The Geographica, or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent. Work can have begun on it no earlier than 20 BC. A first edition was published in 7 BC followed by a gap, resumption of work and a final edition no than 23 AD in the last year of Strabo's life. Strabo worked on his Geography and now missing History concurrently, as the Geography contains a considerable amount of historical data. Except for parts of Book 7, the complete work is known. Strabo refers to his Geography within it by several names: geōgraphia, "description of the earth" chōrographia, "description of the land" periēgēsis, "an outline" periodos gēs, "circuit of the earth" periodeia tēs chōrās, "circuit of the land" Apart from the "outline", two words recur, "earth" and "country." Something of a theorist, Strabo explains what he means by Geography and Chorography:It is the sea more than anything else that defines the contours of the land and gives it its shape, by forming gulfs, deep seas and isthmuses, promontories.
It is through such natural features that we gain a clear conception of continents, favourable positions of cities and all the other diversified details with which our geographical map is filled. From this description it is clear that by geography Strabo means ancient physical geography and by chorography, political geography; the two are combined in this work, which makes a "circuit of the earth" detailing the physical and political features. Strabo uses the adjective geōgraphika with reference to the works of others and to geography in general, but not of his own work. In the Middle Ages it became the standard name used of his work; the date of Geographica is a large topic because Strabo worked on it along with his History for most of his adult life. He traveled extensively, undoubtedly gathering notes, made extended visits to Rome and Alexandria, where he is sure to have spent time in the famous library taking notes from his sources. Strabo visited Rome in 44 BC at age 19 or 20 for purposes of education.
He studied under various persons, including Tyrannion, a captive educated Greek and private tutor, who instructed Cicero's two sons. Cicero says:The geographical work I had planned is a big undertaking...if I take Tyrannion's views too... If one presumes that Strabo acquired the motivation for writing geography during his education, the latter must have been complete by the time of his next visit to Rome in 35 BC at 29 years old, he may have been gathering notes but the earliest indication that he must have been preparing them is his extended visit to Alexandria 25–20 BC. In 20 he was 44 years old, his "numerous excerpts" from "the works of his predecessors" are most to have been noted at the library there. Whether these hypothetical notes first found their way into his history and into his geography or were ported along as notes remains unknown. Most of the events of the life of Augustus mentioned by Strabo occurred 31–7 BC with a gap 6 BC – 14 AD, which can be interpreted as an interval after first publication in 7 BC.
In 19 AD a specific reference dates a passage: he said that the Carni and Norici had been at peace since they were "stopped... from their riotous incursions...." by Drusus 33 years ago, 15 BC, dating the passage 19 AD. The latest event mentioned is the death of Juba at no than 23 AD, when Strabo was in his 80s; these events can be interpreted as a second edition unless he saved all his notes and wrote the book after the age of 80. Strabo is his own best expounder of his principles of composition:In short, this book of mine should be... useful alike to the statesman and to the public at large – as was my work on History.... And so, after I had written my Historical Sketches... I determined to write the present treatise also. For it, too, is a colossal work, in that it deals with the facts about large things only, wholes.... An outline of the encyclopedia follows, with links to the appropriate Wikipedia article. Pages C1 through C67, Loeb Volume I pages 3–249; some thirty manuscripts of Geographica or parts of it have survived all of them medieval copies of copies, though there are fragments from papyrus rolls which were copied out c.
100–300 AD. Scholars have struggled for a century and a half to produce an accurate edition close to what Strabo wrote. A definitive one has been in publication since 2002. Bibliotheca historica Diodorus Siculus Codex Vaticanus 2061 Kramer, Gustav, ed. Strabonis Geographica, 3 vols, containing Books 1–17. Berlin: Friedericus Nicolaus, 1844–52. Strabo. Horace Leonard Jones; the Loeb Classical Library: The Geography of Strabo: in Eight Volumes. Translated by Jones. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London: Harvard University Press/William Heinemann. ISBN 0-674-99055-2. Contains Books 1–17, Greek on the left page, English on the right. Sterrett translated Books I and II and wrote the introduction before dying in 1915. Jones finished the translation; the Introduction contains a major bibliography on all aspects of Strabo and a definitive presentation of th
Just Friends is a vocal jazz album by Rick Haydon and John Pizzarelli, released in February 2006 with Mel Bay Records. It reached 19 on the JazzWeek Top 100 charts in April 2006. Mike Shanley for the JazzTimes wrote that technically "both guitarists play Bill Moll seven-string axes, so it would’ve been nice if this album did a better job of distinguishing one from the other" but that "their musical touchstones and graceful styles blend together like a seasoned team."Ken Dryden at All About Jazz had a more positive take, writing the duo alternates "between lead and rhythm lines so that it's hard to tell, who." He concluded "it is obvious that they had a ball making this disc."Scott Yanow rated the album four stars on AllMusic, commenting that Haydon "holds his own with Pizzarelli on this good-natured and swinging quartet set." Rick Haydon – 7-string electric guitar John Pizzarelli – 7-string electric guitar Martin Pizzarelli – bass Tony Tedesco – drums Album on Discogs
The Battle of the Horns of Hama or Hammah was an Ayyubid victory over the Zengids, which left Saladin in control of Damascus and Homs. Gökböri commanded the right wing of the Zengid army, which broke Saladin's left flank before being routed by a charge from Saladin's personal guard. Despite around 20 000 men being involved on both sides, Saladin gained a nearly bloodless victory owing to the psychological effect of the arrival of his Egyptian reinforcements. Following the battle, Saladin placed the rightful Zengid heirs over these territories: Muhammad ibn Shirkuh in Homs, al-Rahba. Gökböri himself defected in 1182. Once his power was further consolidated, they were deposed in favor of members of his own dynasty. On 6 May 1175, Saladin's opponents agreed to a treaty recognizing his rule over Syria, apart from Aleppo. Saladin requested that the Abbasid caliph acknowledge his right to the entirety of Nur ad-Din's empire, but he was recognized as lord over what he held and encouraged to attack the Crusaders in Jerusalem.
Behâ ed-Din, The Life of Saladin, translated at London in 1897 by C. W. Wilson for the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society. Lock, The Routledge Companion to the Crusades, Routledge Companions to History, Routledge, ISBN 9781135131371. Nicholson, H.. God's Warriors: Knights Templar and the Battle for Jerusalem, Osprey Publishing