SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Genocide

Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Latin suffix - caedo; the term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The United Nations Genocide Convention, established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial or religious group, as such" including the killing of its members, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group, deliberately imposing living conditions that seek to "bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part", preventing births, or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group; the term has been coined and applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian Genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the Indonesian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, after 1980 the Bosnian genocide, the Anfal genocide, the Darfur genocide, the Rwandan genocide and the Rohingya genocide.

Others are listed in Genocides in List of genocides by death toll. The Political Instability Task Force estimated that, between 1956 and 2016, a total of 43 genocides took place, causing the death of about 50 million people; the UNHCR estimated that a further 50 million had been displaced by such episodes of violence up to 2008. Before 1944, various terms, including "massacre," "extermination," and "crimes against humanity" were used to describe the intentional systematic killings. In 1941, Winston Churchill, when describing the German invasion of the Soviet Union, spoke of "a crime without a name". In 1944, Raphael Lemkin created the term genocide in his book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe; the book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europe, cites earlier mass killings. The term described the systematic destruction of a nation or people, the word was adopted by many in the international community; the word genocide is a combination of the Ancient Greek word génos with the Latin caedere.

The word genocide was used in indictments at the Nuremberg trials, held from 1945, but as a descriptive term, not yet as a formal legal term. The so-called Polish Genocide Trials of Arthur Greiser and Amon Leopold Goth in 1946 were the first trials in which judgments included the term genocide. According to Lemkin, genocide was "a coordinated strategy to destroy a group of people, a process that could be accomplished through total annihilation as well as strategies that eliminate key elements of the group's basic existence, including language and economic infrastructure". Lemkin defined genocide as follows: Generally speaking, genocide does not mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation, it is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, national feelings and the economic existence of national groups, the destruction of the personal security, health and the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.

The preamble to the 1948 Genocide Convention notes that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history. But it was not until Lemkin coined the term and the prosecution of perpetrators of the Holocaust at the Nuremberg trials that the United Nations defined the crime of genocide under international law in the Genocide Convention. Lemkin's lifelong interest in the mass murder of populations in the 20th century was in response to the killing of Armenians in 1915 and to the mass murders in Nazi-controlled Europe, he referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history". He dedicated his life to mobilizing the international community, to work together to prevent the occurrence of such events. In a 1949 interview, Lemkin said "I became interested in genocide, it happened to the Armenians after the Armenians, Hitler took action." After the Holocaust, perpetrated by Nazi Germany prior to and during World War II, Lemkin campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides.

In 1946, the first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that "affirmed" that genocide was a crime under international law and enumerated examples of such events. In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide which defined the crime of genocide for the first time. Genocide is a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live of individual human beings. Many instances of such crimes of genocide have occurred when racial, religious and other groups have been destroyed or in part; the CPPCG was adopted by the UN General A

George B. Duncan

George Brand Duncan was a military officer in the United States Army, rising to the rank of Major General. The son of Lexington, Kentucky mayor Henry Timberlake Duncan Jr. George B. Duncan entered the United States Military Academy in 1882, graduating in 1886 and receiving a position as a Second Lieutenant in the 9th Infantry, he was stationed in Cuba during the Spanish–American War, he served with distinction during the Philippine–American War, helping to organize the Philippine Scouts. After a term on the General Staff, Duncan reported to France in June 1917, where he served as the commander of the 77th Division. After having been relieved over concerns about his physical condition, Duncan convinced John J. Pershing to return him to command. In October 1918, Duncan relieved William P. Burnham as commander 82nd Division, participated in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive; as a result of his service in World War I, he received numerous decorations, including the Croix de Guerre with two palms and a star and status as a Commander in the Legion of Honor from France, status as a Companion of Order of the Bath from the United Kingdom, the Distinguished Service Medal from the United States.

Duncan and fellow Major General Campbell King were the first two Americans honored with the Croix de Guerre. Duncan commanded the Seventh Corps Area from 1922 until 1925. Duncan married Mary Kercheval on October 23, 1895; the couple had two sons: Daniel, born in 1901, Henry, born in 1903. Daniel, died as a child in 1906. Duncan retired from military service in 1925, he is buried in Kentucky. "Major General George Brand Duncan 1861 - 1935". Duncan Biographies. Clan Duncan Society. Retrieved 30 December 2008. "George B. Duncan - My Four Years at West Point". USMA Library Digital Collections. USMA Library. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2008. George Brand Duncan at Find a Grave

SMS Pfeil

SMS Pfeil was an aviso of the Imperial German Navy, the second and final member of the Blitz class. Her primary offensive armament consisted of a bow-mounted torpedo tube, she was armed with a battery of light guns to defend herself against torpedo boats, a sign of the growing importance of torpedoes as effective weapons in the period; the Blitz class featured a number of innovations in German warship design: they were the first steel hulled warships and the first cruiser-type ships to discard traditional sailing rigs. Pfeil served in a variety of roles in her long career in the German fleet, she operated with the training squadron in the late 1880s, conducting exercises and training cruises. In late 1888, she was commissioned to reinforce the East Africa Squadron in the midst of suppressing the Abushiri revolt against colonial rule in German East Africa, she helped to conduct a blockade of the coast, contributed men to landing parties, bombarded rebel troops. She operated with the Maneuver Squadron through the 1890s and saw service as a fishery protection vessel and a training ship for engine room crews.

Pfeil was involved in a number of accidents, including accidentally colliding with a lightship in 1890, a torpedo boat in 1894, a schooner in 1898. After the start of World War I in August 1914, the ship was used to support the flotilla of torpedo boats that guarded the mouth of the Elbe until June 1915, when she was withdrawn for use as a tender for the commander of the High Seas Fleet. Decommissioned in December 1918, she was struck from the naval register in February 1922 and broken up in Wilhelmshaven. Designed in 1879, the Blitz-class avisos marked a significant advance in naval technology for the German fleet, their armament—a torpedo tube and a battery of light guns—reflected the growing importance of the torpedo as a weapon, since the guns were necessary to defend against the powerful torpedo boats of the period. Pfeil had a beam of 9.9 m and a maximum draft of 4.07 m forward. She up to 1,486 metric tons at full combat load, she and her sister ship were the first steel-hulled warships of the German fleet.

Pfeil had a crew of 127 enlisted men. Her propulsion system consisted of two horizontal 2-cylinder double expansion engines. Steam for the engines was provided by eight coal-fired cylindrical boilers; the ship's propulsion system was rated for 2,700 metric horsepower and provided a top speed of 15.6 kn and a range of 2,440 nautical miles at 9 kn. As built, the ship was armed with one 12.5 cm K L/23 gun placed in a pivot mount. The gun was supplied with 100 rounds of ammunition; the ship was equipped with four 8.7 cm K L/23 guns in single pivot mounts. Pfeil carried one 35 cm torpedo tube mounted in the bow. In 1891–1892, the ship was rearmed with six 8.8 cm SK L/30 guns in single mounts and three 35 cm torpedo tubes, one in the bow and one on each broadside, all submerged in the hull. She carried no armor protection. Pfeil was laid down at the Kaiserliche Werft in Wilhelmshaven in mid-1881, she was launched on 16 September 1882, her launching ceremony was attended by Albrecht von Stosch, the chief of the Kaiserliche Admiralität, Prince Heinrich a Leutnant zur See.

Pfeil was commissioned for sea trials on 25 November 1884, though these lasted just two weeks before she was decommissioned for the winter months. The ship returned to active service on 22 June 1885 to join the training squadron with its flagship, the screw corvette Stein. At that time, the squadron included the screw corvettes Olga and Sophie. Independent division exercises took place in June, in August, the divisions, which included an armored division composed of several ironclads and a torpedo boat division led by Pfeil's sister ship Blitz, joined for combined fleet maneuvers that lasted until September. Pfeil spent 1886 out of commission, but she was recommissioned in 1887 for aviso duty with the Maneuver Squadron, the main unit of the German fleet at that time. In 1888, the Abushiri revolt, a major uprising against German colonial rule in German East Africa, prompted the navy to send reinforcements to the colony. Pfeil was recommissioned on 12 November to join the unprotected cruiser Schwalbe, which were to be deployed there.

While on the way, Pfeil suffered storm damage in the North Sea and had to stop in Plymouth for repairs that delayed her arrival until 4 January 1889. Upon reaching the area, she joined the East Africa Squadron, under the command of Konteradmiral Karl August Deinhard, who flew his flag in the screw corvette Leipzig. Deinhard ordered Pfeil to take up blockade duties along the coast from Bagamoyo to Mafia Island. On 1 March, he sent Pfeil to patrol off Zanzibar. Leipzig and Schwalbe shelled Saadani on 6 June and sent men ashore to attack rebels there. Pfeil was the first steel-hulled, unrigged warship sent by Germany to its African colonies, though her steel hull rendered her unsuitable to long-term deployments to the tropics, she was detached on 29 September to return home. While on the way back to Germany, Pfeil was ordered to join the armored division, on a training cruise in the Mediterranean Sea at the