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Geography of Norway

Norway is a country located in Northern Europe on the northern and western parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The majority of the country borders water, including the Skagerrak inlet to the south, the North Sea to the southwest, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Barents Sea to the north, it has a land border with Sweden to the east and a shorter border with Finland and an shorter border with Russia to the northeast. Norway has an elongated shape, one of the longest and most rugged coastlines in the world, some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline, it is one of the world's northernmost countries, it is one of Europe's most mountainous countries, with large areas dominated by the Scandinavian Mountains. The country's average elevation is 460 metres, 32 percent of the mainland is located above the tree line, its country-length chain of peaks is geologically continuous with the mountains of Scotland, and, after crossing under the Atlantic Ocean, the Appalachian Mountains of North America.

Geologists hold that all these formed a single range prior to the breakup of the ancient supercontinent Pangaea. During the last glacial period, as well as in many earlier ice ages the entire country was covered with a thick ice sheet; the movement of the ice carved out deep valleys. As a result of the ice carving, Sognefjorden is the world's second deepest fjord and Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in Europe; when the ice melted, the sea filled many of these valleys. The glaciers in the higher mountain areas today are not remnants of the large ice sheet of the ice age—their origins are more recent; the regional climate was up to 1–3 °C warmer in 7000 BC to 3000 BC in the Holocene climatic optimum, melting the remaining glaciers in the mountains completely during that period. Though it has long since been released from the enormous weight of the ice, the land is still rebounding several millimeters a year; this rebound is greatest in the eastern part of the country and in the inner parts of the long fjords, where the ice cover was thickest.

This is a slow process, for thousands of years following the end of the ice age, the sea covered substantial areas of what is today dry land. This old seabed is now among the most productive agricultural lands in the country. Geographic coordinates: 62°N 10°E Map references: Europe Area: total: 324,220 km2 land: 307,860 km2 water: 16,360 km2 With Svalbard and Jan Mayen included: 385,199 km2 Area - comparative: The contiguous area is smaller than Vietnam and larger than the US state of New Mexico. With Svalbard and Jan Mayen included, the area is larger than Japan. Land boundaries: total: 2,515 km border countries: Finland 729 km. Coastline: continental 25,148 km, it is one of the 17th largest in the world. The EEZ along the mainland makes up 878,575 km2, the Jan Mayen EEZ makes up 29,349 km2, since 1977 Norway has claimed an economic zone around Svalbard of 803,993 km2. Glaciated. Frozen ground all-year can be found in the higher mountain areas and in the interior of Finnmark county. Numerous glaciers are found in Norway.

Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m Highest point: Galdhøpiggen 2,469 metres Scandinavian Mountains: the Scandinavian Mountains are the most defining feature of the country. Starting with Setesdalsheiene north of the Skagerrak coast, the mountains are found in large parts of the country and intersect the many fjords of Vestlandet; this region includes Hardangervidda, Jotunheimen and Trollheimen in the north, with large glaciers, such as Jostedalsbreen and Hardangerjøkulen. The mountain chain swings eastwards south of Trondheim, with ranges such as Dovrefjell and Rondane, reaches the border with Sweden, where they have become gently sloping plateaus; the mountains follow the border in a northeasterly direction and are known as Kjølen. The mountains intersect many fjords in Nordland and Troms, where they become more alpine and create many islands after they meet the sea; the Scandinavian mountains form the Lyngen Alps, which reach into northwestern Finnmark becoming lower from Altafjord towards Nordkapp, where they end at the Barents Sea.

The Scandinavian Mountains divide the country into physical regions. The following physical regions will only correspond to traditional regions and counties in Norway. Southern coast: the southern Skagerrak and North Sea coast is the lowland south of the mountain range, from Stavanger in the west to the western reaches of the outer part of the Oslofjord in the east. In this part of the country, valleys tend to follow a north–south direction; this area is hilly, but with some flat areas such as Lista and Jæren. Southeast: the land east of the mountains (corresponding to Østlandet, most of Telemark, Røro

Battle of Al-Malihah

The Battle of Al-Malihah was a battle in the Rif Dimashq Governorate during the Syrian Civil War. On 3 April, the Syrian Arab Army launched a "large-scale military operation" in a bid to capture the rebel-held town of Al-Malihah and several surrounding towns and villages southeast of Damascus. Pro-government sources blamed the rebels for rejecting a truce offer and for holding a local reconciliation committee captive; the Army stepped up its operations in the Jobar neighborhood. By the next day, 26 rebels were killed by the clashes and air raids. Between 3 April and 3 May, rebels launched several mortar shells on Damascus, killing a total of 11 people according to state media. On 13 April, it was reported that the Army took control of areas on Al-Malihah's edges, while the town suffered heavy bombing for 10 consecutive days. On 27 April, rebels took hold of the Missiles Battalion base and Al Jarwe intelligence building on the Damascus-Baghdad highway. Five days rebels captured base 559 in the desert east of Damascus.

A rebel battalion commander was killed during the takeover. At the same time, a number of rebels were killed in an ambush set up by the Army west of al-Iskan military yard. On 2 May, rebels in Al-Malihah launched a counter-attack and managed to capture parts on the northern edge of Jaramana district. On 3 May, the Army advanced further into Al-Malihah and by 4 May, controlled more than half of the town, including the town hall, according to an Army official; the SOHR confirmed the Army advance, saying government troops had reached the town center, but noted that it was unclear how in control the Army was. It claimed that Hezbollah was playing the lead role in the battle. Meanwhile, three soldiers were killed by a car bomb in southwestern Damascus. On 5 May, a large number of rebels from Douma arrived on the outskirts of Al-Malihah and engaged government forces. On 16 July, it was reported that the al-Nusra Front detonated a suicide car bomb followed by heavy clashes in an attempt to lift the Army siege of hundreds of rebels in Al-Malihah.

According to the SOHR, 10 soldiers were killed by the blast. On 14 August, the Syrian Army and Hezbollah took full control of the town, while the military continued to pursue insurgents in the fields north of al-Malihah. 500 rebels managed to withdraw towards the center of East Ghouta, while 100–150 rebel fighters were killed in the retreat. During the battle for Al-Malihah, opposition forces used an extensive network of tunnels under the town and the surrounding wooded areas which favoured rebel tactics; this resulted in the slow pace of the government force's advance during the four months of fighting. The tunnel network was considered to be one of the most complex networks found in the war. After the town fell, the military planned to use it as a springboard to advance into the rest of the Eastern Ghouta region; the capture of Al-Malihah was followed by a new Army offensive that month

Simplicial commutative ring

In algebra, a simplicial commutative ring is a commutative monoid in the category of simplicial abelian groups, or, equivalently, a simplicial object in the category of commutative rings. If A is a simplicial commutative ring it can be shown that π 0 A is a commutative ring and π i A are modules over that ring A topology-counterpart of this notion is a commutative ring spectrum; the ring of polynomial differential forms on simplexes. Let A be a simplicial commutative ring; the ring structure of A gives π ∗ A = ⊕ i ≥ 0 π i A the structure of a graded-commutative graded ring as follows. By the Dold–Kan correspondence, π ∗ A is the homology of the chain complex corresponding to A. Next, to multiply two elements, writing S 1 for the simplicial circle, let x: ∧ i → A, y: ∧ j → A be two maps; the composition ∧ i × ∧ j → A × A → A,the second map the multiplication of A, induces ∧ i ∧ ∧ j → A. This in turn gives an element in π i + j A. We have thus defined the graded multiplication π i A × π j A → π i + j A.

It is associative. It is graded-commutative since the involution S 1 ∧ S 1 → S 1 ∧ S 1 introduces minus sign. If M is a simplicial module over A the similar argument shows that π ∗ M has the structure of a graded module over π ∗ A. By definition, the category of affine derived schemes is the opposite category of the category of simplicial commutative rings. What facts in commutative algebra fail miserably for simplicial commutative rings up to homotopy? Reference request - CDGA vs. sAlg in char. 0 A. Mathew, Simplicial commutative rings, I. B. Toën, Simplicial presheaves and derived algebraic geometry P. Goerss and K. Schemmerhorn, Model categories and simplicial methods