SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Geography of Puerto Rico

The geography of Puerto Rico consists of an archipelago located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic, west of the Virgin Islands and north of Venezuela. The main island of Puerto Rico is most eastern of the Greater Antilles. With an area of 3,515 square miles, it is the third largest island in the United States and the 82nd largest island in the world. Various smaller islands and cays, including Vieques, Mona and Caja de Muertos comprise the remainder of the archipelago with only Culebra and Vieques being inhabited year-round. Mona is uninhabited through large parts of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources; the mainland measures some 96 nautical miles by 35 nautical miles larger than the U. S. state of Rhode Island. It is mountainous with large coastal areas in the north and south regions of the island; some popular beaches on the north-west side of the island are Jobos Beach, Maria's Beach, Domes Beach and Sandy Beach.

The main mountainous range is called La Cordillera Central. The highest elevation point of Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta, is located in this range. Another important peak is El Yunque, located in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with a maximum elevation of 3,494 feet; the capital, San Juan, is located on the main island's north coast. The archipelago of Puerto Rico is located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of the Virgin Islands. Located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, Puerto Rico was key to the Spanish Empire since the early years of exploration and colonization of the New World; the topography of the main island is divided into three major regions: the mountainous region, which includes the Cordillera Central, Sierra de Luquillo, Sierra de Cayey and Sierra Bermeja, the coastal plains and the northern karst region. The Cordillera Central extends through the entire island, dividing it into the northern and southern region.

The mountain region accounts for 60% of the land area. The archipelago of Culebra, located east of Puerto Rico, north of Vieques, west of the Virgin Islands, is composed of the main island of Culebra and 28 uninhabited islets. Mountainous, the island of Culebra possesses renowned beaches. Located in the tropics, Puerto Rico enjoys an average temperature of 81 °F throughout the year; the seasons do not change drastically. The temperature in the south is a few degrees higher than the north and temperatures in the central interior mountains are always cooler than the rest of the island; the highest temperature record was in the Town of San German with 105 °F and the minimum registration is 39 °F in Aibonito. The dry season spans from November to May while the wet season coincides with the Atlantic hurricane season from June to November. Puerto Rico has more than 50 rivers. Most of these rivers are born in the Cordillera Central, Puerto Rico's principal mountain range located across the center of the island.

The rivers in the north of the island are bigger and with higher flow capacity than those of the south. The south is thus hotter than the north; these rivers make up 60 watersheds throughout the island, where over 95% of the runoff goes back to sea. As of 1998, 239 plants, 16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles have been discovered that are endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico; the majority of these are found on the main island. The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride are the Coquís, small frogs recognized by the sound from which they get their name. El Yunque National Forest, a tropical rainforest, is home to the majority of species of Coquí, it is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic, 50 bird species, including the critically endangered Puerto Rican amazon. Forests of Puerto Rico are well represented by the flora of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, a Long Term Ecological Research Network site managed by the United States Forest Service and University of Puerto Rico.

At this site, there are four main life zones, delineated on the basis of temperature and precipitation, in the Luquillo Mountains: subtropical wet and subtropical rain forests are found at low and mid elevations, lower montane rain and lower montane wet forests at high elevations. There is an area of subtropical moist forest at low elevations on the southwest slope. Tabonuco forest, so named for the dominant tabonuco tree, covers lower slopes to about 2,000 ft. In well-developed stands the larger trees exceed 98 ft in height, there is a continuous canopy at 66 ft, the shaded understory is moderately dense. Tabonuco trees are large on ridges, where they are rooted in the rocky substrate and connected by root grafts with each other. There are about 168 tree species in the tabonuco forest; the Colorado forest, named for the large Colorado tree, begins above the tabonuco forest and extends up to about 3,000 ft. Its canopy reaches root mats above the soil are common. There are some 53 tree species in this forest type.

At this same elevation, but in steep and wet areas, is palm forest dominated by the sierra palm. Patches of palm forest are found in saturated riparian areas in the tabonuco forest; the palm forest reaches about 15 m in height. At the highest elevations i

1st Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron

The 1st Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron was a unit of the United States Air Force. It was activated on 1 July 1975, it was replaced by the 23d Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron. In October 1983, the 1 AES deployed to Grenada in support of Operation Urgent Fury; the squadron aeromedically evacuated numerous casualties during the operation. From December 1989 through January 1990, the 1 AES was deployed in support of Operation Just Cause. During this period, 1 AES personnel established and supported the Joint Casualty Collection Point at Howard AFB, Panama. In addition to providing life-saving intervention and treatment of combat casualties, 1 AES personnel aeromedically evacuated wounded soldiers to stateside medical treatment facilities. On 10 August 1990, the 1 AES deployed personnel to the Middle East for support of theater aeromedical operations in Operation Desert Shield. During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, thousands of theater and strategic patient movements were managed by 1 AES personnel.

Following these operations, the 1 AES deployed personnel in support of Operation Provide Comfort from May through October 1991. The squadron provided support for US forces in Somalia in Operation Restore Hope; the 1 AES deployed to Mogadishu, Somalia, on 18 December 1992 and managed more patient movements on aeromedical evacuation missions. The 1 AES was realigned under the 317th Airlift Wing, Air Mobility Command, on 1 July 1992 as part of an Air Force-wide reorganization, on 16 July 1993, the 1 AES was realigned under Air Combat Command and assigned to the 23rd Wing; the 1st Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron was inactivated on 1 July 1994 and on the same date, the 23rd Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron was activated

Solapur–Hassan Express

The Solapur - Hassan Express is an Express train belonging to Central Railway zone that runs between Solapur and Hassan Junction in India. It is being operated with 11311/11312 train numbers on a daily basis; the 11311/Solapur - Hassan Express has averages speed of 52 km/hr and covers 830 km in 16h 5m. The 11312/Hassan - Solapur Express has averages speed of 50 km/hr and covers 830 km in 16h 30m; the important halts of the train are: Solapur Kalaburagi junction Wadi Junction Yadgir Raichur Junction Guntakal Junction Anantapur Dharmavaram Junction Yelahanka Junction Yesvantpur Junction Kunigal Yediyur BG Nagar Shravanabelagola Hassan Junction The train has standard ICF rakes with max speed of 110 kmph. The train consist of 23 coaches: 1 First AC and AC II Tier 2 AC II Tier 3 AC III Tier 11 Sleeper Coaches 4 General Unreserved 2 Seating cum Luggage Rake Both trains are hauled by a Pune Loco Shed based WDM3D or WDM 3A diesel locomotive from Solapur to Yesvantpur, Hubli based WDP4B Diesel Locomotive from Yesvantpur to Hassan and vice versa.

Solapur railway station Yesvantpur Junction railway station Hassan Junction railway station 11311/Solapur - Yesvantpur SF Express 11312/Yesvantpur - Solapur SF Express