The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations or The Great Exhibition, an international exhibition, took place in Hyde Park, from 1 May to 15 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th century, it was a much anticipated event; the Great Exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and by Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria. Famous people of the time attended, including Charles Darwin, Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot, Alfred Tennyson and William Makepeace Thackeray; the Exposition des produits de l'industrie française organized in Paris, from 1798 to 1849 were precursors to the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design.
It was arguably a response to the effective French Industrial Exposition of 1844: indeed, its prime motive was for Britain to make "clear to the world its role as industrial leader". Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's consort, was an enthusiastic promoter of the self-financing exhibition. Queen Victoria and her family visited three times. Although the Great Exhibition was a platform on which countries from around the world could display their achievements, Britain sought to prove its own superiority; the British exhibits at the Great Exhibition "held the lead in every field where strength, durability and quality were concerned, whether in iron and steel, machinery or textiles." Britain sought to provide the world with the hope of a better future. Europe had just struggled through "two difficult decades of political and social upheaval," and now Britain hoped to show that technology its own, was the key to a better future. Sophie Forgan says of the Exhibition that "Large, piled-up ‘trophy’ exhibits in the central avenue revealed the organisers’ priorities.
Technology and moving machinery were popular working exhibits." She notes that visitors "could watch the entire process of cotton production from spinning to finished cloth. Scientific instruments were found in class X, included electric telegraphs, air pumps and barometers, as well as musical and surgical instruments."A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace, or "The Great Shalimar", was built to house the show. It was designed by Joseph Paxton with support from structural engineer Charles Fox, the committee overseeing its construction including Isambard Kingdom Brunel, went from its organisation to the grand opening in just nine months; the building was architecturally adventurous, drawing on Paxton's experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire. It took the form of a massive glass house, 1848 feet long by 454 feet wide and was constructed from cast iron-frame components and glass made exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick. From the interior, the building's large size was emphasized with statues.
The Crystal Palace was an enormous success, considered an architectural marvel, but an engineering triumph that showed the importance of the Exhibition itself. The building was moved and re-erected in 1854 in enlarged form at Sydenham Hill in south London, an area, renamed Crystal Palace, it was destroyed by fire on 30 November 1936. Six million people—equivalent to a third of the entire population of Britain at the time—visited the Great Exhibition; the average daily attendance was 42,831 with a peak attendance of 109,915 on 7 October. The event made a surplus of £186,000, used to found the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum and the Natural History Museum, they were all built in the area to the south of the exhibition, nicknamed Albertopolis, alongside the Imperial Institute. The remaining surplus was used to set up an educational trust to provide grants and scholarships for industrial research; the Exhibition caused controversy. Some conservatives feared that the mass of visitors might become a revolutionary mob, whilst radicals such as Karl Marx saw the exhibition as an emblem of a capitalist fetishism of commodities.
King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, shortly before his death, wrote to Lord Strangford about it: The folly and absurdity of the Queen in allowing this trumpery must strike every sensible and well-thinking mind, I am astonished the ministers themselves do not insist on her at least going to Osborne during the Exhibition, as no human being can answer for what may occur on the occasion. The idea... must shock every well-meaning Englishman. But it seems. In modern times, the Great Exhibition is a symbol of the Victorian Age, its thick catalogue, illustrated with steel engravings, is a primary source for High Victorian design. A memorial to the exhibition, crowned with a statue of Prince Albert, is locate
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Gothenburg Exhibition (1923)
The Gothenburg Tercentennial Jubilee Exposition was a world's fair held in Gothenburg, Sweden during 1923 marking 300th anniversary of the founding of the city. The fair ran until 30 September. One site was at an existing gardened area, it was opened to the public for the exhibition, hosted several pavilions, including an industrial art house, an exports exhibition, a congress hall and a machine hall and amusement rides including a carousel. The Arts and Craft Pavilion was designed by Hakon Ahlberg and the arts exhibition pavilion by architects Sigfrid Ericson and Arvid Bjerke. Artist David Wallin had a solo exhibition in here including his paintings Summer and Springtime in the forest; the Liseberg site continued as an amusement park, is now the most visited tourist attraction in Sweden, receiving 3 million visits annuallyThe arts exhibition building is now a contemporary arts gallery, the Göteborgs Konsthall near to the extant Götaplatsen square, inaugurated for the fair. Gothenburg Botanical Garden Gothenburg quadricentennial jubilee Södergren, Arvid Historiskt kartverk över Göteborg upprättat för jubileumsutställningen i Göteborg A plan of Göteborgs Konsthall as it looked in 1923 Images taken from the official brochure
Gustaf Ferdinand Boberg was a Swedish architect. Boberg was born in Falun, he became one of the most productive and prominent architects of Stockholm around the turn of the 20th century. Among his most famous work is an electrical plant at Björns Trädgård in Stockholm, inspired by Middle Eastern architecture; the building is now the Stockholm Mosque. He designed Nordiska Kompaniet, the most prominent department store in Stockholm and Rosenbad which today houses the Swedish government chancellery. After retiring as an architect in 1915, Boberg and his wife Anna traveled around Sweden with the aim of preserving the cultural heritage through a book of drawings. Over 3,000 sketches were made and around 1,000 drawings were published in the volume Svenska bilder. Boberg died in Stockholm, aged 86. Media related to Ferdinand Boberg at Wikimedia Commons
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event. More than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, attended by nearly 19.7 million people. Historians emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, the fair's long-lasting impact on intellectuals in the fields of history, art history and anthropology. From the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture. In 1904, St. Louis hosted a World's Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase; the idea for such a commemorative event seems to have emerged early in 1898, with Kansas City and St. Louis presented as potential hosts for a fair based on their central location within the territory encompassed by the 1803 land annexation.
The exhibition was grand in scale and lengthy in preparation, with an initial $5 million committed by the city of St. Louis through the sale of city bonds was authorized by the Missouri state legislature in April 1899. An additional $5 million was generated through private donations by interested citizens and businesses from around Missouri, a fundraising target reached in January 1901; the final installment of $5 million of the exposition's $15 million capitalization came in the form of earmarked funds that were part of a congressional appropriations bill passed at the end of May 1900. The fundraising mission was aided by the active support of President of the United States William McKinley, won by organizers in a February 1899 White House visit. While conceived as a centennial celebration to be held in 1903, the actual opening of the St. Louis exposition was delayed until April 30, 1904, to allow for full-scale participation by more states and foreign countries; the exposition remained in operation from its opening until December 1, 1904.
During the year of the fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition supplanted the annual St. Louis Exposition of agricultural and scientific exhibitions, held in the city since the 1880s; the fair's 1,200-acre site, designed by George Kessler, was located at the present-day grounds of Forest Park and on the campus of Washington University, was the largest fair to date. There were over 1,500 buildings, connected by some 75 miles of walkways, it was said to be impossible to give a hurried glance at everything in less than a week. The Palace of Agriculture alone covered some 20 acres. Exhibits were staged by 50 foreign nations, the United States government, 43 of the then-45 U. S. states. These featured industries, private organizations and corporations, theater troupes, music schools. There were over 50 concession-type amusements found on "The Pike". Over 19 million individuals were in attendance at the fair. In conjunction with the Exposition the U. S. Post Office issued a series of five commemorative stamps celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase.
The 1-cent value portrayed Robert Livingston, the ambassador who negotiated the purchase with France, the 2-cent value depicts Thomas Jefferson, who executed the purchase, the 3-cent honors James Monroe, who participated in negotiations with the French, the 5-cent memorializes William McKinley, involved with early plans for the Exposition and the 10-cent presents a map of the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana Purchase Commemoratives Kessler, who designed many urban parks in Texas and the Midwest, created the master design for the Fair. A popular myth says that Frederick Law Olmsted, who had died the year before the Fair, designed the park and fair grounds. There are several reasons for this confusion. First, Kessler in his twenties had worked for Olmsted as a Central Park gardener. Second, Olmsted was involved with Forest Park in New York. Third, Olmsted had planned the renovations in 1897 to the Missouri Botanical Garden several blocks to the southeast of the park. Olmsted's sons advised Washington University on integrating the campus with the park across the street.
In 1901 the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Corporation selected prominent St. Louis architect Isaac S. Taylor as the Chairman of the Architectural Commission and Director of Works for the fair, supervising the overall design and construction. Taylor appointed Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be his Chief of Design. In the position for three years, Masqueray designed the following Fair buildings: Palace of Agriculture, the Cascades and Colonnades, Palace of Forestry and Game, Palace of Horticulture and Palace of Transportation, all of which were emulated in civic projects across the United States as part of the City Beautiful movement. Masqueray resigned shortly after the Fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city. Paul J. Pelz was architect for the Palace of Machinery. According to a claim in a 1923 edition of The Colored Citizen of Pensacola, the majority of work in building the fair was done by African Americans, including all the engineering calculations for the layout of the park.
Many African Americans were not credited. Florence Hayward, a successful freelance writer in St. Lo
Ibero-American Exposition of 1929
The Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 was a world's fair held in Seville, from 9 May 1929 until 21 June 1930. Countries in attendance of the exposition included: Portugal, the United States, Uruguay, Peru, Chile, the Republic of Colombia, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Panama, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Ecuador; each Spanish region and each of the provinces of Andalusia were represented. Spain’s Dictator General Miguel Primo de Rivera gave the opening address. Primo de Rivera allowed the Spanish King Alfonso XIII to give the final words and open the exposition; the purpose of the exposition was to improve relations between Spain and the countries in attendance, all of which have historical ties with Spain through colonization or political union. Other countries were represented at the International section in Barcelona; the exposition was smaller in scale than the International Exposition held in Barcelona during that same year, but it was not lacking in style. The city of Seville had prepared for the Exposition over the course of 19 years.
The exhibition buildings were constructed in María Luisa Park along the Guadalquivir River. A majority of the buildings were built to remain permanent after the closing of the exposition. Many of the foreign buildings, including the United States exhibition building, were to be used as consulates after the closing of the exhibits. By the opening of the exposition all of the buildings were complete, although many were no longer new. Not long before the opening of the Exposition, the Spanish government began a modernization of the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new hotels and widening the medieval streets to allow for the movement of automobiles. Spain spent a large amount of money in developing its exhibits for the fair and constructed elaborate buildings to hold them; the exhibits were designed to show the social and economic progress of Spain as well as expressing its culture. Spanish architect Aníbal González designed the largest and most famous of the buildings, which surrounded the Plaza de España.
The largest of the exhibits housed in this building was located in the “Salón del Descubrimento de América.” The Salón contained documents and other objects related to the discovery of the Americas, including a set of 120 letters and manuscript that had belonged to Christopher Columbus, the last testament of Hernán Cortés, detailed dioramas of historic moments. An exact replica of Columbus's ship the "Santa María," complete with a costumed crew, floated on the Guadalquivir River; the cities of Spain contributed structures designed to reflect their unique cultures to be placed in the "Pabellones de las regiones españolas". Spain’s exhibits included a large collection of art located in the Palacio Mudéjar, Palacio Renacimiento, the Palacio de la Casa Real; the Institute of Art from the University of Seville was moved to the Palacio Mudéjar for the duration of the exposition on the permission gained from the exposition committee by Count Columbi. The committee set aside funds from their budget to purchase materials for the Institute.
The United States' contribution to the exposition consisted of three buildings and marked the end to a several year period in which the United States did not construct buildings for foreign expositions. The main building was to serve as the U. S. consulate office after the closing of the Ibero-American exposition, housed a menagerie of electrical appliances including oil furnaces, electric refrigerators, airplane models, miniature wind tunnels. The other two structures housed a movie theatre and government exhibits, including contributions from the Departments of Agriculture and Labor, the Commission of Fine Arts, the Navy, the Library of Congress. Of the Ibero-American nations in attendance of the exposition, 10 constructed pavilions to display their exhibits. Other nations, including Bolivia, Panama, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Ecuador displayed their native products in the "Galerías comerciales americanas"; the largest of the ten pavilions was the Peruvian pavilion, designed by the architect Don Manuel Piqueras Cotolí.
The pavilion contained a large archeology collection consisting of three halls filled with pre-Columbian era artifacts, which were to be kept on permanent display. The pavilion contained an agricultural exhibit filled with stuffed vicuñas, alpacas and guanacos; the exhibit was complemented by a pack of live llamas grazing on the pavilion grounds. The Republic of Colombia constructed a pavilion designed by Seville architect José Granados; the pavilion included a collection of sculpture and artwork by Colombian artist Rómulo Rozo, of Colombian emeralds, a coffee café that demonstrated all of the steps in coffee cultivation. The Brazilian pavilion contained a coffee cultivation exhibit complete with panoramas and models illustrating the different phases of cultivation. Architect Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos designed the pavilion, which included a coffee bar. Chilean architect Juan Martínez designed the three-story building that served as home to Chile's exhibits; the exhibits included displays of Chilean industries, including detailed replicas of a nitrate mine and a copper plant, Araucanian arts and crafts, galleries displaying Chilean art and history.
The Mexican pavilion, designed by Manuel Amabilis, included exhibits on archeology and the history of Spanish accomplishments in Mexico. Students in Mexican schools pr
1929 Barcelona International Exposition
The 1929 Barcelona International Exposition was the second World Fair to be held in Barcelona, the first one being in 1888. It took place from 20 May 1929 to 15 January 1930 in Barcelona, Spain, it was held on Montjuïc, the hill overlooking the harbor, southwest of the city center, covered an area of 118 hectares at an estimated cost of 130 million pesetas. Twenty European nations participated in the fair, including Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Norway and Switzerland. In addition, private organizations from the United States and Japan participated. Latin American countries as well as the United States were represented in the Ibero-Americana section in Sevilla; the previous 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition had led to a great advance in the city's economic and technological growth and development, including the reconstruction of the Parc de la Ciutadella, the city's main public park. A new exposition was proposed to highlight the city's further technological progress and increase awareness abroad of modern Catalan industry.
This new exhibition required the urban planning of Montjuïc and its adjacent areas and the renovation of public spaces, principally Plaça d'Espanya. The exposition called for a great deal of urban development within the city, became a testing-ground for the new architectural styles developed in the early 20th century. At a local level, this meant the consolidation of Noucentisme, a classical style that replaced the Modernisme predominating in Catalonia at the turn of the 20th century. Furthermore, it marked the arrival in Spain of international avant-garde tendencies rationalism, as seen in the design of the Barcelona Pavilion, created by German Bauhaus architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; the Exposition allowed for the erection of several emblematic buildings and structures, including the Palau Nacional de Catalunya, the Font màgica de Montjuïc, the Teatre Grec, Poble Espanyol, the Estadi Olímpic. The idea of a new exhibition began to take shape in 1905, promoted by the architect Josep Puig i Cadafalch, as a way of bringing out the new Plan of links designed by Léon Jaussely.
It was proposed that the Exposition should be constructed in the area of the Besòs River, but instead, in 1913, planners selected Montjuïc as the site. While planned for 1917, the exposition was delayed due to World War I. Puig i Cadafalch's project was supported by the Fomento del Trabajo Nacional Francesc d'Assis, one of its leaders, who took charge of negotiations with the various agencies involved in the project. Thus, in 1913 the organization created a joint committee for organizing the event, consisting of representatives of the National Labor Development and the City Council, be appointed commissioners of the organization Josep Puig i Cadafalch, Francesc Cambo and Joan Pitch i Pon. In 1915, the committee presented a first draft by Puig i Cadafalch, divided into three specific projects, each commissioned to a team of architects. Puig i Cadafalch and Guillem Busquets reserved the area at the base of the mountain, Lluis Domenech i Montaner and Manuel Vega i March planned the area atop the mountain—designated the International Section, Enric Sagnier and August Font i Carreras Miramar developed a Maritime Section.
The principal difficulty of the project was the amount of land required. The exposition would need at least 110 hectares, the Barcelona City Council had only 26 by 1914. Thus, using an 1879 law, they resorted to land-expropriation. In 1917, development work began with assistant engineer Marià Rubio i Bellver. Landscaping was done by Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, assisted by Maria Rubio i Tudurí Nicolau, their design was distinctly Mediterranean, with classical influences, combining the gardens with the construction of pergolas and terraces. A funicular was built to allow access to the top of the mountain, as well as an aerial tram, which connected the mountain with the Port of Barcelona. However, the aerial tram did not open until 1931. Construction, while somewhat delayed, was completed in 1923, but the introduction that year of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera delayed the actual exposition, which occurred in 1929, coinciding with the Ibero-American Exhibition in Seville; the delay made obsolete the goal of promoting electrical industry, so that in 1925 the event was renamed the International Exhibition in Barcelona.
The change of objective led to the reorganization of the exhibition, so that it was devoted to three aspects: industry, the sports, art. In this new period, the organization fell into the hands of Pere Domènech i Roura, the Marquis de Foronda, Director of Works. Further development of the event allowed for a great stylistic diversity in the buildings of various architects, some loyal to the Noucentisme prevailing at the time, others reflecting recurring historicist and eclectic trends that persisted since the late 19th century, with particular influence from the Spanish Baroque, in particular the architecture of Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia. Despite this diversity, most buildings—at least the official ones—had a common theme of monumentality and grandiosity. In contrast, buildings in the International Section, home to pavilions representing other countries and institutions, had a more contemporary aspect, parallel to the current state of the art of the period; this included Art Deco and rationalism.
The exposition was opened by King Alfonso XIII on 19 May 1929. Led by Mayor Darius Rumeu y Fre