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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Genocide Convention

The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was unanimously adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951, it defines genocide in legal terms, is the culmination of years of campaigning by lawyer Raphael Lemkin. All participating countries are advised to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime; as of May 2019, 152 states have ratified or acceded to the treaty, most Mauritius on 8 July 2019. One state, the Dominican Republic, has signed but not ratified the treaty. Article 2 of the Convention defines genocide as... any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group. Article 3 defines the crimes; the convention was passed to outlaw actions similar to the Holocaust by Nazi Germany during World War II. The first draft of the Convention included political killings, but the USSR along with some other nations would not accept that actions against groups identified as holding similar political opinions or social status would constitute genocide, so these stipulations were subsequently removed in a political and diplomatic compromise.

Provision granting immunity from prosecution for genocide without its consent were made by Bahrain, India, the Philippines, the United States, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Prior to the United States Senate's ratification of the convention, Senator William Proxmire spoke in favor of the treaty to the Senate every day it was in session between 1967 and 1986. Persons charged with genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III shall be tried by a competent tribunal of the State in the territory of which the act was committed, or by such international penal tribunal as may have jurisdiction with respect to those Contracting Parties which shall have accepted its jurisdiction. Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of the United Nations to take such action under the Charter of the United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention and suppression of acts of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III. Disputes between the Contracting Parties relating to the interpretation, application or fulfilment of the present Convention, including those relating to the responsibility of a State for genocide or for any of the other acts enumerated in article III, shall be submitted to the International Court of Justice at the request of any of the parties to the dispute.

Bahrain Bangladesh China India Malaysia Morocco Myanmar Philippines Rwanda Singapore United Arab Emirates United States of America Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Any Contracting Party may at any time, by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, extend the application of the present Convention to all or any of the territories for the conduct of whose foreign relations that Contracting Party is responsible Several countries opposed this article, considering that the convention should apply to Non-Self-Governing Territories: Albania Belarus Bulgaria Hungary Mongolia Myanmar Poland Romania Russian Federation UkraineThe opposition of those countries were in turn opposed by: Australia Belgium Brazil Ecuador China Netherlands Sri Lanka United Kingdom In 1988, following the campaign of chemical weapons attacks and mass killings of Kurdish persons in northern Iraq, legislation was proposed to the United States House of Representatives, in the, "Prevention of Genocide Act".

The bill was defeated to allegations of "inappropriate terms" such as "genocide". Contemporary scholars and international organizations consider the Anfal Campaign to have been genocide following the Iran-Iraq war, killing tens of thousands of Kurds. Saddam Hussein was charged individual with genocide though executed prior to a return for the charge. Associates of Hussein such as "Chemical Ali", others have been accused of genocide and the events cited as one of the atrocities most associated with the Hussein regime; the first time that the 1948 law was enforced occurred on 2 September 1998 when the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda found Jean-Paul Akayesu, the former mayor of a small town in Rwanda, guilty of nine counts of genocide. The lead prosecutor in this case was Pierre-Richard Prosper. Two days Jean Kambanda became the first head of government to be convicted of genocide; the first state and parties to be found in breach of the Genocide convention was Serbia and Montenegro, numerous Bosnian Serb leaders.

In the Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro case the International Court of Justice presented its judgment on 26 February 2007, it cleared Serbia of direct involvement in genocide during the Bosnian war. International Tribunal fi

The Straw Man

The Straw Man is a 1957 novel by the French writer Jean Giono. Its French title is Le Bonheur fou, which means "the mad happiness"; the story is set in the 1840s and follows Angelo Pardi as he is caught up in plots leading up to the Italian revolution of 1848. The novel is a standalone sequel to The Horseman on the Roof, set earlier and features Pardi as the main character. Several standalone sequels followed in; the Straw Man was published in English in 1959, translated by Phyllis Johnson. R. W. B. Lewis reviewed the book in The Saturday Review: "Like its hero, the book has vigor without direction, it is careful never to be significant. Where it is engaging, it is as a healthy dog is engaging, dashing from tree to tree or cat to cat, tongue hanging out, feeling wonderfully well, wholly without a plan for the rest of the morning's play." Lewis went on: "The one aim Giono seems to have in mind, apart from the contriving of swift and lively episodes and the exact rendering of physical sensations, is to recapture something of the spirit of Stendhal The Charterhouse of Parma....

The prose of The Straw Man attempts the Stendhalian eruptions of ironic juxtaposition, it indulges in the same nervous, playful italicizing. I find the effort dubious and the result a trifle annoying." Publicity page at éditions Gallimard's website

Berkshire (NH train)

The Berkshire was a New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad named train running from New York City's Grand Central Terminal to Pittsfield, Massachusetts. It was the longest-running north–south train in Litchfield Hills of western Connecticut and the Berkshires of Massachusetts. From New York City it followed the New Haven Line to South Norwalk, the Danbury Line to Danbury and the Berkshire Division to Pittsfield, it began in the 1940s and ran until 1968. The train was preceded by the Berkshire Express, of 1939-1941, it terminated at Pittsfield Union Station until 1960, when the New Haven moved it to another station in the city. While the route operated each day excepting Sunday, there were local stops unnamed trains available on Sundays. At peak years of post-World War II service the route was supplemented by other named trains for the New Haven's Berkshire Division route: Housatonic, Mahaiwe, Taconic; the route served as a path to country homes of New Yorkers, as well as to towns such as Canaan and New Milford in the transportation service-neglected northwest Connecticut, an area lacking Interstate highways or major airports.

The route south of Danbury Union Station towards South Norwalk station was electrified until 1961. North from New Milford to Canaan, short of the Connecticut-Massachusetts state line, the route followed the Housatonic River. In summer months the train made stops in Lenox, the town hosting the Tanglewood Music Festival. By 1961 the Berkshire was cut to a Friday north-bound run; the diner-lounge was eliminated by 1961 in favor of parlor cars. In 1968, the Berkshire name was dropped, unnamed trains served the route until 1971 when the New Haven successor Penn Central discontinued service on the line. A contemporary description of the route, in the section,'THE HOUSATONIC RAILROAD'

Faye McClelland

Faye McClelland is a British paratriathlete who competes in the PT4 category. As of May 2016, she is the 3rd-ranked women's PT4 athlete internationally, she finished fourth at the 2016 Summer Paralympics. She won the ITU world title in her classification in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, placing second in 2014. In 2016 Faye competed in the Paralympics in Rio. McClelland was coached by the head coach of Jonathan Riall. ETU European Triathlon Championships PT42010 1st Place ETU European Triathlon Championship Athlone, Ireland 2011 1st Place ETU European Triathlon Championship Pontevedra, Spain 2012 1st Place ETU European Triathlon Championship Eilat, Israel 2014 2nd Place ETU European Triathlon Championship Kitzbühel, AustriaITU World Triathlon Championships PT42010 1st Place ITU World Triathlon Championship Budapest, Hungary 2011 1st Place ITU World Triathlon Championship Beijing, China 2012 1st Place ITU World Aquathlon Championship Auckland, New Zealand 2012 1st Place ITU World Triathlon Championship Auckland, New Zealand 2013 1st Place ITU World Triathlon Championship London, Great BritainITU World Triathlon International Events PT42010 1st Place ITU World Paratriathlon Event London, Great Britain 2011 1st Place ITU World Paratriathlon Event London, Great Britain 2014 1st Place ITU World Paratriathlon Event Yokohama, Japan 2014 2nd Place ITU World Paratriathlon Event London, Great BritainBritish Triathlon National Events PT42014 1st Bexhill Lions Sprint Triathlon Bexhill, East Sussex 2012 Female Paratriathlete of the Year.

British Triathlon Federation 2013 Female Paratriathlete of the Year. British Triathlon Federation 2013 Disabled Sports Personality of the Year. Sussex Sports Awards Brighton 2014 Alumnus Award, for Outstanding Sporting Achievement. University of Brighton 2014 Female Paratriathlete of the Year. 220 Magazine McClelland is a qualified physiotherapist and attained her honours at the University of Brighton in the summer of 2013. In January 2014, McClelland and Wes Mechen started a business, Tempo Running Shop, in Eastbourne East Sussex. Official website

Jerzy Trela

Jerzy Józef Trela is a Polish actor. In 2003 he starred in the film An Ancient Tale:, he is known for White, Quo Vadis and Ida. Trela played many roles on stage at The Old Theatre in Kraków and he was Professor and Rector at the Ludwik Solski Academy for the Dramatic Arts. Meritorious for Polish Culture Commander's Cross with Star of the Order of Polonia Restituta awarded the Commander's Cross and Knight's Cross Polish Film Awards: Eagles for Best Supporting Actor in Quo Vadis Gold Medal "Gloria Artis" The Moth Man of Iron Danton Noc smaragdového měsíce Magnat The Mother of Kings Decalogue IX Three Colors: White Pan Tadeusz Quo Vadis An Ancient Tale: When the Sun Was a God Hope Ida as Szymon Skiba Jerzy Trela profile, IMDB.com. Jerzy Trela profile culture.pl.

Darius Bell and the Glitter Pool

Darius Bell and The Glitter Pool is a 2009 children's novel by Australian author Odo Hirsch. Darius Bell and his family are living in the Bell estate, the mansion given to his ancestors, under the condition that every 25 years they would produce a gift for the town; the next gift is coming up shortly. Darius soon discovers that his family is broke. Though the gift can be anything a barrel of vegetables, Darius’ father insists that the gift needs to be astonishing and needs to honour the Bell name. An earthquake happened and Darius goes outside to assess the damage. Darius discovers, that due to the earthquake, a hole in the ground had opened up. Along with his two friends and Paul, Darius goes down into the hole, discovers that inside the hole, was what he believed to be rubies and gold. Darius is excited about the “gems” and believes that the Glitter Pool is the solution to all his problems, he starts fantasizing about revealing the Glitter Pool to his parents. But first, Darius decides that he needs to go to an expert to confirm that it was ruby and gold.

This is where Darius goes and seeks help from the geology professor, Professor Heggarty, who breaks the truth to Darius and tells him that it isn’t ruby and gold, is instead limonite and vanadinite. This is Darius’ darkest moment; the next part of the story is. He tells her that it is worthless, she tells him that she prefers it that way, because if it had high financial value, all the gems would be torn down, but this way, the beauty of it is intact and she can look at it. She specified that she would rather have this sight as a gift any number of gems around her neck. So Darius sees the world at a whole new perspective, he now knows. He decides that if Marguerite likes the Glitter Pool for its beauty others will too, he decides to give the town the gift of being able to see the Glitter Pool. But first, he needed to fix up the Glitter Pool so that it was safe for visiting. After requesting help from friends to fix up the pool and getting excited about the revelation of the Glitter Pool, Darius discovers that the Glitter Pool can’t be used as the gift because it is on the land, part of the Bell estate.

Darius and his family have no choice but to give a barrel of vegetables as their gift and the mayor starts mocking them, but Hector stands up to Mayor Podcock and makes him feel like dirt. Darius realises that an extreme gift wasn’t necessary, not the Glitter Pool, he learns that a gift is better given from free will rather than from obligation. Afterwards, as the Bells are driving home, they notice that heaps of people are crowded around the Glitter Pool, Darius’ parents find out about everything that Darius has done and they are proud of him. Cyrus, Darius’ older brother, convinced that Darius is useless admits that he is not a complete waste of space. Life is back to normal for the Bell family, but now everyone has a newfound respect for Darius and they have all learned two important lessons. A review in Booklist of Darius Bell and the Glitter Pool wrote ".. this gentle, appealing story would make a terrific read-aloud for a young audience.", The Horn Book Magazine called it ".. A satisfying read."

The School Library Journal found it ".. not religious, nor is it about any particular holiday, but it is a brilliant book to use and recommend for those who want to read about the true spirit of gift giving and receiving."Darius Bell and the Glitter Pool has been reviewed by Magpies, Kirkus Reviews, Australian Women Online, The Age, Library Media Connection. It won the 2010 CBCA Children's Book of the Year Award for Younger Readers. Library holdings of Darius Bell and the Glitter Pool