Geomorphology is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering; this broad base of interests contributes to many research interests within the field. Earth's surface is modified by a combination of surface processes that shape landscapes, geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence, shape the coastal geography. Surface processes comprise the action of water, ice and living things on the surface of the Earth, along with chemical reactions that form soils and alter material properties, the stability and rate of change of topography under the force of gravity, other factors, such as human alteration of the landscape.

Many of these factors are mediated by climate. Geologic processes include the uplift of mountain ranges, the growth of volcanoes, isostatic changes in land surface elevation, the formation of deep sedimentary basins where the surface of the Earth drops and is filled with material eroded from other parts of the landscape; the Earth's surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic and biologic action with geologic processes, or alternatively stated, the intersection of the Earth's lithosphere with its hydrosphere and biosphere. The broad-scale topographies of the Earth illustrate this intersection of surface and subsurface action. Mountain belts are uplifted due to geologic processes. Denudation of these high uplifted regions produces sediment, transported and deposited elsewhere within the landscape or off the coast. On progressively smaller scales, similar ideas apply, where individual landforms evolve in response to the balance of additive processes and subtractive processes.

These processes directly affect each other: ice sheets and sediment are all loads that change topography through flexural isostasy. Topography can modify the local climate, for example through orographic precipitation, which in turn modifies the topography by changing the hydrologic regime in which it evolves. Many geomorphologists are interested in the potential for feedbacks between climate and tectonics, mediated by geomorphic processes. In addition to these broad-scale questions, geomorphologists address issues that are more specific and/or more local. Glacial geomorphologists investigate glacial deposits such as moraines and proglacial lakes, as well as glacial erosional features, to build chronologies of both small glaciers and large ice sheets and understand their motions and effects upon the landscape. Fluvial geomorphologists focus on rivers, how they transport sediment, migrate across the landscape, cut into bedrock, respond to environmental and tectonic changes, interact with humans.

Soils geomorphologists investigate soil profiles and chemistry to learn about the history of a particular landscape and understand how climate and rock interact. Other geomorphologists study how hillslopes change. Still others investigate the relationships between geomorphology; because geomorphology is defined to comprise everything related to the surface of the Earth and its modification, it is a broad field with many facets. Geomorphologists use a wide range of techniques in their work; these may include fieldwork and field data collection, the interpretation of remotely sensed data, geochemical analyses, the numerical modelling of the physics of landscapes. Geomorphologists may rely on geochronology, using dating methods to measure the rate of changes to the surface. Terrain measurement techniques are vital to quantitatively describe the form of the Earth's surface, include differential GPS, remotely sensed digital terrain models and laser scanning, to quantify, to generate illustrations and maps.

Practical applications of geomorphology include hazard assessment, river control and stream restoration, coastal protection. Planetary geomorphology studies landforms on other terrestrial planets such as Mars. Indications of effects of wind, glacial, mass wasting, meteor impact and volcanic processes are studied; this effort not only helps better understand the geologic and atmospheric history of those planets but extends geomorphological study of the Earth. Planetary geomorphologists use Earth analogues to aid in their study of surfaces of other planets. Other than some notable exceptions in antiquity, geomorphology is a young science, growing along with interest in other aspects of the earth sciences in the mid-19th century; this section provides a brief outline of some of the major figures and events in its development. The study of landforms and the evolution of the Earth's surface can be dated back to scholars of Classical Greece. Herodotus argued from observations of soils that the Nile delta was growing into the Mediterranean Sea, estimated its age.

Aristotle speculated that due to sediment transport into the sea those seas would fill while the land lowered. He claimed that this would mean that land and water would swap places, whereupon the proc

Antonio Magini-Coletti

Antonio Magini-Coletti was a leading Italian baritone who had a prolific career in Europe and the United States during the late 19th century and the early part of the 20th century. A versatile artist, he appeared in several opera world premieres but was associated with the works of Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner and the verismo composers, he was an accomplished exponent of the bel canto repertoire. Magini-Coletti was born in 1855 in the medieval town of Iesi, situated inland from Ancona on central Italy's east coast. Published details of his early life are scant but sources agree that he studied singing during the 1870s with the distinguished pedagogue Venceslao Persichini at Rome's Conservatorio di Santa Cecilia. In 1880, Magini-Colleti made his operatic debut at Rome's Teatro Costanzi, as Valentin in Gounod's Faust, he continued to perform at that opera house for the next seven years, in addition to making guest appearances in Venice, Florence and other Italian cities. In 1887 he joined the roster at La Scala, remaining there for three seasons and singing a variety of leading baritone roles.

Most notably, he appeared as the character Frank in the world premiere of Puccini's second opera, Edgar, in 1889. A year he performed his first Count Di Luna in Verdi's Il trovatore at La Scala; this part became an especial favourite of his, he reprised it in numerous houses during the remainder of his career. Between 1888 and 1891, Magini-Coletti sang to acclaim in Spain, Germany and France, he crossed the Atlantic for a series of operatic engagements in Argentina, receiving further plaudits. In 1891 he joined the stellar roster of singers at the New York Metropolitan Opera, participating to begin with in a two-month North American tour, his first performance with the Met touring company occurred on 9 November, in Chicago, as Telramund in Wagner's Lohengrin. His other roles on the 1891 tour included Hoël in Meyerbeer's Dinorah, Count de Nevers in Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots and Amonasro in Verdi's Aida, not to mention the title part in Mozart's Don Giovanni. On 14 December 1891, Magini-Coletti made a successful debut at the Metropolitan Opera's headquarters in New York City, singing Capulet in Gounod's Roméo et Juliette.

He performed numerous roles at that house over the next 12 months, including Count Di Luna, Alfio in Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana, Don Pizarro in Beethoven's Fidelio, Escamillo in Bizet's Carmen and Figaro in Rossini's Il barbiere di Siviglia, among others. Magini-Coletti left America in 1892, he proceeded to pursue a busy schedule of operatic performances in Italy and other European countries, venturing as far afield as Russia and becoming a frequent guest artist at both the Opéra de Monte-Carlo in Monaco and the Royal Opera, Covent Garden, in London. In 1900, he rejoined the La Scala company. Most notably, he appeared in the premiere of Mascagni's Le maschere in 1901. In 1901, he sang at La Scala in a memorial concert held to mark the recent death of Verdi, partnering the heroic tenor Francesco Tamagno in a scene from La forza del destino; the following year, he participated in La Scala's first production of Weber's Euryanthe. Magini-Colleti sang under the baton of Arturo Toscanini, La Scala's principal conductor, during this period.

Toscanini was an ardent advocate of Wagner's music and he conducted Magini-Coletti in performances of Tristan und Isolde, Die Walküre and Lohengrin. These landmark Wagnerian productions featured Magini-Coletti's La Scala colleague Giuseppe Borgatti—Italy's best heldentenor. Other significant operas in which Magini-Coletti appeared during the course of his 30-year European and American career were Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor, L'elisir d'amore, La favorita and Lucrezia Borgia, Verdi's Otello, Rigoletto, La forza del destino, Un ballo in maschera, Luisa Miller and La traviata, Puccini's La bohème, Berlioz's La damnation de Faust and Delibes' Lakmé, he died in Rome, aged 57. Magini-Coletti is one of the earliest Italian-born singers, he made numerous 78-rpm discs of operatic arias and ensembles in Milan for the Zonophone label and for Fonotipia Records. He recorded, for the Columbia Graphophone Company. Twenty-two of his Fonotipia recordings have been reissued on CD by Preiser, they show that he possessed a big, dark-hued voice of outstanding quality.

His breath control was exemplary and he could execute florid music by Rossini or Donizetti with flair and agility due to the thorough technical grounding that he had acquired from Persichini. His Verdi singing impresses but, oddly enough, he did not record anything from his Wagnerian repertoire, with the exception of one Wagner selection 27 Oct. 1908 for Fonotipia XPh3565 Lohengrin: Vendetta avrò, never released. Klaus Ulrich Spiegel: "Ricchezza e splendore - Der Golden Age Baritono Antonio Magini-Coletti - Hamburger Archiv Edition

2001 Northern Ford Premiership

The 2001 Northern Ford Premiership season was the second tier of British rugby league during the 2001 season. The competition featured nineteen teams, with Widnes Vikings winning the Grand Final; the league was won by Widnes Vikings. The League Leaders Leigh Centurions lost in the play-off semi-finals. Widnes Vikings were promoted to the Super League. Dewsbury Rams 6–19 Hull Kingston Rovers Featherstone Rovers 28–24 Keighley Cougars Leigh Centurions 14–15 Oldham Widnes Vikings 34–24 Rochdale Hornets Leigh Centurions 26–10 Featherstone Rovers Rochdale Hornets 26–14 Hull Kingston Rovers Leigh Centurions 18–26 Widnes Vikings Oldham 39–32 Rochdale Hornets 2001 Challenge Cup 2001 season at