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Geneva Bible

The Geneva Bible is one of the most significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years. It was the primary Bible of 16th-century English Protestantism and was used by William Shakespeare, Oliver Cromwell, John Knox, John Donne, John Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress, it was one of the Bibles taken to America on the Mayflower. The Geneva Bible was used by many English Dissenters, it was still respected by Oliver Cromwell's soldiers at the time of the English Civil War, in the booklet "Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible"; this version of the Bible is significant because, for the first time, a mechanically printed, mass-produced Bible was made available directly to the general public which came with a variety of scriptural study guides and aids, which included verse citations that allow the reader to cross-reference one verse with numerous relevant verses in the rest of the Bible, introductions to each book of the Bible that acted to summarize all of the material that each book would cover, tables, woodcut illustrations and indices.

Because the language of the Geneva Bible was more forceful and vigorous, most readers preferred this version to the Great Bible. In the words of Cleland Boyd McAfee, "it drove the Great Bible off the field by sheer power of excellence"; the Geneva Bible followed the Great Bible of 1539, the first authorised Bible in English, the authorized Bible of the Church of England. During the reign of Queen Mary I of England, a number of Protestant scholars fled from England to Geneva, ruled as a republic in which John Calvin and Theodore Beza, provided the primary spiritual and theological leadership. Among these scholars was William Whittingham, who supervised the translation now known as the Geneva Bible, in collaboration with Myles Coverdale, Christopher Goodman, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, William Cole. Whittingham was directly responsible for the New Testament, complete and published in 1557, while Gilby oversaw the Old Testament; the first full edition of this Bible, with a further revised New Testament, appeared in 1560, but it was not printed in England until 1575 and 1576.

Over 150 editions were issued. The first Bible printed in Scotland was a Geneva Bible, first issued in 1579. In fact, the involvement of Knox and Calvin in the creation of the Geneva Bible made it appealing in Scotland, where a law was passed in 1579 requiring every household of sufficient means to buy a copy; some editions from 1576 onwards included Laurence Tomson's revisions of the New Testament. Some editions from 1599 onwards used a new "Junius" version of the Book of Revelation, in which the notes were translated from a new Latin commentary by Franciscus Junius; the annotations which are an important part of the Geneva Bible were Calvinist and Puritan in character, as such they were disliked by the ruling pro-government Anglicans of the Church of England, as well as King James I, who commissioned the "Authorized Version", or King James Bible, in order to replace it. The Geneva Bible had motivated the earlier production of the Bishops' Bible under Elizabeth I, for the same reason, the Rheims-Douai edition by the Catholic community.

The Geneva Bible remained popular among Puritans and remained in widespread use until after the English Civil War. The Geneva notes were included in a few editions of the King James version as late as 1715. Like most English translations of the time, the Geneva Bible was translated from scholarly editions of the Greek New Testament and the Hebrew Scriptures that comprise the Old Testament; the English rendering was based on the earlier translations by William Tyndale and Myles Coverdale. However, the Geneva Bible was the first English version in which all of the Old Testament was translated directly from the Hebrew; the Geneva Bible was the first English Bible. It had an elaborate system of commentary in marginal glosses; this annotation was done by Laurence Tomson, who translated L'Oiseleur's notes on the Gospels, which themselves came from Camerarius. In 1576 Tomson added L'Oiseleur's notes for the Epistles, which came from Beza's Greek and Latin edition of the Bible. Beginning in 1599 Franciscus Junius' notes on Revelation were added, replacing the original notes deriving from John Bale and Heinrich Bullinger.

Bale's The Image of both churches had a great effect on these notes as well as Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Both the Junius and Bullinger-Bale annotations are explicitly anti-Roman Catholic and representative of much popular Protestant apocalypticism during the Reformation; the 1560 Geneva Bible was printed in Roman type—the style of type used today—but many editions used the older black-letter type. Of the various English Bible translations, the next to use Roman type was the Douay-Rheims Bible of 1582 and 1609–10; the Geneva Bible was issued in more convenient and affordable sizes than earlier versions. The 1560 Bible was in quarto format, but pocketable octavo editions were issued, a few large folio editions; the New Testament was issued at various times in sizes from quarto down to 32º (the smallest, 70×39 mm type

Concern (computer science)

In computer science, a concern is a particular set of information that has an effect on the code of a computer program. A concern can be as general as the details of database interaction or as specific as performing a primitive calculation, depending on the level of conversation between developers and the program being discussed. IBM uses the term concern space to describe the sectioning of conceptual information; the code can be separated into logical sections, each addressing separate concerns, so it hides the need for a given section to know particular information addressed by a different section. This leads to a modular program. Edsger W. Dijkstra coined the term "separation of concerns" to describe the mentality behind this modularization, which allows the programmer to reduce the complexity of the system being designed. Two different concerns that intermingle in the same section of code are called "highly coupled". Sometimes the chosen module divisions do not allow for one concern to be separated from another, resulting in cross-cutting concerns.

The various programming paradigms address the issue of cross-cutting concerns to different degrees. Data logging is a common cross-cutting concern, being used in many other parts of the program other than the particular module that log the data. Since changes to the logging code can affect other sections, it could introduce bugs in the operation of the program. Paradigms that address the issue of concern separation: Object-oriented programming, describing concerns as objects Functional programming, describing concerns as functions Aspect-oriented software development, treating concerns and their interaction as constructs of their own standing Cross-cutting concern Separation of concerns Issue, a unit of work to accomplish an improvement in a data system Concerns in Rails, by DHH, the Rails creator


A garret is a habitable attic, a living space at the top of a house or larger residential building small and cramped, with sloping ceilings. In the days before elevators this was the least prestigious position in a building; the word entered Middle English through Old French with a military connotation of a watchtower or something akin to a garrison, in other words, a place for guards or soldiers to be quartered in a house. Like garrison, it comes from an Old French word garir of Germanic origin meaning to provide or defend. In the 1800s, garrets became one of the defining features of Second Empire architecture in Paris, where large buildings were stratified between different floors; as the number of stairs to climb increased, the social status decreased. Garrets were internal elements of the mansard roof, with skylights or dormer windows. A "bow garret" is a two-story "outhouse" situated at the back of a typical terraced house used in Lancashire for the hat industry in pre-mechanised days. "Bowing" was the name given to the technique of cleaning up animal fur in the early stages of preparation for turning it into hats.

What is now believed to be the last bow garret in existence is now a listed building in order to preserve this historical relic. Old maid in the garret

Erica Shaffer

Erica Shaffer is an American actress who has worked in independent films and television. Some of the films include A Family Affair, The Truth is Always Complicated, The Fall, Catalina Trust, The Socratic Method, Three on a Match and West Coast. A few of Shaffer's television credits include guest star and recurring roles on Days of Our Lives, Eleventh Hour, The Secret Life of the American Teenager, CSI Miami, Las Vegas, The King of Queens, Windfall and the Restless, Mind of Mencia, Fight for Fame, Silk Stalkings, Veronica's Closet and Pensacola, she has been host of shows such as Vacation Challenge on The Travel Channel and Cafe Sound on Access Entertainment Network. Shaffer has been in more than 200 commercials and has been the host of the web series Personal Injury Network. Shaffer is a voice over artist for animation and has an array of "characters" to her credit including the lead heroines and villains in Pioneer LDC's Nazca, I My Me Strawberry Eggs, Paranoia Agent and The Amazing Nurse Nanako.

She has done voiceovers for radio commercials as well as documentaries for [The Learning Channel and The History Channel. Shaffer received a BFA in Acting from the University of Arizona. Roles from her theater career at The Laguna Playhouse include, "Ruth" from Harvey - starring Charles Durning. Other favorite roles in theater include "Portia" from the Merchant of Venice, "Myrhhine", from Lysistrata, "Joanne" from Come Back to the 5 and Dime Jimmy Dean and "Rose of Sharon" from The Grapes of Wrath. In San Diego Shaffer played "Hyacinth" in Scapan directed by William Ball, she is a member of the Screen Actors Guild, American Federation of Television and Radio Artists and Actors' Equity Association. Shaffer is acting coach with her own practice on the Westside of Los Angeles. Nazca: Yuka Kiritake/Aquira Amazing Nurse Nanako: Satsuki I My Me! Strawberry Eggs: Vice Principal Texhnolyze: Promoter's Lover Ikki tôsen: Kanu Uncho R. O. D the TV: Cabin Attendant/Tachibana Reporter Mermaid Forest: Hazuki's Mother Licensed by Royalty: Cynthia Môsô dairinin: Harumi Chono/Maria Ergo Proxy: Quinn, Entourage Night Man Hang Time 18 Wheels of Justice The King of Queens Charmed Drake & Josh The Young and the Restless Las Vegas Windfall CSI: Miami Private Practice Scandal Castle Mercury Auto Insurance Shoe Pavilion 3-day Blinds StressEez Time Life 70s Music Explosion WD-40 Mighty Key Miracle-Gro Chase Pizza Hut Shur-Line KY Warming Gel Sargento Walmart Shake Weight 3M Command Hooks Burger King East Side Mario's Sunsweet Prunes Fidelity Investments LG Electronics Scotties Tissues Chrysler KFC 7-up Direct Energy San Antonio Tourism Spectrum Business Internet Ilumya Wayfair Gain laundry detergent 70s Music Explosion Bowflex TreadClimber BetterTrades Kiyoseki Pro Cobra Stunlight Nutrisystem for Men Luminess Air Ultreo KY Billboards 70s Ninja Food Saver System Erica Shaffer on IMDb Official Erica Shaffer Website Instagram Facebook Twitter

Direct text marketing

Direct text marketing is a form of SMS marketing. This includes using a medium which involves text messaging over a mobile device and can be done from a mobile phone or in bulk using an SMS Aggregator and distributor online; some businesses provide the entire service including creating the messages and sending them via an aggregator on behalf of a business. Today, direct text marketing has been subsumed under mobile marketing, which includes rich media embedded into the marketing messages as well as those messages sent via mobile applications besides SMS. Companies and businesses can benefit from using this form of modern marketing by sending either promotional content, discount coupons or any other informational content via text format directly to individuals via their personal mobile phones or PDAs, beneficial because of the low cost entailed; some observers have commented that it allows companies to reduce their impact on the environment because they are no longer using paper for their direct mails.

The fundamental value is that the target audience is compelled to open the text messages that arrive in their inbox. In a study in the United Kingdom, 81 percent opened and read text messages sent for the purpose of direct marketing. There are numerous possibilities for direct text marketing, including customer services, alerts, CRM, communication via a two-way direct response mechanism, brand bonding, event ticketing. Mobile phones and PDAs are personal technologies, but "57% of adults with cell phones have received unwanted or spam text messages on their phones". Services of sending promotional or coupon discounts are an opt-in service, which means a business cannot send any content to an individual's mobile device unless requested by the owner of the mobile device. Interference is still considered as a disadvantage with respect to the impact of timeliness and appropriateness of the messages in addition to information overload. In Australia, receivers of text messages for promotional purposes must opt-in

Rugby Europe Women's Championship

In rugby union, the Women's European Championship is an international competition contested between women's national teams who are members of Rugby Europe. The competition has its origins in a four nation "European Cup" held in 1988 but did not become an official FIRA competition until 1995; the competition has grown and is some years attracts sufficient entrants for it to be divided into two "Pools" with the eight highest ranked entrants in any year in Pool A. Since 2000 only the winner of the tournament held in between the World Cups is recognised "European Champions", although teams winning tournaments in other years are unofficially described as "European Champions"; this can cause some confusion, not least because the structure of the four-yearly tournament is invariably identical to the annual event. To make identification easier the competitions in the four yearly cycle are highlighted; the only major difference between the "official" European Championships and other tournaments is that in the latter, between 2001 and 2007, England and France tended not to send their full strength national squads to the competition - though until 2007 they still played as "England" or "France".

This has resulted in some confusion about the status of games played by these nations - England do not consider their games to be full internationals and do not award caps, whereas while France do not give caps to their players in such matches, they do recognise the games as tests matches. FIRA and all other competing nations consider all the games to be "tests"; the 2009 tournament acted as Europe's qualification tournament for the World Cup, after which the test match status problem was resolved. From 2010 onwards it was announced that the non-Championship tournaments would be known as the "European Trophy" and any Six Nations entrants would be "A" sides. France - 4 titles, 3 runners-up, 1 third, 3 fourths England - 4 titles, 1 runner-up, 2 thirds, 1 fourth Spain - 3 titles, 5 runners-up, 3 thirds Italy - 3 titles, 1 runner-up, 2 thirds, 2 fourth Scotland - 2 titles, 1 runner-up, 2 thirds, 1 fourth Sweden - 1 title, 1 runner-up, 2 thirds, 2 fourth Netherlands - 2 runners-up, 2 third, 4 fourths Wales - 1 runner-up, 1 fourth Germany - 1 third, 1 fourth Russia - 1 third Ireland - 1 third France - 5 titles, 1 runner-up, 2 fourths England - 2 titles, 1 runner-up, 1 third, 1 fourth Spain - 1 title, 3 runners-up, 1 third Scotland - 1 runner-up, 2 thirds, 1 fourth Wales - 1 runner-up, 1 fourth Great Britain - 1 runner-up Italy - 2 thirds Netherlands - 1 third, 2 fourths Ireland - 1 third Netherlands - 2 titles, 3 runners-up Russia - 2 titles, 1 third Sweden - 2 titles French Flanders - 1 title French Universities - 1 title Germany - 2 runners-up, 4 thirds Belgium - 1 runner-up, 2 fourths Norway - 1 runner-up, 2 thirds French Defence - 1 runner-up Bosnia and Herzegovina - 1 third Belgium - 2 fourths Finland - 1 fourth Romania - 1 fourth Women's international rugby Rugby Europe website