Genetic engineering called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism; the first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "knock out", genes; the new DNA can be targeted to a specific part of the genome. An organism, generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism; the first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973.
Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974. The first company to focus on genetic engineering, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. Genetically engineered human insulin was produced in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria were commercialised in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato; the Flavr Savr was engineered to have a longer shelf life, but most current GM crops are modified to increase resistance to insects and herbicides. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was sold in the United States in December 2003. In 2016 salmon modified with a growth hormone were sold. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function and expression experiments. By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases.
As well as producing hormones and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. The same techniques that are used to produce drugs can have industrial applications such as producing enzymes for laundry detergent and other products; the rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology. This has been present since its early use. Although there is a scientific consensus that available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, GM food safety is a leading concern with critics. Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have been raised as potential issues; these concerns have led to the development of a regulatory framework, which started in 1975. It has led to an international treaty, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, adopted in 2000.
Individual countries have developed their own regulatory systems regarding GMOs, with the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe. Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Unlike traditional animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and delivers it to the other; this is much faster, can be used to insert any genes from any organism and prevents other undesirable genes from being added. Genetic engineering could fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one, it is an important tool in research. Drugs and other products have been harvested from organisms engineered to produce them. Crops have been developed that aid food security by increasing yield, nutritional value and tolerance to environmental stresses.
The DNA can be introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell, fused or hybridised with the host. This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation. Genetic engineering does not include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. However, some broad definitions of genetic engineering include selective breeding. Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are related and genetic engineering can be used within them. Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesised material into an organism; such synthetic DNA as Artificially Expanded Genetic Information System and Hachimoji DNA is made in this new field.
Plants, animals or microorganisms that have been changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs. If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called transgenic. If genetic material from the same species or a species that can
Jordi Figueras Montel is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a central defender for Racing de Santander. Born in Lleida, Figueras had an unsuccessful short spell at Real Madrid where he arrived at age 18 from his hometown club UE Lleida, only playing for the C-side, he moved to RC Celta de Vigo being assigned to the reserves. In the 2009–10 season, Figueras was established in Celta's starting XI, with the Galicians in the second division. However, on 17 February 2010, he was sold to Russia's FC Rubin Kazan for €850,000, joining compatriot César Navas. Figueras returned to his country in 2010–11, being loaned to Real Valladolid in the second level and appearing during the campaign. In the summer of 2011, he joined Rayo Vallecano on loan for the season. Figueras made his debut in the Spanish top flight on 28 August 2011, starting in a 1–1 away draw against Athletic Bilbao, he played the full 90 minutes in all the games in the first part of the season but, on 19 January 2012, moved teams and countries again, signing for Club Brugge KV in the Belgian Pro League for four-and-a-half years after passing his medical.
Figueras returned to Spain in January 2013, serving a small loan with Rayo and subsequently joining Real Betis on a permanent basis. He scored once from 25 matches in his debut campaign with the latter, which ended in top division relegation started in all his 39 appearances the following year, in an immediate promotion as champions. On 28 July 2016, following a brief spell in the Turkish Süper Lig with Eskişehirspor, Figueras agreed to a two-year contract with German club Karlsruher SC, he switched to the Indian Super League on 9 September 2017, signing for ATK and being appointed team captain following an injury to Robbie Keane. On 22 June 2018, Figueras returned to his native country and joined Racing de Santander for three years; as of match played on 21 October 2018 Jordi Figueras at BDFutbol Jordi Figueras at Futbolme
Microsciurus or dwarf squirrels is a genus of squirrels from the tropical regions of Central and South America. There are four recognized species, recent DNA analysis has shown that there is some confusion regarding the traditional classification of the Microsciurus species, that the genus may be polyphyletic. Genus Microsciurus - dwarf squirrels Central American dwarf squirrel, Microsciurus alfari Allen, 1895, Costa Rica, Panama, Northern Colombia Amazon dwarf squirrel, Microsciurus flaviventer Gray, 1867, western Amazon basin Western dwarf squirrel, Microsciurus mimulus Thomas, 1898, Colombia, Panama Santander dwarf squirrel, Microsciurus santanderensis Hernández-Camacho, 1957, Central ColombiaWith a typical head-and-body length of about 15 cm and a 12 cm long tail, dwarf squirrels are small. However, the Neotropical pygmy squirrel, not in this genus, is much smaller than these species, as are certain squirrels in Africa and Asia. Microsciurus species have gray or brown backs, white bellies.
All dwarf squirrels in this genus live in tropical rain forests. None of them are endangered, although they are seen, because they are shy and lead hidden lives. Ronald M. Nowak: Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
Michael Fitzgerald is a New Zealand rugby union player playing for Kamaishi Seawaves in Japan. He played for Leicester Tigers in England's Premiership Rugby, for the Chiefs in Super Rugby and Manawatu in the ITM Cup, his regular playing position is lock. In 2013, he signed a contract extension with the Chiefs until 2015. On 21 April 2015, it was announced he had signed for English Aviva Premiership side Leicester Tigers. Fitzgerald made his Leicester debut on 18 October 2015 in a 28–16 win against London Irish. Fitzgerald played 25 times for Leicester that season, including scoring a try in their Champions Cup quarter final victory over Stade Français. On 15 May 2019 he was announced as one of the players to leave Leicester following the end of the 2018-19 Premiership Rugby season and join Kamaishi Seawaves in Japan. Chiefs profile Manawatu profile Yahoo NZ profile itsrugby.co.uk profile
Megachile sculpturalis, known as the giant resin bee and sculptured resin bee, is a species of leafcutting bees belonging to the family Megachilidae. Native to Japan and China, it has been introduced to the Eastern United States and Ontario, Canada in recent times. First established in the United States during the early 1990s, records exist from most states east of the Mississippi River, it was recently introduced to Europe in 2009. Megachile sculpturalis can reach a body length of about 19–22 mm in males, while females are larger than males, reaching about 21–25 mm, it is much bigger than most other leafcutting bees. The body is cylindrical, jaws are large and wings are transparent, with a brown color that darkens toward the tips. Head and abdomen are black, the abdomen is rather shiny and without hairs, while thorax is covered with dense yellowish-brown pubescence. In males the abdomen is truncated and squared, while in the females it is tapered, pointed; the female has four dentate mandibles.
In the United States, these resin bees occur in nests of Xylocopa spp. around wooden structures such as doors and porches. Adults can be found from June to-September. Theese solitary bees are known to make during the summer their nests in available holes found in wooden structures or in small crevices between wood boards and they use cavities belonging to carpenter bees, they do not bore holes into wood. Their individual cells are constructed using mud, they provide each cell with pollen carried on the underside of their hairy abdomen. They lay in each cell a single egg. Females use their large jaws to collect resin, used to cap the brood cells; the larvae overwinter inside the cells, consuming the pollen. In spring they emerge as an adult in early summer; the main recorded host plants are Lathyrus latifolius and Sophora japonica, Pycnanthemum species, Lythrum salicaria, Koelreuteria paniculata and Buddleia species
Du ringde från Flen is a song written by Ulf Nordquist, recorded by Grönwalls on the debut album Du har det där in 1992. Ending up third in the 1992 edition of the music competition "Höstens melodier", it is one of Grönwall's most well-known songs; the song was tested for Svensktoppen, where it charted for listan 13 weeks between 3 July-18 September 1993. In the song lyrics, the I person a girl/woman, sings about the you person always works overtime and travels around Sweden, blaming it on meetings and visiting relatives, but the I person suspects oninfidelity. Five towns in Sweden are mentioned in the song lyrics. At Dansbandskampen 2008, the song was berformed in a calm ballad tempo. Shake's version was released in January 2009 for digital download. At Dansbandskampen 2009, the song was used during Sveriges Television's information. A version in Swedish radio program Framåt fredag was called "Han ringde Hamrén" and was about Lars Lagerbäck leaving his job as manager for the Sweden men's national soccer team