church. Rebecca Wall was born to Lloyd Wall and Sharon Steed, both of whom were members of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and had a polygamous family; when she turned 19, she became the 19th bride of Rulon Jeffs after he received'divine inspiration' that she was to be his new wife. Wall endured years of sexual abuse by the elder Jeffs until his death in 2002, aged 92. Following his passing, she was able to escape the compound by scaling a wall which surrounded the house and slipping past Jeffs' armed guards. At the time of his death, Rulon Jeffs was married to 64 women. After Jeffs' death, Musser was told by Jeffs' son and new church leader Warren Jeffs that she needed to remarry. Shortly after this encounter, Musser fled the compound and relocated to Oregon to live with her brother.
Musser testified against Warren Jeffs a total of 20 times and helped prosecutors to win 11 convictions against him. During one of the days testifying for the trial she showed up in a sleeveless red dress; this was significant because the color red had been banned by Jeffs for all church members. The red dress became significant again when Musser was writing her memoir. After testifying, Musser made headlines in the New York Daily News, AOL, Marie Claire, among others. Musser is a member of Sheroes United, a non-profit organization that embraces female role models in communities. Musser is featured as a Shero on their website with a biography focusing on life after leaving the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, she has founded the non-profit organization ClaimRED, an organization dedicated to those who have become victims of human trafficking. In 2013 Musser wrote the memoir The Witness Wore Red: The 19th Wife Who Brought Polygamous Cult Leaders to Justice along with author M. Bridget Cook.
The book received a positive welcome from The Today Show and was featured in their'Today Books' section. The book was featured on NPR, Secular News Daily, Publishers Weekly, among other media outlets as well. Musser is the sister of Elissa Wall, author of the memoir Stolen Innocence, an account of her own escape from the church. Musser is mentioned in the book, including her reaction to the fact that Wall had to marry her own cousin at age 14, she is the widow of deceased prophet Rulon Jeffs, making over 63 other women her "sister-wives", a designation given to the polygamous wives of one man in the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Being the wife of Rulon Jeffs, Musser was a stepmother to Warren Jeffs, their relationship was abusive because Warren threatened her life and tried to force her to remarry after the death of his father. She is one of one of 25 children born to her father. After leaving the church, Musser married Rulon Jeffs' grandson and had two children, son Kyle and daughter Natalia, before divorcing