McLaughlin Motor Car Company
The McLaughlin Motor Car Company Limited was a Canadian manufacturer of automobiles headquartered in Oshawa, Ontario. It became General Motors of Canada. McLaughlin Carriage Company began building wheeled carriages in 1869 beside the cutters and wagons in Robert McLaughlin's blacksmith's shop in Enniskillen, a small village 20 kilometres northeast of Oshawa. In need of more workers to build his horse-drawn carriages, staunch Presbyterian McLaughlin moved to Oshawa, Ontario in 1876. McLaughlin developed and in the early 1880s patented a fifth-wheel mechanism which improved comfort and safety. Attracting a great deal of demand he ignored tempting offers and elected to sell the mechanism to his competitors rather than license other manufacturers; this enthusiasm, now for his complete carriages, spread across Canada and before the end of the century there was a McLaughlin sales office in London, England. In 1898 McLaughlin produced more than 25,000 carriages but in 1899 the carriage works was destroyed by fire.
The City of Oshawa lent McLaughlin $50,000 to rebuild. McLaughlin Carriage Company of Canada Limited was incorporated in 1901 to own the new carriage works which again produced 15,000 units, this time in 140 different models. "An automobile of the latest design its use I will never disparage, but for comfort and pleasure give me a McLaughlin Reliable Carriage."By 1915 McLaughlin was making one carriage every ten minutes. This was the year McLaughlin Carriage Company was sold to Carriage Factories Limited of Orillia, Ontario, McLaughlin's largest competitor; the major carriage manufacturers switched to automobile bodies. Some of the automobiles retained whipsockets; the McLaughlin Motor Car Company Limited was formed in 1907 when McLaughlin began manufacturing automobiles under the leadership of Robert's son, Colonel Sam McLaughlin. McLaughlin's engine designer fell ill, so, under a fifteen-year contract, the Canadian automobiles received drive trains bought-in from the Buick plant in Flint, Michigan.
These cars were sold with the brand-name McLaughlin though the name McLaughlin-Buick appeared on some vehicles. This alliance with Buick Motor Company controlled by Sam McLaughlin's friend William C. Durant was confirmed by an exchange of a large parcel of McLaughlin stock for a corresponding amount of Buick stock. Durant was a partner in Durant-Dort and like Sam McLaughlin had been the largest carriage manufacturer in his country; the following year Buick, controlled by Durant and partner McLaughlin, formed General Motors Company with Charles Stewart Mott. Durant borrowed and bought other automotive businesses for his General Motors including Oldsmobile and Oakland but vehicle sales collapsed, factories were closed for twelve months and more and in 1910 Durant lost his control of General Motors Company to his bankers. Meanwhile General Motors retained the former Buick shareholding in McLaughlin. With Sam McLaughlin's financial help Durant started a new business in partnership with racing driver Louis Chevrolet.
Durant took control of Chevrolet and sold stock in a new business, Chevrolet Canada, so he was able to regain control of General Motors and in 1916 General Motors Corporation was formed with Sam McLaughlin Director and Vice President. McLaughlin began manufacturing Chevrolet automobiles for General Motors. By 1914 McLaughlin had built about 1,100 of his own cars. General Motors of Canada Limited was incorporated in 1918 and bought McLaughlin and Chevrolet Canada and General Motors Corporation spent $10 million building a Walkerville, Ontario plant and establishing Canadian Products. In 1923 the name of the Canadian-bodied model was changed to "McLaughlin-Buick" and cars with this name continued to be produced until 1942. Production was labelled Buick without the addition of McLaughlin or Canada. McLaughlin remained chairman of the board of General Motors of Canada as well as vice-president and executive director of the parent company until his death, aged 100, in 1972. Residents of other developing countries living under conditions not unlike US and Canada had a strong preference for well-engineered and robust American cars.
The countries of the British Empire – Britain, South Africa and others – gave preference by charging much lower import taxes on goods from another member of the empire, such as Canada. Taxes were adjusted to the proportion of Canadian content. Canada made and supplied General Motors vehicles to those countries fitting them with right-hand drive. During World War I Britain erected high tariff barriers to protect their own industry from America's low-priced mass-produced but good-quality cars. By 1923 Canada had the world's second-largest automotive industry; these exports fell to a trickle after World War II because Canada was part of the dollar area and therefore set apart from the British Empire's sterling area. The British were struggling to repay US War Loans and unwilling to allow their businesses unrestricted access to Canada's currency to buy Canadian cars; the first McLaughlin automobile was the 1908 Model F. Until 1914, the cars were finished with the same varnishes used on carriages; this meant each vehicle required up to fifteen coats of paint.
In 1927 two identical specially designed four-door touring cars were built for the Royal Tour of Canada, one to be shipped ahead to the next city while the other was in use. In 1936 a McLaughlin-Buick was purchased by the Prince of Wales. In 1936 the Dunsmuirs, a coal magnate family in Victoria, British Columbia, ordered 3 special order 1936 Buick-McLaughlin Phaetons for 3 of their daughters. In 1937 the Phaeton roadster bought for Elinor Dunsmuir was used to drive US president Franklin Roosevelt around Victoria, BC during his state visit; this is ver
LaSalle was an American brand of luxury automobiles manufactured and marketed by General Motors' Cadillac division from 1927 through 1940. Alfred P. Sloan developed the concept for LaSalle and certain other General Motors' marques in order to fill pricing gaps he perceived in the General Motors product portfolio. Sloan created LaSalle as a companion marque for Cadillac. LaSalle automobiles were manufactured by Cadillac, but were priced lower than Cadillac-branded automobiles and were marketed as the second-most prestigious marque in the General Motors portfolio. Like Cadillac, the LaSalle brand name was based on that of a French explorer, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle; the LaSalle had its beginnings when General Motors' CEO, Alfred P. Sloan, noticed that his crafted market segmentation program was beginning to develop price gaps in which General Motors had no products to sell. In an era where automotive brands were somewhat restricted to building a specific car per model year, Sloan surmised that the best way to bridge the gaps was to develop "companion" marques that could be sold through the current sales network.
As developed by Sloan, General Motors' market segmentation strategy placed each of the company's individual automobile marques into specific price points, called the General Motors Companion Make Program. The Chevrolet was designated as the entry level product. Next, came the Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Marquette, Buick, LaSalle, Cadillac. By the 1920s, certain General Motors products began to shift out of the plan as the products improved and engine advances were made. Under the companion marque strategy, the gap between the Chevrolet and the Oakland would be filled by a new marque named Pontiac, a quality six-cylinder car designed to sell for the price of a four-cylinder; the wide gap between Oldsmobile and Buick would be filled by two companion marques: Oldsmobile was assigned the up-market V8 engine Viking and Buick was assigned the more compact six-cylinder Marquette. Cadillac, which had seen its base prices soar in the heady 1920s, was assigned the LaSalle as a companion marque to fill the gap that existed between it and Buick.
What emerged as the LaSalle in 1927 was introduced on the GM C platform with Cadillac. The 1927 LaSalle was designed by Harley Earl, who would go on to have a 30-year career at General Motors gaining control of all design and styling at General Motors. Prior to the 1927 LaSalle, automobile design followed a set pattern, with design changes driven principally by engineering needs. For example, the Ford Model T evolved only over its production run. Harley Earl, hired by Cadillac's General Manager, Lawrence P. Fisher, conceived the LaSalle not as a junior Cadillac, but as something more agile and stylish. Influenced by the rakish Hispano-Suiza roadsters of the time, Earl's LaSalle emerged as a smaller, yet elegant counterpoint to Cadillac's larger cars, unlike anything else built by an American automotive manufacturer. Built by Cadillac to its high standards, the LaSalle soon emerged as a trend-setting automobile. Earl was placed in charge of overseeing the design of all of General Motors' vehicles.
The LaSalle was offered in a full range of body styles, including Fisher and Fleetwood Metal Body-built custom designs. The open cars could be ordered in tri-tone color combinations, at a time when dark colors like black and navy blue were still the most familiar colors produced by manufacturers. Earl's design included a nod to the inspirational Hispano-Suiza, with the marque's circled trademark "LaS" cast into the horizontal tie bar between the front lights.ri Wheelbases ranged between 128 in and 134 in. The LaSalles of this era were equipped with Cadillac's "Ninety Degree V-8", making the car fast, while its smaller size made it sportier and more agile. On June 20, 1927, a LaSalle driven by Willard Rader, along with Gus Bell, on the track at the Milford Proving Grounds, achieved 952 miles, averaging 95.2 mph, with only seven minutes given over to refueling and tire changes. In comparison, the average speed at that year's Indianapolis 500 was 97.5 mph. The test at Milford would have continued.
The Great Depression, combined with LaSalle's stalling sales' numbers, caused Cadillac to rethink its companion make. Both Buick and Oldsmobile had eliminated the Marquette and the Viking in 1930, their second model year. Cadillac saw sales of its cars losing ground, as confirmed Cadillac buyers tried to trim pennies by buying the less expensive LaSalle. LaSalle sales were falling, from a high of 22,691 models in 1929 to a low of 3,290 in 1932. Beginning with the 1934 model year, a significant portion of the LaSalle was more related to the Oldsmobile, than to senior Cadillacs. Again, Earl's work with the LaSalle resulted in a graceful vehicle, led by an elegant and thin radiator grille. Earl's other contribution was the modern, airplane-styled, semi-shielded portholes along the side of the hood. All bodies were now made by Fleetwood; this new LaSalle was now priced $1,000 less than the least expensive Cadillac, its mission was not to fill a price gap, but to keep the luxury car division out of the red.
But as the economy began to recover, the LaSalle did not, at least not commensurate with the economy. Sales were 7,195 in 1934, 8,651 in 1935 and 13,004 in 1936. Meanwhile, the Packard One-Twenty had been introduced in 1935, had taken off like a rocket. Additional competition from the Lincoln-Zephyr, introduced in 1936, did not help, either. For 1937, Cadillac made the LaSalle its own again, giving it
The Oshawa Generals are a junior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey League. They are based in Oshawa, Canada; the team is named for General Motors, an early sponsor which has its Canadian headquarters in Oshawa. In November 2016, the General Motors Centre changed its name to Tribute Communities Centre, its 184 graduates to the National Hockey League are second in the OHL. The Generals have won the Memorial Cup five times, as well as a record thirteen Ontario Hockey League Championships, the J. Ross Robertson Cup; the Generals have two distinct eras in their history. The original Generals operated from 1937 to 1953; the team went on a hiatus from 1953 to 1962 due to a fire at the Hambly Arena. The team was resurrected in 1962. Famous alumni of the Generals include Hockey Hall of Famers Bobby Orr, Red Tilson, Alex Delvecchio, Eric Lindros and John Tavares. Prior to 1908, Oshawa belonged to the Midland Hockey League, it competed against other teams from Whitby, Port Hope and Cobourg. The first Oshawa team in the Ontario Hockey Association junior division began play in the 1908–1909 season, known as the Oshawa Shamrocks.
Ed Bradley, a prominent local businessman was responsible for organizing the team and bringing junior hockey to Oshawa and was the team's manager for the next 13 seasons. Success came early to the team reaching the semifinals in 1909. In the 1920s the team enjoyed many successful years, battling against Owen Sound. In June 1928, Bradley's Arena burnt to the ground; the team relocated to Whitby until the new Oshawa Arena was built for 1930. In the early 1930s the team became known as the Oshawa Majors; the Majors won the OHA title in 1935 versus the Kitchener Greenshirts, played the Northern Ontario champion Sudbury Cub Wolves. In a protest by Kitchener, the title was taken away from Oshawa while games were underway with Sudbury. In 1936, different sources name the team as the Majors, the Red Devils, the Junior G-Men; this team coached by Bill Hancock and managed by Matt Leyden played the season against St. Michael's College, University of Toronto, Toronto Young Rangers, Toronto Marlboros, Toronto Native Sons and the Toronto Lions.
In 1937 the Oshawa Generals were born. The team was named after General Motors of Canada; the Generals put together an unequalled feat of seven consecutive OHA Championships, winning three Memorial Cups in the same span. The Generals grew a reputation for treating its players well and signed many young men who would go on to National Hockey League fame. Players were admitted free to theatres, wrestling, roller skating and other attractions at the arena. Sponsors gave full scholarships to school and weekly stipends. Through the whole dynasty, the team was managed by Matt Leyden, its secretary was Neil Hezzlewood. Both men would be inducted in the Oshawa Sports Hall of fame. From 1937 to 1944, Oshawa Generals graduated 20 players to become NHL alumni, another player in David Bauer, who would be inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in the Builder's Category. NHL alumni from 1937–1944 include. In September 1953 a great tragedy struck in Oshawa; the city lost their arena, their OHA team. Donations poured in from local businessmen.
Equipment and other items were dispersed to all the players attending the training camp to cover individual losses. The Generals, homeless so close to the start of the new season, were disbanded. Salvaged from the disbanded team, General Manager Wren Blair made a Senior B team known as the Oshawa Truckmen, who played in Bowmanville for the 1953–1954 season; the year after, this team became the Whitby Dunlops. The Dunlops were Allan Cup Champions in 1957 & 1959, World Champions in 1958. In 1960, Wren Blair began negotiations with Boston Bruins president Weston Adams to begin building the new Oshawa Generals; the agreement was made contingent on a new arena being built in Oshawa. The Oshawa Civic Auditorium would open in 1964. In the meantime, the Oshawa Generals were reactivated for the 1962–1963 as a team playing in the Metro Junior A League. For this year, the team played its home games at Maple Leaf Gardens. Fundraising for a new arena was well under way at the same time; the Generals wore red and blue jerseys until the 1965–66 season when they adopted the black and white of their parent team, the Boston Bruins.
In 1963 the Metro Junior A league was disbanded, Oshawa was readmitted in the OHA. Since the Toronto Marlboros used Maple Leaf Gardens as a home rink, the Generals team played out of nearby Bowmanville for one full season, part of another; the greatest player to wear an Oshawa Generals uniform, Bobby Orr, became a legend in the NHL and to be inducted in the Hockey Hall of Fame. Orr was discovered by Wren Blair as a 14-year-old while playing a game in Ontario, he was signed to a contract and invited to training camp for the 1962–63 season. He would commute three hours from Parry Sound for all weekend games he played with the Generals that year. So, he was selected to the Metro Junior A League's second all-star team. During the 1963–64 season, Bobby Orr scored 29 goals to break the record for most goals by a defenceman held by Jacques Laperriere. Orr was selected as a first team all-star defenceman. During the 1964–65 season, the Generals moved into their new home at the Oshawa Civic Auditorium. Orr broke his own record, scoring 34 goals that season.
In the 1965–66 season, O
This page talks about the 1964–1995 Chevrolet van and GMC Vandura. For the post-1995 successor, see Chevrolet Express; the Chevrolet and GMC G-series vans were made by General Motors for North America. They are in the same vehicle class as Dodge Ram van; the term Chevrolet van refers to the entire series of vans sold by Chevrolet. The first Chevrolet van was released in 1961 on the Corvair platform, the latest Chevrolet van in production is the Chevrolet Express; the G20 and its counterparts replaced the original Chevrolet Corvair Greenbrier Van, manufactured until 1965. First fielded in the mid-1960s, the model line evolved until it was replaced in 1996 by the Chevrolet Express. 1964-70 G20s came with six-lug wheels, while the 1971–1995 generation came with the 5 lug - 5" bolt circle. G20s were fitted with the ball joints from the Chevrolet/GMC ¾- and 1-ton pickups although using the ½ ton pickup's brake rotors. A light duty version, the G10, was produced alongside the G20—the early versions used the Chevrolet passenger car wheels until 1975, yet can still handle LT tire sizes for better handling and stability.
The G20 series sported an SB 262 4.3L engine, not much was changed mechanically in the vehicles since their release, other than carburetor to a throttle body injection fuel system, less use of a vacuum system. There are more after market part options available for its V8 counterparts. Not much has been done in the lines of performance options for the small V6 G20 models, but the reliability remains the same throughout all the G-series models; the G20's low cost of upkeep and options have made this van popular with all different kinds of trades, from plumbers to caterers. The first General Motors van was the Chevrolet Corvair-based Chevrolet Greenbrier van, or Corvan introduced for 1961, which used a flat-6 opposed rear engine with air cooling, inspired by the Volkswagen bus. Production of the Chevrolet Greenbrier ended during the 1965 model year. First-generation Chevyvan refers to the first G-10 half-ton production years 1964 through 1966. General Motors saw a market for a compact van based on a modified passenger car platform to compete with the successful Ford Econoline and Dodge A100.
The 1964 Chevyvan had a cab forward design with the engine placed in a "doghouse" between and behind the front seats. The implementation of situating the driver on top of the front axle with the engine near the front wheels is called internationally a "cab over" vehicle. Engines and brakes were sourced from the Chevy II, a more conventional compact car than Chevrolet Corvair; this model was sold by GMC as "Handi-Van". The 1st Gen vans were available in only the short 90-inch wheelbase and were only sold with the standard 90 hp 153-cubic-inch straight-4 or Chevrolet Straight-6 engine. A first gen is identified by its single piece flat windshield glass; the first 1964 Chevyvan was marketed and sold as a panel van for purely utilitarian purposes. Windows were available as an option, but were cut into the sides from the factory. In 1965, Chevy added "Sportvan", which featured windows integrated into the body. GMC marketed their window van as "Handi-Bus". Air conditioning, power steering and power brakes were not available in the 1st generation vans.
The original "classic" flat windshield van. The 90 hp 153 cu in four-cylinder engine was standard equipment with optional 120 hp 194 cu in Chevrolet Straight-6 engine available; the straightforward construction and a boxy design was ideal for economically hauling cargo and equipment around town. The base cargo model was the Chevyvan, available without windows and side cargo doors; the heater and right front passenger seat were optional. The Warner 3-speed manual transmission was standard with column shift. A 2-speed Powerglide automatic transmission was available as an option. For 1965, the van remained unchanged; the grille openings were widened, received one additional slot just above the bumper to increase cooling. Seat belts were added; the exciting news for the 1965 model year was the introduction of the Chevy Sportvan and GMC Handi-Bus. Sportvan was a passenger friendly van with windows molded into the van body. A retractable rear courtesy step for the passenger side doors was used on the Sportvan.
The 194 6-cylinder engine was now standard equipment, with an available'Hi-Torque' 140 hp 230 cu in six-cylinder This was the last year of the flat glass front end on the Chevy Vans. Changes for 1966 include the addition of back-up lights, the side Chevyvan emblems were moved forward and now mounted on the front doors, the antennae location was moved from the right side to the left side; the base model "Sportvan" now had two additional trim packages available: Sportvan Custom and Sportvan Deluxe. These featured available upgrades such as Chrome bumpers, two tone paint, rear passenger seats, interior paneling, padded dash, chrome horn ring. In 1967, Chevy Van received a major facelift, including moving the headlights down to a new redesigned grille, rectangular tail lights and a curved windshield; the forward control cab design was retained, but the doghouse was lengthened and relocated in order to fit an optional Chevrolet Small-Block engine. Engine cooling was improved with the addition of an optional larger cross-flow type radiator and a redesigned front which included a low-profile tunnel allowing more fresh air to the radiator.
The 2nd gen vans were available in either the 90-inch or the lo
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada's Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, with 96.13 square kilometres of land and 133,113 residents in 2016. It lies in Southern Ontario, 51 kilometres south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, is 19 kilometres inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River, it is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal. Residents of St. Catharines are known as St. Cathariners. St. Catharines carries the official nickname "The Garden City" due to its 1,000 acres of parks and trails. St. Catharines is between the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Canada–U. S. Border at Fort Erie. Manufacturing is the city's dominant industry, as noted by the heraldic motto, "Industry and Liberality". General Motors of Canada, Ltd. the Canadian subsidiary of General Motors, was the city's largest employer, a distinction now held by the District School Board of Niagara. THK Rhythm Automotive TRW, operates a plant in the city, though in recent years employment there has shifted from heavy industry and manufacturing to services.
St. Catharines lies on one of the main telecommunications backbones between Canada and the United States, as a result a number of call centres operate in the city, it is designated an Urban Growth Centre by the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe, intended to achieve a minimum density target of 150 jobs and residents combined per hectare by 2031 or earlier. The city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s; the Crown granted them land in compensation for losses in the United States. Early histories credit Serjeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer of Butler's Rangers, as among the first to come to the area, they took their Crown Patents where Dick's Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, now the city centre of St. Catharines. Although never documented, some local St. Catharines historians speculate that Dick's Creek was named after Richard Pierpoint, a Black Loyalist and former American slave. Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City centre.
The surrounding land was surveyed and Townships created between 1787 and 1789. After the Butler's Rangers disbanded in 1784 and settled the area, Duncan Murray as a former Quartermaster in the 84th Regiment of Foot was appointed by the Crown to distribute free Government supplies for 2 years to the resettled Loyalists, he did this from his mill, built on the 12 Mile Creek in Power Glen. After his death in 1786, his holdings were forfeited to merchant Robert Hamilton of Queenston. Hamilton tried to operate for profit the well-established Murray's Distribution Centre and Mill under the management of his cousin. Among other ventures, Hamilton became land wealthy, expropriating lands from subsistence Loyalist settlers who were incapable of settling their debts. Murray's distribution centre Hamilton's warehouse, its location have long been a mystery. Hamilton's major profits were derived from transhipping supplies for the military and civic establishments from his Queenston enterprise, not from charitably supplying the subsistence Loyalist settlers.
Hamilton lacked interest in social development and sold his business to Jesse Thompson before the turn of the 18th century. The small settlement was known as "The Twelve" and as "Murray's District" to military and civic officials, but the local residents in 1796 and earlier referred to it as St. Catharines; this is confirmed in St. Catharines’ first history, written by J. P. Merritt: "to be accurate the name St. Catharines preceded all of these..."The Merritt family arrived after this time, among the Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution. They were from New York state and New Brunswick. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queen's Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, now the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. At an unknown early date, an inn was built by Thomas Adams on the east side of what is now Ontario Street, it became a community meeting place, election centre, stagecoach stop, mail delivery deposit. This was preceded by the church and a log school house completed before 1797, all on the east bank of the 12 Mile Creek at the extreme west end of what was known at that time as Main Street.
This was an extension of the old Iroquois Trail and was renamed St. Paul Street by the settlers and descendant by the mid-19th century. Several mills, salt works, numerous retail outlets, a ship building yard and various other businesses were developed next; the first Welland Canal was constructed from 1824 to 1833 behind what is now known as St. Paul Street, using Twelve Mile and Dick's Creek. William Hamilton Merritt worked to promote the ambitious venture, both by raising funds and by enlisting government support; the canal established St. Catharines as the hub of industry for the Niagara Peninsula. Incorporated as a village in 1845, St. Catharines had a population of about 3500 in 1846; the primary industry was flour milling. Other industry included ship repairs, four grist mills, a brewery, three distilleries, a tannery, a foundry, a machine and pump factory. There were tradesmen of many types, three bank agencies, eight taverns; the train had not yet arrived but stage coaches offered service to other towns and villages.
There were six churches or chapels, a post office that received mail daily, a grammar school and a weekly newspaper. William Hamilton Merritt played a role in making St. Catharines a centre of abolitionist activity. In 1855, the British Methodist Episcopal Church, Salem Chapel was established at the
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h