Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the entire Solar System, has made important contributions to the understanding of a number of processes including mantle convection, the formation of planets and the origins of granite and basalt; the term geochemistry was first used by the Swiss-German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838: "a comparative geochemistry ought to be launched, before geochemistry can become geology, before the mystery of the genesis of our planets and their inorganic matter may be revealed." However, for the rest of the century the more common term was "chemical geology", there was little contact between geologists and chemists. Geochemistry emerged as a separate discipline after major laboratories were established, starting with the United States Geological Survey in 1884, began systematic surveys of the chemistry of rocks and minerals.
The chief USGS chemist, Frank Wigglesworth Clarke, noted that the elements decrease in abundance as their atomic weights increase, summarized the work on elemental abundance in The Data of Geochemistry. The composition of meteorites was investigated and compared to terrestrial rocks as early as 1850. In 1901, Oliver C. Farrington hypothesised that, although there were differences, the relative abundances should still be the same; this was the beginnings of the field of cosmochemistry and has contributed much of what we know about the formation of the Earth and the Solar System. In the early 20th century, Max von Laue and William L. Bragg showed that X-ray scattering could be used to determine the structures of crystals. In the 1920s and 1930s, Victor Goldschmidt and associates at the University of Oslo applied these methods to many common minerals and formulated a set of rules for how elements are grouped. Goldschmidt published this work in the series Geochemische Verteilungsgesetze der Elemente.
Some subfields of geochemistry are: Aqueous geochemistry studies the role of various elements in watersheds, including copper, sulfur and how elemental fluxes are exchanged through atmospheric-terrestrial-aquatic interactions. Biogeochemistry is the field of study focusing on the effect of life on the chemistry of the Earth. Cosmochemistry includes the analysis of the distribution of elements and their isotopes in the cosmos. Isotope geochemistry involves the determination of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the Earth and on Earth's surface. Organic geochemistry, the study of the role of processes and compounds that are derived from living or once-living organisms. Photogeochemistry is the study of light-induced chemical reactions that occur or may occur among natural components of the Earth's surface. Regional geochemistry includes applications to environmental and mineral exploration studies; the building blocks of materials are the chemical elements.
These can be identified by their atomic number Z, the number of protons in the nucleus. An element can have more than one value for the number of neutrons in the nucleus; the sum of these is the mass number, equal to the atomic mass. Atoms with the same atomic number but different neutron numbers are called isotopes. A given isotope is identified by a letter for the element preceded by a superscript for the mass number. For example, two common isotopes of chlorine are 37Cl. There are about 1700 known combinations of N, of which only about 260 are stable. However, most of the unstable isotopes do not occur in nature. In geochemistry, stable isotopes are used to trace chemical pathways and reactions, while isotopes are used to date samples; the chemical behavior of an atom – its affinity for other elements and the type of bonds it forms – is determined by the arrangement of electrons in orbitals the outermost electrons. These arrangements are reflected in the position of elements in the periodic table.
Based on position, the elements fall into the broad groups of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, semi-metals, noble gases and actinides. Another useful classification scheme for geochemistry is the Goldschmidt classification, which places the elements into four main groups. Lithophiles combine with oxygen; these elements, which include Na, K, Si, Al, Ti, Mg and Ca, dominate in the Earth's crust, forming silicates and other oxides. Siderophile elements tend to concentrate in the core. Chalcophile elements form sulfides. Within each group, some elements are refractory, remaining stable at high temperatures, while others are volatile, evaporating more so heating can separate them; the chemical composition of the Earth and other bodies is determined by two opposing processes: differentiation and mixing. In the Earth's mantle, differentiation occurs at mid-ocean ridges through partial melting, with more refractory materials remaining at the base of the lithosphere while the remainder rises to form basalt.
After an oceanic plate descends into the mantle, convection mixes the two parts together. Erosion differentiates granite, separating it into clay on the ocean floor, sandstone on the edge of the continent, dissolved minerals in ocean waters. Metamorphism and anatexis can mix these elements together again. In the ocean, biological organisms can cause chemical differentiation, while dissol
Acoustic: Live at Stubb's is Reckless Kelly's first live album. It was recorded at Stubb's Bar-B-Q in Texas; the album features a cover of Bob Dylan's Subterranean Homesick Blues, recorded on his 1965 album, Bringing It All Back Home. Covered are AC/DC's You Shook Me All Night Long and Led Zeppelin's Whole Lotta Love. "My Soul Ain't Sold" – 4:10 "Hottest Thing in Town" – 8:15 "Don't Come Back" – 2:48 "Subterranean Homesick Blues" – 2:44 "Wild Western Windblown Band" – 3:01 "She Sang the Red River Valley" – 4:20 "Shook Me All Night Long" – 5:45 "You Should Be Gone" – 3:33 "My Baby Worships Me" – 3:22 "The Ballad of Tommy and Maria" – 4:11 "Strung Out and Wound" – 3:22 "Eight More Miles" – 4:19 "Whole Lotta Love" – 16:40 "Lovin' You" Willy Braun – Lead Vocals, guitar Cody Braun – Vocals, mandolin, harmonica David Abeyta – lead guitar, vocals Jay Nazz – drums Chris Schelske – bass
The Philippine Labor Migration Policy of the Philippine government allows and encourages emigration. The Department of Foreign Affairs, one of the government's arms of emigration, grants Filipinos passports that allow entry to foreign countries; the Philippine government enacted the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 in order to "institute the policies of overseas employment and establish a higher standard of protection and promotion of the welfare of migrant workers and their families and overseas Filipinos in distress." Among the Filipino migrants, there is a significant amount of migrants that are Overseas Filipino Workers. One of the recent trends in Filipino contractual workers is that as years pass by, more and more women have traveled out of the country, outnumbering the men; this can be attributed to the fact that domestic entertainers are in-demand globally. In fact entertainers destined for Japan and other countries have increased from 3.3% to 18.9% in a span of a decade from 1983-1984.
As of 2009, the most Filipinos work as household service workers. Out of the total of 71, 557 household workers, 69,669 are women. According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, many of the OFWs are Overseas Contract Workers. OFWs are distributed among different age groups; the 25-29 age bracket comprises more OFWs than the other age groups. OFWs come from all parts of the country, many of them come from provinces of the Philippines. According to the World Bank, 4,275,200 Filipinos have emigrated out of the country as of 2010. Among those who travel abroad are Overseas Contractual Workers and those who are undocumented; as of 2009, 1,422,586 Filipino workers have contributed to remittances from abroad. According to the book Philippine Labour Migration, these workers can be categorized into eight criteria, by type, countries of deployment, rural or urban origin, civil status, age and skills, occupation. Although many permanent migrants are residing in the Americas, most OFWs are working in Asian countries.
As of 2013, the top destinations for OFWs are Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Hong Kong, Singapore. Number of Deployed Landbased Overseas Filipino Workers by Major Occupational Category, New Hires A chart on the cash and personal remittances of OFWs in millions of US Dollars * Remittances coursed through bank **Partial data only until April 2015 A chart on remittances of OFWs according to regions in millions of US Dollars *Partial data only until April 2015 The history of Philippine Labor Migration policies can be traced as far back as 1521, when the Filipino natives started to man ships in the Manila – Acapulco Galleon trade. Filipinos started working in the dockyards and aboard ships traveling as far as Mexico, under the mandate of Spanish colonizers. In order to escape maltreatment by the Spaniards, many of those Filipino workers resorted to "jumping ship", settling in state ports like Acapulco and Louisiana, USA, they were the first generation of Filipino labor migrants. Since three "waves" of labor migration occurred, each wave taking the Philippines closer to becoming one of the world's largest labor exporting countries, as it is today.
The majority or the bulk of the temporary migration/ contractual/ labor migration started in the mid-1970s with the triggering of the formal adoption of the Overseas Employment Program with the Philippine Labor Code in 1974. It was in the mid-1970s that the government started to mobilize and promote labor migration in the middle east as it has opened an opportunity for the Ferdinand Marcos, the President of the Philippines, to export young unemployed men from the stagnating economy and be able to regulate and encourage labor outflows; the third wave of migration that took place in the 1970s was due to the economic downturn caused by an increase in crude oil prices. At this time, job loss in the country was tremendous. On the other side of the globe, oil-exporting countries were making large profits and this created a demand for more laborers to support their new projects. Marcos saw this as a chance to utilize the Philippines’ surplus labor and he created a foreign policy called "Development Diplomacy," which focused on exporting such surplus labor.
In 1980, the number of overseas workers set for deployment by the Department of Labor and Employment had increased by 75% from that of the previous year. Labor Flows in the Philippines has been determined by three factors: Rapid Population Growth, Uneven Development and Labor Oversupply and Unemployment. Rapid Population Growth has been a large contributing factor in labor migration. Rapid population growth, one of the highest in the world during the 70s-90s, has caused urban growth problems such as overcrowding, traffic congestion, the emergence of squatter areas and slums and unemployment; this has led migrant workers from the countryside explore outside of the country. Uneven population distribution of in the urbanized areas of the country and its other regions has caused socioeconomic imbalance; this socioeconomic imbalance or disparities has been seen to have caused the augmentation of the macroeconomic policies rendering it favourable for the urbanized areas, giving much attention to the industrial sector than the agricultural sector on the other regions of the country.
Trade policies have been seen to be biased on the rural development favouring industrial centers like Metro Manila. Poor labor absorptive capacity of the country's economy has been a contributing factor for the magnitude of labor migration outside the country; this draws back to the rapid growth of the population outpacing the growth of the coun