SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA; the genome includes both the genes and the noncoding DNA, as well as mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA. The study of the genome is called genomics; the term genome was created in 1920 by Hans Winkler, professor of botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany. The Oxford Dictionary suggests the name is a blend of the words chromosome. However, see omics for a more thorough discussion. A few related -ome words existed, such as biome and rhizome, forming a vocabulary into which genome fits systematically. A genome sequence is the complete list of the nucleotides that make up all the chromosomes of an individual or a species. Within a species, the vast majority of nucleotides are identical between individuals, but sequencing multiple individuals is necessary to understand the genetic diversity. In 1976, Walter Fiers at the University of Ghent was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a viral RNA-genome.

The next year, Fred Sanger completed the first DNA-genome sequence: Phage Φ-X174, of 5386 base pairs. The first complete genome sequences among all three domains of life were released within a short period during the mid-1990s: The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. A few months the first eukaryotic genome was completed, with sequences of the 16 chromosomes of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae published as the result of a European-led effort begun in the mid-1980s; the first genome sequence for an archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii, was completed in 1996, again by The Institute for Genomic Research. The development of new technologies has made genome sequencing cheaper and easier, the number of complete genome sequences is growing rapidly; the US National Institutes of Health maintains one of several comprehensive databases of genomic information. Among the thousands of completed genome sequencing projects include those for rice, a mouse, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the puffer fish, the bacteria E. coli.

In December 2013, scientists first sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal, an extinct species of humans. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 130,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave. New sequencing technologies, such as massive parallel sequencing have opened up the prospect of personal genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool, as pioneered by Manteia Predictive Medicine. A major step toward that goal was the completion in 2007 of the full genome of James D. Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. A genome map is less detailed than aids in navigating around the genome; the Human Genome Project was organized to sequence the human genome. A fundamental step in the project was the release of a detailed genomic map by Jean Weissenbach and his team at the Genoscope in Paris. Reference genome sequences and maps continue to be updated, removing errors and clarifying regions of high allelic complexity.

The decreasing cost of genomic mapping has permitted genealogical sites to offer it as a service, to the extent that one may submit one's genome to crowdsourced scientific endeavours such as DNA. LAND at the New York Genome Center, an example both of the economies of scale and of citizen science. Viral genomes can be composed of either RNA or DNA; the genomes of RNA viruses can be either single-stranded or double-stranded RNA, may contain one or more separate RNA molecules. DNA viruses can have either double-stranded genomes. Most DNA virus genomes are composed of a single, linear molecule of DNA, but some are made up of a circular DNA molecule. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes have DNA genomes. Archaea have a single circular chromosome. Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome. If the DNA is replicated faster than the bacterial cells divide, multiple copies of the chromosome can be present in a single cell, if the cells divide faster than the DNA can be replicated, multiple replication of the chromosome is initiated before the division occurs, allowing daughter cells to inherit complete genomes and partially replicated chromosomes.

Most prokaryotes have little repetitive DNA in their genomes. However, some symbiotic bacteria have reduced genomes and a high fraction of pseudogenes: only ~40% of their DNA encodes proteins; some bacteria have auxiliary genetic material part of their genome, carried in plasmids. For this, the word genome should not be used as a synonym of chromosome. Eukaryotic genomes are composed of one or more linear DNA chromosomes; the number of chromosomes varies from Jack jumper ants and an asexual nemotode, which each have only one pair, to a fern species that has 720 pairs. A typical human cell has two copies of each of 22 autosomes, one inherited from each parent, plus two sex chromosomes, making it diploid. Gametes, such as ova, sperm and pollen, are haploid, meaning they carry only one copy of each chromosome. In addition to the chromosomes in the nucleus, organelles such as the chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own DNA. Mitochondria are sometimes said to have their own genome referred to as the "mitochondrial genome".

The DNA found within the chloroplast may be referred to as the "plastome". Like the bacteria they originated from and chloroplasts have a circular chromosome

Rise: The Vieneo Province

Rise: The Vieneo Province is "free-to-play" Internet-based virtual world. Through a free downloadable client program, users interact with each other through motional vehicles and avatars, providing an advanced level of a social network service combined with general aspects of a metaverse. While Rise is sometimes referred to as a game, in general it does not have points, winners or losers, levels, an end-strategy, or most of the other characteristics of a typical game. Players called "citizens", can visit this virtual world as if it were a real place, they explore, meet other citizens, participate in individual and alliance activities, buy and produce goods and services from one another. As they spend more time in the world, they learn new skills and mature learning the culture and manners of a virtual environment; the game contains player-driven economics, a dynamic weather system, a detailed terrain engine. Vieneo, the fictitious moon the game is based on, has all the typical attributes of a planet or moon and was made using StarGen.

The aerodynamic and astrodynamic physics are of the highest fidelity and therefore mimic reality. One of the goals of many players is to look down at the large gaming arena. Unistellar Industries was founded in the State of Missouri in August, 2002; the company developed software for a full-scale cockpit enclosure. The one and only prototype was stolen and litigation followed. Due to budgetary restrictions and assembly space required, the firm has focused on the larger audience of online gaming; the initial alpha test version, code-named Planetfall, was made available in 2003 to players with initial release of the proprietary terrain engine. An alpha version of the game called Rise: The Vieneo Province was made publicly available in 2006. Monthly subscriptions offered starting April, 2006 for users wanting to extend beyond the 14-day free trial period; the Rise economy was initialized in August, 2006 and has been user-driven since. Ongoing development and updates ceased on Rise in October, 2010.

The company started production of a new full-scale cockpit enclosure in July, 2011 with estimated completion in July, 2014. A limited liability company was formed in December, 2012; the game went "Free-to-Play" on March 1, 2013. The game is back in development as of February 1, 2017; the game is was listed as an upcoming title on Steam as of July 1, 2019. The game was released as Early Access on Steam on August 1, 2019. List of space flight simulator games Rise: The Vieneo Province – Official website Rise: The Vieneo Province – Steam Rise: The Vieneo Province – Facebook Metacritic IndieDB GameSpot

Assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira

On the evening of 6 April 1994, the airplane carrying Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira, both Hutu, was shot down with surface-to-air missiles as it prepared to land in Kigali, Rwanda. The assassination set in motion two of the bloodiest events of the late 20th century: the Rwandan genocide and the First Congo War. Responsibility for the attack is disputed, with most theories proposing as suspects either the Tutsi rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front or government-aligned Hutu Power followers opposed to negotiation with the RPF. Within hours of the attack, the mass slaughter of Tutsi people began, resulting in the genocide of hundreds of thousands of Tutsi in the following three months. In 1990, the Rwandan Civil War began when the Rwandan Patriotic Front, dominated by the Tutsi ethnic group, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda. Most of the RPF fighters were either refugees or the sons of refugees who had fled ethnic purges by the Hutu government in the middle of the century.

The attempt to overthrow the government failed, though the RPF was able to maintain control of a border region. As it became clear that the war had reached a stalemate, the sides began peace negotiations in May 1992, which resulted in the signing in August 1993 of the Arusha Accords to create a power-sharing government; the war radicalized the internal opposition. The RPF's show of force intensified support for the so-called "Hutu Power" ideology. Hutu Power portrayed the RPF as an alien force intent on reinstating the Tutsi monarchy and enslaving the Hutus: a prospect which must be resisted at all costs; this ideology was embraced most wholeheartedly by the Coalition for the Defense of the Republic who advocated racist principles known as the Hutu Ten Commandments. This political force led to the collapse of the first Habyarimana government in July 1993, when Prime Minister Dismas Nsengiyaremye criticized the president in writing for delaying a peace agreement. Habyarimana, a member of the MRND political party, dismissed Nsengiyarmye and appointed Agathe Uwilingiyimana, perceived to be less sympathetic to the RPF, in his stead.

The main opposition parties refused to support Madame Agathe's appointment, each splitting into two factions: one calling for the unwavering defense of Hutu Power and the other, labeled "moderate", that sought a negotiated settlement to the war. As Prime Minister Uwilingiyimana was unable to form a coalition government, ratification of the Arusha Accords was impossible; the most extreme of the Hutu parties, the CDR, which called for ethnic cleansing of the Tutsi, was unrepresented in the Accords. The security situation deteriorated throughout 1993. Armed Hutu militias attacked Tutsis throughout the country, while high-ranking adherents of Hutu Power began to consider how the security forces might be turned to genocide. In February 1994, Roméo Dallaire, the head of the military force attached to the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, sent to observe the implementation of the Arusha Accords, informed his superiors, "Time does seem to be running out for political discussions, as any spark on the security side could have catastrophic consequences."In the United Nations Security Council, early April 1994 saw a sharp disagreement between the United States and the non-permanent members of the council over UNAMIR.

Despite a classified February Central Intelligence Agency analysis predicting half a million deaths if the Arusha process failed, the U. S. was attempting to reduce its international commitments in the wake of the Somalia debacle and lobbied to end the mission. A compromise extending UNAMIR's mandate for three more months was reached on the evening of Tuesday, the fifth of April. Meanwhile, Habyarimana was finishing regional travel. On 4 April, he had flown to Zaire to meet with president Mobutu Sese Seko and on the sixth flew to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania for a one-day regional summit for heads of state convened by Tanzania's President. On the return trip that evening he was joined by Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira, a couple of his ministers, who preferred the faster Dassault Falcon 50 that the French government had given to Habyarimana over Ntaryamira's own presidential plane. According to interim Prime Minister Jean Kambanda's testimony to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, President Mobutu Sese Seko of neighboring Zaire had warned Habyarimana not to go to Dar es Salaam on 6 April.

Mobutu said this warning had come from a senior official in the Élysée Palace in Paris. There was a link between this warning, said Mobutu, the subsequent suicide in the Élysée of François de Grossouvre, a senior high-ranking official, working for President François Mitterrand and who killed himself on 7 April after learning about the downing of the Falcon. Shortly before 8:20 pm local time, the presidential jet circled once around Kigali International Airport before coming in for final approach in clear skies. A weekly flight by a Belgian C-130 Hercules carrying UNAMIR troops returning from leave had been scheduled to land before the presidential jet, but was waved off to give the president priority. A surface-to-air missile struck one of the wings of the Dassault Falcon a second missile hit its tail; the plane erupted into flames in mid-air before crashing into the garden of the presidential palace, exploding on impact. The plane carried nine passengers; the attack was witnessed by numerous people.

One of two Belgian officers in the garden of a house in Kanombe, the district in which the airport is located and heard the first missile climb into the sky, saw a red flash in the sky and heard an aircraft engine stopping, followed by another missile. He called Major de Sa