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Raphael Lemkin

Raphael Lemkin, Polish: Rafał Lemkin was a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent, best known for coining the word genocide and initiating the Genocide Convention. Lemkin coined the word genocide in 1944 from genos and - cide. Lemkin was born Rafał Lemkin on 24 June 1900 in Bezwodne, a village in the Volkovyssky Uyezd of the Grodno Governorate of the Russian Empire, he grew up in a Polish Jewish family on a large farm near Wolkowysk and was one of three children born to Joseph Lemkin and Bella née Pomeranz. His father was a farmer and his mother an intellectual, a painter and philosophy student with a large collection of books on literature and history. Lemkin and his two brothers were homeschooled by their mother; as a youth, Lemkin was fascinated by the subject of atrocities and would question his mother about such events as the Sack of Carthage, Mongol invasions and conquests and the persecution of Huguenots. Lemkin came across the concept of mass atrocities while, at the age of 12, reading Quo Vadis by Henryk Sienkiewicz, in particular the passage where Nero threw Christians to the lions.

During World War I, the Lemkin family farm was located in an area of fighting between Russian and German troops. The family buried their valuables before taking shelter in a nearby forest. During the fighting, artillery fire destroyed their home and German troops seized their crops and livestock. Lemkin's brother Samuel died of pneumonia and malnutrition while the family remained in the forest. After graduating from a local trade school in Białystok he began the study of linguistics at the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwów, he was a polyglot, reading fourteen. His first published book was a 1926 translation of the Hayim Nahman Bialik novella Noach i Marynka from Hebrew into Polish, it was in Bialystok that Lemkin became interested in the concept of crime developing the concept of genocide, based on the Armenian experience at the hands of the Ottoman Turks later the experience of Assyrians massacred in Iraq during the 1933 Simele massacre. Lemkin moved on to Heidelberg University in Germany to study philosophy, returned to Lwów to study law in 1926, becoming a prosecutor in Warsaw at graduation.

His subsequent career as assistant prosecutor in the District Court of Brzeżany and Warsaw, followed by a private legal practice in Warsaw, did not divert Lemkin from elaborating rudiments of international law dealing with group exterminations. From 1929 to 1934, Lemkin was the Public Prosecutor for the district court of Warsaw. In 1930 he was promoted to Deputy Prosecutor in a local court in Brzeżany. While Public Prosecutor, Lemkin was secretary of the Committee on Codification of the Laws of the Republic of Poland, which codified the penal codes of Poland, taught law at Tachkemoni College in Warsaw. Lemkin, working with Duke University law professor Malcolm McDermott, translated The Polish Penal Code of 1932 from Polish to English. In 1933 Lemkin made a presentation to the Legal Council of the League of Nations conference on international criminal law in Madrid, for which he prepared an essay on the Crime of Barbarity as a crime against international law; the concept of the crime, which evolved into the idea of genocide, was based on the Armenian Genocide and prompted by the experience of Assyrians massacred in Iraq during the 1933 Simele massacre.

In 1934 Lemkin, under pressure from the Polish Foreign Minister for comments made at the Madrid conference, resigned his position and became a private solicitor in Warsaw. While in Warsaw, Lemkin attended numerous lectures organized by the Free Polish University, including the classes of Emil Stanisław Rappaport and Wacław Makowski. In 1937, Lemkin was appointed a member of the Polish mission to the 4th Congress on Criminal Law in Paris, where he introduced the possibility of defending peace through criminal law. Among the most important of his works of that period are a compendium of Polish criminal fiscal law, Prawo karne skarbowe and a French language work, La réglementation des paiements internationaux, regarding international trade law, he left Warsaw on 6 September 1939 and made his way towards Wolkowysk, north east of Lwow, caught between the Germans in the west, the Soviets, who now approached from the east, Poland's independence extinguished by the pact between Stalin and Hitler. He evaded capture by the Germans and traveled through Lithuania to reach Sweden by the early spring of 1940 where he lectured at the University of Stockholm.

Curious about the manner of imposition of Nazi rule he started to gather Nazi decrees and ordinances, believing official documents reflected underlying objectives without stating them explicitly. He spent much time in the central library of Stockholm, gathering and analysing the documents he collected, looking for patterns of German behaviour. Lemkin's work led him to see the wholesale destruction of the nations over which Germans took control as an overall aim; some documents Lemkin analysed had been signed by Hitler, implementing ideas of Mein Kampf on Lebensraum, new living space to be inhabited by Germans. With the help of his pre-war associate McDermott, Lemkin received permission to enter the United States, arriving in 1941. Although he managed to save his life, he lost 49 relatives in the Holocaust. Lemkin did however help his brother and family to emigrate to Montreal, Canada

Gundibail Sunderam

Gundibail Rama Sunderam pronunciation was a former Indian cricketer who played in 2 Tests in 1955. G. R. Sunderam was a right hand batsman, he underwent training in the cricket school run by Alf Gover in 1953. He represented India in the unofficial'Test' against the Silver Jubilee Overseas Cricket team that year before appearing in Ranji matches, his two Test matches were against New Zealand in 1955-56. He took one of the two wickets when New Zealand made 450 for 2 in the Delhi Test and two more wickets in the next one, but the presence of medium pacers like G. S. Ramchand and Dattu Phadkar, who were much better batsmen, limited his chances. Sunderam represented Rajasthan in the Ranji Trophy, his son Pradeep Sunderam opened the bowling for Rajasthan in the 1980s and once took 10 wickets in an innings. Sunderam was born to a Billava family in Udipi in Southern Karnataka. Sunderam died 20 June 2010 in Mumbai aged 80. Cricinfo player profile Cricketarchive player profile

This Time

This Time may refer to: This Time, 2016 film This Time with Alan Partridge, 2019 British television series This Time, or the title song, 1980 This Time, or the title song, 2012 This Time, or the title song, 1999 This Time, or the title song, 1993 This Time, or the title song, 1999 This Time, or the title song, 2007 This Time, or the title song, 2003 This Time, or the title song, 2009 This Time, or the title song, 1997 This Time, or the title song, 2004 This Time, or the title song, 1974 This Time – The First Four Years, by Culture Club, 1987 This Time... by Anthony Braxton, 1970 This Time, by Lee Soo Young, 2003 This Time... by Stevie B, 2006 "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" "This Time" covered by Troy Shondell "This Time" "This Time" "This Time"/"I Wish You Well", by Cara Dillon "This Time", by Amanda Perez "This Time", by Benny Mardones, written by Benny Mardones and Robert Tepper, from Too Much to Lose "This Time", by Benny Mardones, written by Benny Mardones and James K. Ervin, from Let's Hear It for Love "This Time", by Carrie Underwood from Play On "This Time", by Celine Dion from Taking Chances "This Time", by DJ Antoine "This Time", by Depswa from Two Angels and a Dream "This Time", by The Feeling from Join With Us "This Time", by the Gear Daddies from Let's Go Scare Al "This Time", by Guano Apes from Bel Air "This Time", by House of Schock from House of Schock "This Time", by Il Volo from Il Volo "This Time", by Irving Berlin "This Time", by Janet Jackson from Janet "This Time", by JDiggz featuring Neverending White Lights "This Time", by John Legend from Evolver "This Time", by John Mellencamp from Nothin' Matters and What If It Did "This Time", by JoJo from The High Road "This Time", by Klymaxx from One Day "This Time", by Kutless from Kutless "This Time", by Life of Agony from River Runs Red "This Time", by P.

O. D. from Testify "This Time", by Rae Morris from Unguarded "This Time," by Shana "This Time", by Shirley Bassey from The Performance "This Time", by The Smashing Pumpkins from Machina: The Machines of God "This Time", by Suede from Sci-Fi Lullabies "This Time", by Vanessa Carlton from Heroes & Thieves "This Time", by The Verve from Urban Hymns "This Time", by Wet Wet Wet from The Memphis Sessions "This Time", by Wonder Girls, a B-side from the single "So Hot" "This Time", by the England national football team, a 1982 UK hit single by footballers

Like Cats and Dogs

Like Cats and Dogs is a compilation album by English alternative rock band Catherine Wheel, released 9 September 1996 by Fontana Records in the UK and Mercury Records in the US. The album includes an alternate version of "Heal" from Happy Days, several outtakes and B-sides spanning the band's career, cover versions of songs by Pink Floyd and Rush; the Rush song "Spirit of Radio" had been recorded earlier in the year for a CD entitled "Spirit of the edge Vol. 2", put out by Toronto radio station CFNY for which the song had been written. Bassist Dave Hawes said of the album: I am proud of our B-sides and think Like Cats and Dogs is a great album in itself and not just a collection of B-sides. In my younger days I was an avid record buyer and would be disappointed when playing the B-side of a phenomenal A-side. A lot of bands would just put a "throwaway" track on. I seem to remember recording our B-sides separately to doing our albums which I think was a good idea so to keep the focus on whatever album we were recording at the time.

"Heal 2" – 5:09 "Wish You Were Here" – 3:28 "Mouthful of Air" – 2:42 "Car" – 6:42 "Girl Stand Still" – 8:08 "Saccharine" – 6:04 "Backwards Guitar" – 5:10 "Tongue Twisted" – 5:41 "These Four Walls" – 5:21 "High Heels" – 3:35 "Harder Than I Am" – 4:15 "La La Lala La" – 10:44 "Something Strange / Angelo Nero / Spirit of Radio" – 10:55 Musicians Rob Dickinson – guitar, vocals Brian Futter – guitar Dave Hawes – bass guitar Neil Sims – drums, percussionProduction Tim Friese-Greene – producer Rob Dickinson – producer Gil Norton – producer John Lee – producer, engineer Paul Corkett – engineer Clif Norrell – mixing Bob Ludwigmastering Storm Thorgerson – design Finlay Cowan – design Peter Curzon – design Tim Hale – photography Tony May – photography Rupert Truman – photography Richard Manning – illustrations Julien Mills – illustrations

HMS Montserrat (K586)

HMS Montserrat was a Colony-class frigate of the United Kingdom that served during World War II. She was ordered by the United States Navy as the Tacoma-class patrol frigate USS Hornby and was transferred to the Royal Navy prior to completion; the ship designated a "patrol gunboat," PG-190, was ordered by the United States Maritime Commission under a United States Navy contract as USS Hornby. She was reclassified as a "patrol frigate," PF-82, on 15 April 1943 and laid down by the Walsh-Kaiser Company at Providence, Rhode Island, on 28 August 1943. Intended for transfer to the United Kingdom, the ship was renamed Montserrat by the British prior to launching and was launched on 27 September 1943. Transferred to the United Kingdom under Lend-Lease on 31 August 1944, the ship served in the Royal Navy as HMS Montserrat on patrol and escort duty; the United Kingdom returned Montserrat to the U. S. Navy on 11 June 1946, she was sold to the John J. Duane Company of Quincy, Massachusetts, on 30 November 1947 for scrapping.

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Navsource Online: Frigate Photo Archive HMS Montserrat ex-Hornby ex-PF-82 ex-PG-190 Photo gallery of HMS Montserrat

Mark Watson (economist)

Mark W. Watson is an American professor of economics and public affairs, who teaches at Princeton University. Prior to coming to Princeton in 1995, Watson served on the economics faculty at Harvard University and Northwestern University, his research focuses on time-series econometrics, empirical macroeconomics, macroeconomic forecasting. Watson has published cited articles in these areas, is the co-author of Introduction to Econometrics, a leading undergraduate textbook, he received a B. A. in Economics at California State University, Northridge and a Ph. D. in Economics at the University of California, San Diego. He and Tim Bollerslev are regarded as carrying forward the work of the Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert F. Engle, as acknowledged by Engle himself. Website at Princeton