click links in text for more info

Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model is a superseded description of the Universe with Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun, Moon and planets all orbited Earth; the geocentric model was the predominant description of the cosmos in many ancient civilizations, such as those of Aristotle in Classical Greece and Ptolemy in Roman Egypt. Two observations supported the idea that Earth was the center of the Universe: First, from anywhere on Earth, the Sun appears to revolve around Earth once per day. While the Moon and the planets have their own motions, they appear to revolve around Earth about once per day; the stars appeared to be fixed on a celestial sphere rotating once each day about an axis through the geographic poles of Earth. Second, Earth seems to be unmoving from the perspective of an earthbound observer. Ancient Greek, ancient Roman, medieval philosophers combined the geocentric model with a spherical Earth, in contrast to the older flat-Earth model implied in some mythology.

The ancient Jewish Babylonian uranography pictured a flat Earth with a dome-shaped, rigid canopy called the firmament placed over it. However, the Greek astronomer and mathematician Aristarchus of Samos developed a heliocentric model placing all of the then-known planets in their correct order around the Sun; the ancient Greeks believed that the motions of the planets were circular and not elliptical, a view, not challenged in Western culture until the 17th century, when Johannes Kepler postulated that orbits were heliocentric and elliptical. In 1687 Newton showed; the astronomical predictions of Ptolemy's geocentric model, developed in the 2nd century CE, served as the basis for preparing astrological and astronomical charts for over 1500 years. The geocentric model held sway into the early modern age, but from the late 16th century onward, it was superseded by the heliocentric model of Copernicus and Kepler. There was much resistance to the transition between these two theories; some Christian theologians were reluctant to reject a traditional theory that agreed with Biblical passages.

Others felt that a unknown theory could not subvert an accepted consensus for geocentrism. The geocentric model entered Greek philosophy at an early point. In the 6th century BC, Anaximander proposed a cosmology with Earth shaped like a section of a pillar, held aloft at the center of everything; the Sun and planets were holes in invisible wheels surrounding Earth. About the same time, Pythagoras thought that the Earth was a sphere, but not at the center; these views were combined, so most educated Greeks from the 4th century BC on thought that the Earth was a sphere at the center of the universe. In the 4th century BC, two influential Greek philosophers and his student Aristotle, wrote works based on the geocentric model. According to Plato, the Earth was a sphere; the stars and planets were carried around the Earth on spheres or circles, arranged in the order: Moon, Venus, Mars, Saturn, fixed stars, with the fixed stars located on the celestial sphere. In his "Myth of Er", a section of the Republic, Plato describes the cosmos as the Spindle of Necessity, attended by the Sirens and turned by the three Fates.

Eudoxus of Cnidus, who worked with Plato, developed a less mythical, more mathematical explanation of the planets' motion based on Plato's dictum stating that all phenomena in the heavens can be explained with uniform circular motion. Aristotle elaborated on Eudoxus' system. In the developed Aristotelian system, the spherical Earth is at the center of the universe, all other heavenly bodies are attached to 47–55 transparent, rotating spheres surrounding the Earth, all concentric with it; these spheres, known as crystalline spheres, all moved at different uniform speeds to create the revolution of bodies around the Earth. They were composed of an incorruptible substance called aether. Aristotle believed that the Moon was in the innermost sphere and therefore touches the realm of Earth, causing the dark spots and the ability to go through lunar phases, he further described his system by explaining the natural tendencies of the terrestrial elements: Earth, fire, air, as well as celestial aether.

His system held that Earth was the heaviest element, with the strongest movement towards the center, thus water formed a layer surrounding the sphere of Earth. The tendency of air and fire, on the other hand, was to move upwards, away from the center, with fire being lighter than air. Beyond the layer of fire, were the solid spheres of aether in which the celestial bodies were embedded. They, were entirely composed of aether. Adherence to the geocentric model stemmed from several important observations. First of all, if the Earth did move one ought to be able to observe the shifting of the fixed stars due to stellar parallax. In short, if the Earth was moving, the shapes of the constellations should change over the course of a year. If they did not appear to move, the stars are either much farther away than the Sun and the planets than conceived, making their motion undetec

Thirty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland

The Thirty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution is an amendment to the constitution of Ireland which removed the offence of publishing or uttering blasphemous matter. It was effected by an act of the Oireachtas — the Thirty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution Act 2018, introduced in Dáil Éireann, passed by the Dáil and Seanad, approved by the people in a referendum, signed into law by the president; the bill was introduced to the Oireachtas on 13 July 2018 by the Fine Gael minority coalition government. A referendum was held on 26 October, on the same date as the presidential election. A second referendum on whether to remove an article referring to women’s place in the home scheduled for the same date, was postponed until 2019; the amendment was approved with approval from every constituency. It was signed into law by the president on 27 November 2018; the publication or utterance of blasphemous matter is an offence specified by the Constitution of Ireland as an exception to general guarantee of the right of the citizens to express their convictions and opinions.

In Corway v Independent Newspapers, the Supreme Court held that the common law crime of blasphemous libel related to an established church and could not have survived the enactment of the Constitution. They held that it was impossible to say what the offence of blasphemy consisted of; the offence of publishing or uttering blasphemous matter was first defined in Irish law in the Defamation Act 2009. Someone is guilty of the offence if they publish or utter "matter, grossly abusive or insulting in relation to matters held sacred by any religion, thereby causing outrage among a substantial number of the adherents of that religion", they intend, "by the publication or utterance of the matter concerned, to cause such outrage". There is a broad defence where "a reasonable person would find genuine literary, political, scientific, or academic value in the matter to which the offence relates". To date, there has not been a public prosecution for the offence of blasphemy in the Irish state; the Constitutional Convention held a session in November 2013, where they proposed replacing the offence of blasphemy in the Constitution with a prohibition on the incitement of religious hatred.

The matter came to public attention, in May 2017, when it was announced that English comedian Stephen Fry, along with broadcaster RTÉ, were under criminal investigation for blasphemy under the Act, following a complaint from a member of the public about comments made by Fry in a 2015 broadcast interviewed with veteran Irish broadcaster Gay Byrne. The case was dropped after Gardaí confirmed that they had not been able to locate a sufficient number of offended people. In June 2018, Minister for Justice and Equality Charles Flanagan announced that the government would hold a referendum to remove the reference to the offence of blasphemy from the Constitution; the Thirty-seventh Amendment Bill proposed to amend the final sentence of paragraph i of subsection 1º of Article 40.6 by substituting "seditious" for "blasphemous, seditious,". The original text reads: The new text reads: The Department of Justice and Equality's draft general scheme for subsequent legislation proposes that the Government will introduce a formal Bill to repeal sections 36 and 37 of the Defamation Act 2009, which deal with the'Publication or utterance of blasphemous matter' and the'Seizure of copies of blasphemous statements' as well as to replace the words “indecent, obscene, or blasphemous” by “indecent or obscene” in the Censorship of Films Act 1923 as amended by the Civil Law Act 2008, in the Censorship of Films Act 1925.

The Bill was proposed by Minister Charlie Flanagan and passed all stage in the Dáil on 18 September and all stages of the Seanad on 20 September. Amendments by Solidarity to remove other religious references from the Constitution were ruled out of order, it was opposed in the Seanad by Rónán Mullen. A Referendum Commission to provide information to the public on the proposed amendment was established on 18 July 2018. Minister for Housing and Local Government Eoghan Murphy signed the electoral order for the referendum on 21 September, setting the polling date as 26 October. By 17 October, there had been little public debate about the referendum, leading The Irish Times to suggest that this might cause most "Don't know" voters to end up voting "No" as had happened before in similar little-debated referendums, although it still expected the referendum to be carried based on the most recent opinion poll of 12 October; those who supported removing blasphemy from the constitution included: Fine Gael Fianna Fáil Sinn Féin Labour Party Green Party People Before Profit Social Democrats Irish Council for Civil Liberties Church of Ireland Atheist Ireland Justice Minister Charles Flanagan Senator Ivana Bacik Michael Nugent of Atheist Ireland Irish Catholic Bishops' Conference, who called the provision "obsolete" and said that similar laws have been used to justify violence and oppression against minorities in other parts of the world.

Those who opposed removing blasphemy from the constitution included: Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland Senator Rónán Mullen Séamas de Barra of Alliance for the Defence of Marriage and the Family Colum Kenny of DCU School of Communications The referendum took place on 26 October 2018, on the same day as the presidential election. Polling stations were open from 7 am until 10 pm. Turnout was reported to be low in many areas of the country. By midday, turnout percentages from around the country were in the low teens, with many polling stations reporting single figure percentages. In Du

Santi Simone e Giuda, Florence

Santi Simone e Giuda is a church in Florence, situated on the Piazza San Simone in an area of narrow streets between the Piazza Santa Croce and the Piazza della Signoria. The present structure dates from 1243 but underwent a major renovation designed by Gherardo Silvani in 1630. Today it is affiliated with the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church; the church began its life in 1192 as a small oratory situated outside the city walls in vineyards owned by the monks of the Badia Fiorentina. It was enlarged in 1209 and completely re-built in 1243; the new building was consecrated in 1247 by Bishop Ardengo Trotti and was designated a parish church. It was badly damaged when the Arno flooded in 1527. Amongst the damage was the loss of the ciborium, made of wood and was washed away. Serious renovation of the church did not begin until the first quarter of the 17th century when the archbishop of Florence, Alessandro Marzi Medici, elevated its status to a priory and named Giovanni Niccolai as its first prior in 1608, a post he held until his death in 1642.

Niccolai initiated the renovation of the church. By 1619 a new high altar made of Carrara marble was added and the choir stalls and presbytery were renovated under the patronage of Bartolomeo Galilei, a relative of Galileo; the next stage of the renovation began in 1630. It was paid for by the nephew of Bartolomeo. Called Bartoleomeo Galilei, he was a Knight of Malta and steward to Leopoldo de' Medici; the final stage of Silvani's renovation was completed in 1665. The church contains the Knights of Malta. Notable Florentines buried in the church include Raffaellino del Garbo, painter Andrea Salvadori and librettist Media related to Santi Simone e Giuda at Wikimedia Commons

Hubert Austin

Hubert James Austin was an English architect who practised in Lancaster. With his partners he designed many churches and other buildings in the northwest of England. Hubert James Austin was the youngest son of the Revd Thomas Austin the rector of Redmarshall, County Durham, he attended Richmond Grammar School, in 1860 was articled to his older brother, Thomas, an architect in Newcastle upon Tyne. He worked with Sir George Gilbert Scott in London before coming to Lancaster in 1868 as the partner of E. G. Paley, the title of the practice becoming Paley and Austin. In 1886 Paley's son Henry Paley became a partner in the practice and its title changed to Paley and Paley. E. G. Paley died in 1895 and Austin continued in partnership with his son, the practice becoming Austin and Paley. In 1914 Austin's son Geoffrey joined the practice as a partner and, for a short time, it was entitled Austin and Austin; however Hubert Austin died the following year, his son was on active service in the First World War and did not return to the practice after the war, so Henry Paley continued the practice as the sole partner.

Hubert Austin was involved in the design of more than 100 new churches in Gothic Revival style, in many church restorations. His work has been praised. Price comments that he "brought to the practice great talent and energy". Pevsner was of the opinion that it was he "it seems, responsible for the firm's masterpieces"; when he came to the practice "the character of the architecture of the firm changed – a nobility and at the same time resourcefulness appeared which had not until been seen in its products". Elsewhere Pevsner describes him as "brilliant" and of raising the work of the practice "to the level of the best in the country". In the Buildings of England series, Austin is described as a "local man of genius" with whom the firm "achieved greatness, distinguished for their thoughtfully creative designs with masterful handling of space and plane", who transformed the firm into a practice which decorated Lancashire... with churches the equal of any in the country". In 1870 Austin married Fanny Langshaw, a niece of Edward Paley's former partner Edmund Sharpe, they had five children.

The family lived in a house called The Knoll in Westbourne Road, which Austin had designed. He took little part in the civic life of the town other than being a Commissioner of Land Tax in 1886. Outside the practice, his main interests were music and sketching. In religion, he was an Anglican, attending the town's parish church, Lancaster Priory, where he undertook the duties of vicar's warden for seven years and being a sidesman. In addition to The Knoll, he owned Heversham House in Kingsworthy Court in Hampshire. Austin died at home in The Knoll in 1915. Sharpe and Austin List of ecclesiastical works by Paley and Austin List of non-ecclesiastical works by Paley and Austin Notes Bibliography

Netherby (ship)

Netherby was a full-rigged sailing ship of the Black Ball Line that ran aground and sank off the coast of King Island—an island in Bass Strait between Tasmania and the Australian mainland—on 14 July 1866 while sailing from London to Brisbane. Remarkably, all of the 413 passengers and 49 crew were saved, firstly from drowning in the rough waters of Bass Strait and from starvation on the uninhabited island. Netherby was a 944 ton vessel of dimensions 176 x 33 x 22 feet, built in Sunderland in 1858; the vessel was under charter to the Queensland Government to carry emigrants from the United Kingdom to the then-British colony. Queensland separated from its parent colony New South Wales, saw a need to increase its population and so set in place a "land order" system of assisted emigration. Netherby was the 77th vessel to sail under this system for the Queensland government. Sailing from East India Docks in London, Netherby sailed to Plymouth to take on its final group of emigrants before setting sail for Queensland.

The ship's master for the voyage was Captain Owen Owens. The ship was supposed to take a route to the south of Tasmania but Owens decided to pass through Bass Strait instead; the ship had encountered rough weather earlier in the voyage that had seen the steerage passengers confined below decks for 14 consecutive days. In taking the passage through Bass Strait, Owens hoped to avoid further rough weather and ease the burden on the passengers. Owens' problems started when low cloud obscured the sun from view and thus he was unable to plot his position using celestial navigation techniques. After Netherby was wrecked, all the 413 passengers and 49 crew were able to reach King Island safely, but there they were without shelter and with limited provisions; the second officer, John Parry, led a small party of crew and passengers to procure assistance from the lighthouse on the island, but there were insufficient supplies there for the number of survivors. Parry and 3 others took the 23-foot whaleboat at the lighthouse and, despite high winds and rough seas, managed to reach the Australian mainland between Point Roadknight and Barwon Heads, where they met a party of surveyors who assisted them.

Parry took a horse and rode the 26 miles to Geelong from where he raised the alarm by telegram to Melbourne on 21 July. The Victorian Government summoned Captain William Henry Norman to load supplies of food, blankets and medicine onto HMVS Victoria and proceed at full speed to King Island to rescue the survivors. Another ship, had independently sailed from Williamstown to render assistance to the survivors. On Monday 23 July, Norman located the wreck of Netherby and, after discussions with the Netherby's Captain Owens took 230 passengers on board the Victoria, while off-loading supplies for those remaining on the island. Pharos arrived and took on board the remaining 60 survivors near the wreck site, the other 117 survivors having left the wreck site heading to the lighthouse. Having taken the rescued people to Melbourne and Pharos returned to the lighthouse at King Island where they rescued the remaining survivors and replaced the lost whaleboat at the lighthouse; the survivors were taken by train and by cab to be accommodated in the Immigration Depot and Exhibition Building.

Little of the luggage of the survivors was recovered and most were in a wretched state after their ordeal. The remaining passengers, bound for Brisbane, continued their journey on board City of Melbourne, arriving on 6 August 1866. Charlwood, Don; the Wreck of the Sailing Ship Netherby: A miracle of survival. Burgewood Books. ISBN 1-876425-18-0; the Netherby Shipwreck 1866 - A descendants site dedicated to the shipwreck

Mohabbath (2011 film)

Mohabbath is a 2011 Malayalam–language musical romance film directed and produced by East Coast Vijayan. It stars Meera Jasmine and Anand Michael in the lead roles. Written by Siddique Shameer based on his own novel Kalippavakal, the film features music by S. Balakrishnan, who makes his comeback through this film. Renowned singer Hariharan appears as himself in a song sequence; the film concerns a love triangle between characters played by Meera Jasmine, Anand Michael and Munna. It reached theatres on 28 April. Anwar is a final year medical student in Bangalore and Sajna studies in a local professional college, they are cousins and their marriage had been fixed in childhood. Sajna's college-mate Ameer falls in love with her. Sajna tries to explain her situation about being engaged and insults him for being poor but in vain; the film takes unexpected turn in between. Sajna's family becomes Ameer has a windfall. Sajna's wedding is cancelled and Ameer comes in as saviour and revives his proposal through proper channels.

The film has an unexpected climax with Anwar returns to their lives. Meera Jasmine as Sajna Anand Michael as Anwar Munna as Ameer Nedumudi Venu Jagathy Sreekumar Salim Kumar Ashokan Suresh Krishna Devan P. Sreekumar Beyon Shari Urmila Unni Lakshmi Priya Niranjan Nobi Arun Ajith Thejas Master Jeevan Sadhana Ambika Mohan Gayathri The pooja of the film held at East Coast Studio, Thiruvananthapuram, on 12 November 2010; the songs recording completed on 22 November 2010. The shooting of the film began at Vazhakala, Ernakulam, on 10 December 2010. Singer K. G. Jayan did the camera switch on ceremony; the production completed in February 2011. Music: S. Balakrishnan, K. A. Latheef. Malayala Manorama.. Retrieved 2011-02-27. Http://