Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps of southeastern Germany. It is located in the south district of Berchtesgadener Land in Bavaria, near the border with Austria, some 30 km south of Salzburg and 180 km southeast of Munich. To the south of the city, Berchtesgaden National Park stretches along three parallel valleys. Berchtesgaden is associated with the Watzmann, at 2,713 m the third-highest mountain in Germany, renowned in the rock climbing community for its Ostwand, a deep glacial lake by the name of Königssee. Another notable peak is the Kehlstein mountain, with its Kehlsteinhaus. Berchtesgaden's neighbouring towns are Bischofswiesen, Marktschellenberg and Schönau am Königssee; the municipality counts the following villages which are: Am Etzerschlößl, Hintergern, Mitterbach, Obergern, Resten, Untersalzberg I, Untersalzberg II, Vordergern. Berchtesgaden, Upper Bavaria, earlier Perchterscadmen, Berchirchsgadem, Berchtoldesgadem. After the basic meaning was forgotten, they added a variant word of Old High German gadem ‘room, one-room hut’, implying the same meaning: ‘hay shed’.
Cf. Old High German muosgadem ‘spice room’. There was a folk etymology that supported a derivation based on the legendary figure of Frau Perchta, a woman with good and bad changing features, venerated on Perchtertag and at Shrovetide was sworn to during the Perchta procession. First historical note dates back to 1102 and it mentions the area because of its rich salt deposits. Much of Berchtesgaden's wealth has been derived from its salt mines, the first of which started operations in 1517; the town served as independent Fürstpropstei until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in 1803. During the Napoleonic wars, Berchtesgaden changed hands a few times, such as in 1805 under the Treaty of Pressburg, when the area was ceded to Austria. Salzburg was always interested in Berchtesgaden, French troops occupied the area a short time. Berchtesgaden came under Bavarian rule in 1810 and became popular with the Bavarian royal family, the House of Wittelsbach, who visited Königssee and maintained a royal hunting residence in the former Augustine monastery.
Nascent tourism started to evolve and a number of artists came to the area, which gave rise to Malereck on the shore of Königssee in nearby Ramsau bei Berchtesgaden. The most famous author who lived in Berchtesgaden was Ludwig Ganghofer. Adolf Hitler had been vacationing in the Berchtesgaden area since the 1920s, he purchased a home in the Obersalzberg above the town on the flank of the Hoher Goll and began extensive renovations on his Berghof in the following years. As other top Third Reich figures such as Hermann Göring, Joseph Goebbels, Martin Bormann, Heinrich Himmler and Albert Speer began to frequent the area the Party began to purchase and requisition land in the Obersalzberg. In order to serve as an outpost of the German Reichskanzlei and its environs saw substantial expansion of offices and support services on the Obersalzberg. Included in the town were a new railway station, with a reception area for Hitler and his guests, an adjacent post office; the Berchtesgadener Hof Hotel, where famous visitors such as Neville Chamberlain and David Lloyd George stayed, was upgraded.
The Kehlsteinhaus atop the Kehlstein subpeak of the Hoher Goll was built as a present for Hitler's 50th birthday in 1939. Though a feared "national redoubt" last stand of the Nazi Regime in the Alps failed to materialize late in World War II, the Allies launched a devastating air raid on the Berchtesgaden area in the spring of 1945. Concentrated on the Obersalzberg, the April 25 bombing did little damage to the town. On May 4, forward elements of the 7th Infantry Regiment of the 3rd Infantry Division arrived and received the town's surrender. After the war, Obersalzberg became a military zone and most of its buildings were requisitioned by the U. S. Army. Hotel Platterhof was rebuilt and renamed the General Walker Hotel in 1952, it served as an integral part of the U. S. Armed Forces Recreation Centers for the duration of the Cold War and beyond; the remnants of homes of former Nazi leaders were all demolished in the early postwar years, though traces of some remained. In 1995, fifty years after the end of World War II and five years after German reunification, the AFRC Berchtesgaden was turned over to Bavarian authorities to facilitate military spending reductions mandated within the Base Realignment and Closure program by the Congress and the Pentagon during the administration of President Bill Clinton.
The General Walker Hotel was demolished in 2000-01. In 1986, Berchtesgaden was a first round candidate city to host the XVI Olympic Winter Games to be held in 1992; the vote went to Albertville, France, in October of that year. The Hotel Türken, near the Nazi buildings and was used by the SS and by the Generalmajor of the Police, was badly damaged in 1945, it was reopened as a hotel before Christmas. Visitors can still explore the historic underground hallways and tunnels, used by the Nazis. In 1972, local government reform united the independent municipalities of Salzberg, Maria Gern and Au (consisting of Oberau and Unt
1994 Winter Olympics
The 1994 Winter Olympics known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Lillehammer failed losing to Albertville. Lillehammer was awarded the 1994 Winter Olympics in 1988, after beating United States. Lillehammer is the northernmost city to host the Winter Games and the Olympic Games overall; the Games were the first to be held in a different year from the Summer Olympics, the first and only one to be held two years after the previous winter games. The Games were the second Winter Olympics hosted in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, the fourth Olympics in the Nordic countries, after the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. Although many events took place in Lillehammer, skating took place in Hamar, some ice hockey matches were placed in Gjøvik, while Alpine skiing was held in Øyer and Ringebu. Sixty-seven countries and 1,737 athletes participated in sixty-one events.
Fourteen countries made their debut in the Winter Olympics, of which nine were former Soviet republics. The Games saw the introduction of stricter qualifying rules, reducing the number of under-performing participants from warm-weather countries. New events were two new distances in short track speed skating and aerials, while speed skating was moved indoors. Nearly two million people spectated the games, which were the first to have the Olympic truce in effect; the games were succeeded by the 1994 Winter Paralympics from 10 to 19 March. Manuela Di Centa and Lyubov Yegorova dominated women's cross-country skiing, taking five and four medals, respectively. A crowd of over 100,000 saw. Vreni Schneider won a complete set of medals in Alpine skiing, while Norway took a medal sweep in the men's combined. Nancy Kerrigan had, before the games, been clubbed by Tonya Harding's associate, but managed to take silver in ladies' singles. Johann Olav Koss won three speed skating events, while 13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medalist.
Sweden beat Canada in a dramatic penalty shootout in the ice hockey final. With 11 gold medals, Russia won the most events, while with 26, Norway collected the most medals overall. Planning of the Lillehammer bid started in 1981, following Falun, Sweden's failed bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, losing to Calgary respectively, it was supported by the government to help stimulate the economy of the inland counties. Lillehammer bid for the 1992 Games, but came fourth in the voting with the games awarded to Albertville. In 1986, the International Olympic Committee voted to separate the Summer and Winter Games, held in the same year since the latter's inception in 1924, arrange them in alternating even-numbered years. A new bid was launched for the 1994 Games, modified with an indoor speed skating venue and an additional ice hall in Lillehammer. Additional government guarantees were secured. Three other locations bid for the games: Östersund and Sofia; the 94th IOC Session, held in Seoul on 15 September 1988, voted Lillehammer the host for the Games.
Until the 2018 Winter Olympics, the Lillehammer Olympics were the last Winter Games to date to be held in a town, rather than be centered in a city. 1.21 million tickets were sold for the games. LOOC estimated. In addition, 180,000 seats were used by the VIPs; the overall responsibility for the games was held by the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee, created on 14 November 1988 and led by Gerhard Heiberg. It was reorganized several times with various subsidiaries, but from 1993 consisted of a single company owned 51% by Lillehammer Municipality, 24.5% by the Government of Norway and 24.5% by the Norwegian Olympic Committee. The government had issued a guarantee for the games, covered the expenses related to infrastructure; the total costs of the games was 7.4 billion Norwegian krone, of which NOK 0.95 billion was expenditure by the ministries, NOK 4.48 billion was for operations and event expenses, NOK 1.67 billion was for investments. The games had a revenue of NOK 2.71 billion, of which NOK 1.43 billion was from television rights, NOK 0.65 billion was from sponsors, NOK 0.15 billion was from ticket sales.
Production of the broadcasting, which costs NOK 462 million, was the responsibility of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, with assistance from the CTV Television Network and the European Broadcasting Union. NRK had 1,424 people working at the Olympics, while international broadcasters sent an additional 4,050 accredited broadcasting personnel; the transmission rights for the games were held by EBU in Europe, CBS in the United States, NHK in Japan, CTV in Canada, the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, Nine Network in Australia, as well as other broadcasters in other countries. The total transmission rights price was 350 million United States dollars. In part because of the Harding–Kerrigan affair, the viewship in the United States is still the highest for Winter Olympics. NOK 460 million was used on information technology, with the main system running on an IBM AS/400. 3,500 terminals were in use during the game based on the Info'94 system. Seiko delivered the time-keeping devices. Telecommunications were delivered including signal transmission.
This included a mobile radio network with nine base stations. As part of its promotional activities, the
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
A luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine and feet-first. A luger steers by using their calf muscles to flex the sled's runners or by exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the seat. Racing sleds weigh 21–25 kg for singles and 25–30 kg for doubles. Luge is the name of an Olympic sport. Lugers can reach speeds of 140 km/h. Austrian Manuel Pfister reached a top speed of 154 km/h on a track in Whistler, prior to the 2010 Winter Olympics. Lugers compete against a timer in one of the most timed sports in the world—to one one-thousandth of a second on artificial tracks; the first recorded use of the term "luge" dates to 1905 and derives from the Savoy/Swiss dialect of the French word luge, meaning "small coasting sled." The practical use of sleds is ancient and widespread. The first recorded sled races took place in Norway sometime during the 15th century; the sport of luge, like the skeleton and the bobsleigh, originated in the health-spa town of St Moritz, Switzerland, in the mid-to-late 19th century, through the endeavours of hotel entrepreneur Caspar Badrutt.
Badrutt sold the idea of winter resorting, as well as rooms with food and activities. His more adventurous English guests began adapting delivery boys' sleds for recreation, which led to collisions with pedestrians as they sped down the lanes and alleys of the village; the first organized meeting of the sport took place in 1883 in Switzerland. In 1913, the Internationale Schlittensportverband or International Sled Sports Federation was founded in Dresden, Germany; this body governed the sport until 1935, when it was incorporated in the Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing. After it had been decided that luge would replace the sport of skeleton at the Olympic Games, the first World Championships in the sport were held in 1955 in Oslo. In 1957, the Fédération Internationale de Luge de Course was founded. Luge events were first included in the Olympic Winter Games in 1964. Americans were slow to adopt the sport of luge; the first luge run in North America was built at Lolo Hot Springs, Montana, in 1965.
Although the United States competed in every Olympic luge event from 1964 through 1976, it was not until 1979 that the United States Luge Association was founded. The first artificial American track was completed in that year for use in the 1980 XIII Winter Olympic Games at Lake Placid, New York. Since that time the United States luge program has improved. A second artificial track was constructed near Park City, for the 2002 XIX Olympic Winter Games at Salt Lake City. Artificial luge tracks have specially designed and constructed banked curves plus walled-in straights. Most tracks are artificially refrigerated, but artificial tracks without artificial cooling exist. Tracks tend to be smooth; the athletes ride in a flat, aerodynamic position on the sled, keeping their heads low to minimize air resistance. They steer the sled with their calves by applying pressure on the runners—right calf to turn left, left calf to turn right, it takes a precise mix of shifting body weight, applying pressure with calves and rolling the shoulders.
There are handles for minor adjustments. A successful luger maintains complete concentration and relaxation on the sled while traveling at high speeds. Most lugers "visualize" the course in their minds before sliding. Fastest times result from following the perfect "line" down the track. Any slight error, such as brush against the wall, costs time. Track conditions are important. Softer ice tends to slow speeds. Lugers race at speeds averaging 120–145 km/h around high banked curves while experiencing a centripetal acceleration of up to 5g. Men's Singles have their start locations near where the bobsled and skeleton competitors start at most tracks, while both the Doubles and Women's Singles competition have their starthouse located farther down the track. Artificial track luge is the most agile sledding sport. Natural tracks are adapted from paths. Artificially banked curves are not permitted; the track's surface should be horizontal. They are iced. Tracks can get rough from the braking and steering action.
Athletes use a steering rein and drag their hands and use their legs in order to drive around the tight flat corners. Braking is required in front of curves and is accomplished by the use of spikes built on the bottom of the shoes. Most of the tracks are situated in Austria and Italy, with others in Germany, Russia, Canada, Croatia, Turkey, Finland, Bulgaria, New Zealand and the United States; the Upper Peninsula Luge Club in Negaunee, Michigan, is home to one of only five lighted natural track luge runs in the world, the only natural track in the United States. The over 800 meter track features 29 curves along its 88-meter vertical drop; the club hosts international luge events and offers luge instruction to the public during the winter months. World championships have been held since 1979 while European championships have been held since 1970. There are five luge disciplines. Men's singles Men’s doubles Women's singles Women’s doubles Team relay These are further broken into several age classes - multiple youth and junior classes that cover the range of age 7–20, general class.
Older competitors may enjoy the sport in masters, senior masters classes. In a team relay competition, one man, one woman, and
Oberhof is a town in the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district of Thuringia, Germany. It is health resort. With 1,625 inhabitants, it is visited by 144,000 tourists every year; the town got its official city status in 1985. Oberhof was settled in 1641, remained a small town until the late 19th century, when the town in Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was connected to the railway line from Erfurt to Ritschenhausen, skiers and other tourists discovered the place. From the early 1900s onwards, Oberhof became a center for winter sports, with luge, nordic skiing, ski jumping taking place in the town's updated sports facilities. In recent years the town has seen the construction of lift-equipped alpine skiing slopes and an international competition standard biathlon stadium, their bobsleigh and skeleton track has hosted many world and European championships in luge. In August 2009 the first German ski tunnel opened in Oberhof. 1931 Two-man Bobsleigh World Championship and FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1973 FIL World Luge Championships 1979 FIL European Luge Championships 1985 FIL World Luge Championships 1998 FIL European Luge Championships 2004 Biathlon World Championship and FIL European Luge Championships 2008 FIL World Luge Championships Rennsteiggarten Oberhof, a botanical garden for mountain plants Oberhof, Germany is twinned with: Winterberg, Germany Bad Neustadt an der Saale, Germany Lillehammer, Norway Media related to Oberhof at Wikimedia Commons Official website
A Weisswurst is a traditional Bavarian sausage made from minced veal and pork back bacon. It is flavoured with parsley, mace, onions and cardamom, although there are some variations; the mixture is stuffed into pork casings and separated into individual sausages measuring about ten to twelve centimeters in length and three to four centimeters in thickness. As they are perishable, Weißwürste traditionally were manufactured early in the morning and prepared and eaten as a snack between breakfast and lunch. Traditionally, Weißwürste may only be served until midday because preservatives are not used, the meat is not smoked, hence the sausage is made fresh every day. Before modern refrigeration technologies, in summertime the sausages would go bad before nightfall. Today, most Bavarians never eat Weißwürste after lunchtime; the sausages are heated in water—well short of boiling—for about ten minutes, which will turn them greyish-white because no color-preserving nitrite is used in Weisswurst preparation.
Weißwürste are brought to the table in a big bowl together with the hot water used for preparation eaten without their skins. Ways of eating Weißwurst include the traditional way, called zuzeln, in which each end of the sausage is cut or bitten open the meat is sucked out from the skin. Alternatively, the more popular and more discreet ways of consuming it are by cutting the sausage lengthwise and "rolling out" the meat from the skin with a fork, or to open it on one and consume it much like a banana opening the peel further and dipping the sausage into the mustard. Weißwurst is served with a Bavarian sweet mustard and accompanied by Brezen and Weißbier. Weißwurst, whose consumption traditionally is associated with Bavaria, helped in the coining of a humorous term, Weißwurstäquator, that delineates a cultural boundary separating other linguistic and cultural areas from Southern Germany; the Weißwurst was invented 1857 at the Marienplatz in Munich. Bockwurst Brühwurst List of veal dishes Food portal Food from Bavaria published by the Bavarian Dept. for agriculture and forests The correct treatment of a Weißwurst - essay about preparing and eating Weißwurst properly
Wok racing has been developed by the German TV host and entertainer Stefan Raab: Modified woks are used to make timed runs down an Olympic bobsled track. There are competitions for one-person-woksleds and four-person-woksleds, the latter using four woks per sled. Wok racing was inspired by a bet in the German TV show Wetten, dass..?. In November 2003, the First official Wok World Championship was broadcast from Winterberg; the immediate success led to the second world championship in Innsbruck on March 4, 2004. Participants are b-list celebrities like musical artists, TV hosts, but there are known athletes that have ongoing professional careers in winter sports, like three-time Olympic luge champion Georg Hackl and the Jamaican Bobsled Team; the third championship took place again in Winterberg on March 5, 2005. In contrast to the previous championships, there were two runs; the times of both runs were added. As a further innovation a qualifying round was created in which the participants had to jump from a trickski-jump with woks to determine the starting order.
Further the sport event was professionalized. The typical racing woks are the ordinary round-bottomed Chinese pans directly imported from China; the only modifications are that the bottom is reinforced with an epoxy filling and the edges of the wok are coated with polyurethane foam to avoid injuries. Four-person woksleds consist of two pairs of woks, each of them is held together by a rounded frame; the two pairs are connected by a coupling. Due to the rather risky nature of the sport the participants wear heavy protective gear similar to ice hockey equipment. To further reduce friction and the risk of injuries, the athletes wear ladles under their feet. To improve performance, the undersides of the woks are heated with a blowlamp before the race. Public wok Racing is only practiced once a year: The "World Wok Racing Championships" are aired as special edition of Raab's show TV total on the German television channel ProSieben; the network used to declare these broadcasts as sporting events. Under German law that allowed the network to treat the massive corporate sponsorship of the event as incidental advertising which didn't count against Germany's strict rules regarding time limits for TV commercials.
After a Berlin court ruling in 2009, the shows have to be labeled as an infomercial, since – unlike a regular sporting event – the races are explicitly staged for the TV broadcast, there is strong evidence that the profits of the event sponsorship directly benefit the network. November 6, 2003: Winterberg March 4, 2004: Innsbruck March 5, 2005: Winterberg March 11, 2006: Innsbruck March 9, 2007: Innsbruck March 8, 2008: Altenberg March 7, 2009: Winterberg March 19, 2010: Oberhof March 12, 2011: Innsbruck March 10, 2012: Königssee March 2, 2013: Oberhof March 8, 2014: Königssee March 14, 2015: Innsbruck Idiotarod Kinetic sculpture race Portland Urban Iditarod Shopping cart race Wife carrying Zoobomb