Erie County, New York
Erie County is a populated county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040; the county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, it was named by European colonists for the regional Iroquoian language-speaking Erie tribe of Native Americans, who lived south and east of the lake before 1654. Since the late 20th century, Erie County has been considered part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area; the county's southern part is known as the Southtowns. When counties were established by the English colonial government in the Province of New York in 1683, present-day Erie County was part of Indian territory occupied by Iroquoian-speaking peoples, it was administered as part of New York colony. Significant European-American settlement did not begin until after the United States had gained independence with the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, they forced the Iroquois to cede most of their lands. About 1800 the Holland Land Company, formed by Americans and Dutch associates, extinguished Indian claims by purchasing the land from New York, acquired the title to the territory of what are today the eight western-most counties of New York, surveyed their holdings, established towns, began selling lots to individuals.
The state was eager to have farms and businesses developed. At this time, all of western New York was included in Ontario County; as the population increased, the state legislature created Genesee County in 1802 out of part of Ontario County. In 1808, Niagara County was created out of Genesee County. In 1821, Erie County was created out of Niagara County, encompassing all the land between Tonawanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek; the first towns formed in present-day Erie County were the Town of Willink. Clarence comprised the northern portion of Erie county, Willink the southern part. Clarence is still a distinct town, but Willink was subdivided into other towns; when Erie County was established in 1821, it consisted of the towns of Amherst, Boston, Collins, Eden, Hamburg, Holland and Wales. The county has a number of houses and other properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York. In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line, in the Town of Lancaster, voted 85 to 40 to secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America.
It sent five soldiers for the Confederate Army, did not rejoin the Union until January 1946. The Town Line Fire Department supports the slogan "Last of the Rebels", due to their Confederate ties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,227 square miles, of which 1,043 square miles is land and 184 square miles is water. Erie County is in the western portion of upstate New York, bordering on the lake of the same name. Part of the industrial area that has included Buffalo, it is the most populous county in upstate New York outside of the New York City metropolitan area; the county lies on the international border between the United States and Canada, bordering the Province of Ontario. The northern border of the county is Tonawanda Creek. Part of the southern border is Cattaraugus Creek. Other major streams include Buffalo Creek, Cayuga Creek, Cazenovia Creek, Scajaquada Creek, Eighteen Mile Creek, Ellicott Creek; the county's northern half, including Buffalo and its suburbs, is flat and rises up from the lake.
The southern half, known as the Southtowns, is much hillier. It has the northwesternmost foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; the highest elevation in the county is a hill in the Town of Sardinia that tops out at around 1,940 feet above sea level. The lowest ground is about 560 feet, on Grand Island at the Niagara River; the Onondaga Escarpment runs through the northern part of Erie County. Niagara County - north Genesee County - northeast Wyoming County - southeast Cattaraugus County - south Chautauqua County - southwest Niagara Region, Canada - northwest Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site As of the census of 2010, there were 919,040 people residing in the county; the population density was 910 people per square mile. There were 415,868 housing units at an average density of 398 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.18% White, 13.00% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
3.27 % of the population were Latino of any race. 19.6% were of German, 17.2% Polish, 14.9% Italian, 11.7% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.1 % spoke 3.0 % Spanish and 1.6 % Polish as their first language. There were 380,873 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.10% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $49,490.
Males had a median income of $38,703 versu
Stephen Joshua Sondheim is an American composer and lyricist known for more than a half-century of contributions to musical theatre. Sondheim has received an Academy Award, eight Tony Awards, eight Grammy Awards, a Pulitzer Prize, a Laurence Olivier Award, a 2015 Presidential Medal of Freedom, he has been described by Frank Rich of The New York Times as "now the greatest and best-known artist in the American musical theater". His best-known works as composer and lyricist include A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Follies, A Little Night Music, Pacific Overtures, Sweeney Todd, Merrily We Roll Along, Sunday in the Park with George, Into the Woods and Passion, he wrote the lyrics for West Side Story and Gypsy. Sondheim has written film music, he wrote five songs for 1990's Dick Tracy, including "Sooner or Later," sung in the film by Madonna, which won the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Sondheim was president of the Dramatists Guild from 1973 to 1981. To celebrate his 80th birthday, the former Henry Miller's Theatre was renamed the Stephen Sondheim Theatre on September 15, 2010, the BBC Proms held a concert in his honor.
Cameron Mackintosh has called Sondheim "possibly the greatest lyricist ever". Sondheim was born into a Jewish family in the son of Etta Janet and Herbert Sondheim, his father manufactured dresses designed by his mother. The composer grew up on the Upper West Side of Manhattan and, after his parents divorced, on a farm near Doylestown, Pennsylvania; as the only child of well-to-do parents living in the San Remo on Central Park West, he was described in Meryle Secrest's biography as an isolated neglected child. When he lived in New York, Sondheim attended ECFS, the Ethical Culture Fieldston School known as "Fieldston", he attended the New York Military Academy and George School, a private Quaker preparatory school in Bucks County, Pennsylvania where he wrote his first musical, By George, from which he graduated in 1946. Sondheim spent several summers at Camp Androscoggin, he matriculated to Williams College and graduated in 1950. He traces his interest in theatre to Very Warm for May, a Broadway musical.
"The curtain went up and revealed a piano," Sondheim recalled. "A butler brushed it up, tinkling the keys. I thought, thrilling."When Sondheim was ten years old, his father had left his mother for another woman. Herbert was unsuccessful. Sondheim explained to biographer Secrest that he was "what they call an institutionalized child, meaning one who has no contact with any kind of family. You're in, though it's luxurious, you're in an environment that supplies you with everything but human contact. No brothers and sisters, no parents, yet plenty to eat, friends to play with and a warm bed, you know?" Sondheim detested his mother, said to be psychologically abusive and projected her anger from her failed marriage on her son: "When my father left her, she substituted me for him. And she used me the way she used him, to come on to and to berate, beat up on, you see. What she did for five years was treat me like dirt, but come on to me at the same time." She once wrote him a letter saying that the "only regret had was giving him birth".
When his mother died in the spring of 1992, Sondheim did not attend her funeral. He had been estranged from her for nearly 20 years; when Sondheim was about ten years old, he became friends with James Hammerstein, son of lyricist and playwright Oscar Hammerstein II. The elder Hammerstein became Sondheim's surrogate father, influencing him profoundly and developing his love of musical theatre. Sondheim met Hal Prince, who would direct many of his shows, at the opening of South Pacific, Hammerstein's musical with Richard Rodgers; the comic musical he wrote at George School, By George, was a success among his peers and buoyed the young songwriter's self-esteem. When Sondheim asked Hammerstein to evaluate it as though he had no knowledge of its author, he said it was the worst thing he had seen: "But if you want to know why it's terrible, I'll tell you." They spent the rest of the day going over the musical, Sondheim said, "In that afternoon I learned more about songwriting and the musical theater than most people learn in a lifetime."Hammerstein designed a course of sorts for Sondheim on constructing a musical.
He had the young composer write four musicals, each with one of the following conditions: Based on a play he admired Based on a play he liked but thought flawed. High Tor and Mary Poppins have never been produced: The rights holder for the original High Tor refused permission, Mary Poppins was unfinished. Sondheim began attending Williams College, a liberal arts college in Williamstown, Massachusetts whose theatre program attracted him, his first teacher there was Robert Barrow:... everybody hated him because he was dry, I thought he was
Kennedy Center Honors
The Kennedy Center Honors is an annual honor given to those in the performing arts for their lifetime of contributions to American culture. The honors have been presented annually since 1978, culminating each December in a star-studded gala celebrating the honorees in the Kennedy Center Opera House. George Stevens Jr. created the Kennedy Center Honors with the late Nick Vanoff, produced the first gala in 1978. He was the producer and co-writer through the 2014 awards, after which he sold the production rights to the Kennedy Center; the Kennedy Center Honors started in 1977, after that year's 10th-anniversary White House reception and Kennedy Center program for the American Film Institute. Roger L. Stevens, the founding chairman of the Kennedy Center, asked George Stevens, Jr. the founding director of the AFI, to hold an event for the Center. George Stevens asked Isaac Stern to become involved, "pitched" the idea to the television network CBS, who "bought it." With the announcement of the first honors event and honorees, CBS vice president for specials Bernie Sofronski stated: George came to us with this.
What turned us on is that this is the only show of its kind. In Europe and most countries, they have ways of honoring their athletes. England has its command performances for the queen. We see this as a national honoring of people who have contributed to society, not someone who happens to have a pop record hit at the moment... Our intention is not to do just another award show. We're going to make an effort in terms of a real special; the first host was Leonard Bernstein in 1978, followed by Eric Sevareid in 1979 and Beverly Sills in 1980. Walter Cronkite hosted from 1981 to 2002 and Caroline Kennedy hosted from 2003 until 2012. Glenn Close hosted in 2013 and Stephen Colbert hosted from 2014 to 2016. There was no formal host in 2017. In 2018, Gloria Estefan hosted. Ricky Kirshner and Glenn Weiss of White Cherry Entertainment were selected as Executive Producers of the 38th annual Kennedy Center Honors after George Stevens, Jr. stepped down. This is one of the few awards shows that does not air live, but a re-edited version lasting two hours is televised on CBS after Christmas.
Honoree recommendations are accepted from the general public, the Kennedy Center initiated a Special Honors Advisory Committee, which comprises two members of the Board of Trustees as well as past Honorees and distinguished artists. The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees selects the Honoree recipients based on excellence in music, theater, motion pictures or television; the selections are announced sometime between July and September. The invitation-only weekend-long ceremony includes the Chairman's Luncheon, State Department dinner, White House reception, the Honors gala performances and supper. Surrounded by the Honorees, the luncheon is held on Saturday at the Kennedy Center, with a welcoming speech by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees. At that evening's reception and dinner at the State Department, presided over by the Secretary of State, the Honorees are introduced and the Honors medallions are presented by the Chairman of the Board; the wide rainbow-colored ribbon hung around the necks of the recipients, prominently noticeable when the events are televised, symbolizes "a spectrum of many skills within the performing arts" according to creator Ivan Chermayeff.
On Sunday, there is an early-evening White House reception hosted by the President of the United States and the First Lady, followed by the Honors gala performance at the Kennedy Center and supper. For the 2015 gala performance, President Barack Obama did attend, after addressing the nation in a live telecast. There have been four occasions where the President did not attend the gala performances: President Jimmy Carter did not attend the December 1979 gala performance during the hostage crisis, President George H. W. Bush did not attend in December 1989 and President Bill Clinton did not attend in 1994. On August 19, 2017, the White House announced that President Donald Trump and the first lady, Melania Trump, had decided not to participate in events honoring recipients of the 2017 Kennedy Center Honors awards to "allow the honorees to celebrate without any political distraction." President and Mrs. Trump did not attend the 2017 ceremony, held on December 3, 2017. Caroline Kennedy presented the honorees.
The traditional dinner at the State Department on the Saturday evening before the ceremony was hosted by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and the White House reception was canceled. There have been 217 recipients to date of the Kennedy Center Honors Awards during the Honor's 40 years, although the one given to Bill Cosby in 1998 was rescinded in 2018, following his sexual assault conviction; the vast majority have been bestowed on individuals. On ten occasions since 1985, awards have been presented to duos or groups, including three married couples who were actors: Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy, Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward, Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee; the dancers Fayard Nicholas and Harold Nicholas of the Nicholas Brothers were honored, along with three musical theater songwriting duos: Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe, Betty Comden and Adolph Green, John Kander and Fred Ebb. The musicians of three rock groups were awarded: Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey of The Who, John Paul Jones, Jimmy Page and Robert Plant of Led Zeppelin, Don Henley, Timothy B.
Schmit, Joe Walsh and Glenn Frey of the Eagles. The 2018 award ceremony will present the honor, for the first time, to the creators of the musical Hamilton: Lin-Man
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Philip Hart Dunning was a playwright and theatrical producer. Dunning, one of six children, was the son of John M. Dunn, an electrochemist, Mary Dunn. Dunning began his career at age 12 as an extra and a carnival magician, enlisted in the Navy during World War I. President Woodrow Wilson having made up his mind to visit Europe, Dunning was assigned to the SS George Washington to keep the President's party and the officers and crew in a happy frame of mind. One of his shipboard hits was a farce called Uncle Tom's Stateroom; the President enjoyed it and wrote his appreciation and signature on his program as a memento for Dunning. One of the acts, Every Sailor, ran for 65 consecutive weeks in vaudeville after the war. Dunning collaborated with George Abbott to create Broadway, one of the most successful plays of the 1920s. Dunning and Abbott produced Twentieth Century, the Ben Hecht-Charles MacArthur satire on the theater. Dunning served in the Navy during World War II and produced the all-Navy show Biff!
Bang! He worked in Hollywood for Darryl Zanuck as a screenwriter. Dunning and his wife had been swimming at Westport's Compo Beach. Upon their return home, Dunning complained of shortness of breath, he died of a myocardial infarction on the way to Norwalk Hospital and is interred in Assumption Cemetery, Connecticut. Philip Dunning at the Internet Broadway Database Philip Dunning papers, 1912-1968, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Elaine Stritch was an American actress and singer, known for her work on Broadway. She made her professional stage debut in 1944 and appeared in numerous stage plays, feature films and television series, she was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1995. Stritch made her Broadway debut in the 1946 comedy Loco and went on to receive four Tony Award nominations: for the William Inge play Bus Stop, her one-woman show Elaine Stritch at Liberty, won the 2002 Tony Award for Best Special Theatrical Event. Stritch relocated to London in the 1970s and starred in several West End productions, including Tennessee Williams' Small Craft Warnings and Neil Simon's The Gingerbread Lady, she starred with Donald Sinden in the ITV sitcom Two's Company, which earned her a 1979 BAFTA TV Award nomination. She won an Emmy Award in 1993 for her guest role on Law & Order and another for the 2004 television documentary of her one-woman show. From 2007 to 2012, she had a recurring role as Colleen Donaghy on the NBC sitcom 30 Rock, a role that won her a third Emmy in 2007.
Stritch was born on February 2, 1925, in Detroit, the youngest daughter of Mildred, a homemaker, George Joseph Stritch, an executive with B. F. Goodrich, she had two older sisters and Sally. Her Roman Catholic family was well-off, her father was of Irish descent. Cardinal Samuel Stritch, Archbishop of Chicago from 1940 to 1958, was one of her uncles, she trained at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York City under Erwin Piscator, alongside Marlon Brando and Bea Arthur. Stritch made her stage debut in 1944. However, her Broadway debut was in Loco in 1946, directed by Jed Harris, followed soon after by Made in Heaven and Angel in the Wings, a revue in which she performed comedy sketches and the song "Civilization". Stritch understudied Ethel Merman for Call Me Madam, and, at the same time, appeared in the 1952 revival of Pal Joey, singing "Zip". Stritch starred in the national tour of Call Me Madam, appeared in a supporting role in the original Broadway production of William Inge's play Bus Stop.
In 1958 she originated the leading role of Maggie Harris in the musical Goldilocks. She starred in Noël Coward's Sail Away on Broadway in 1961. Stritch started in the show in a "relatively minor role and was only promoted over the title and given all the best songs when it was reckoned that the leading lady...although excellent, was rather too operatic for a musical comedy". During out-of-town tryouts in Boston, Coward was "unsure about the dramatic talents" of one of the leads, opera singer Jean Fenn, they were, after all, engaged for their voices and...it is madness to expect two singers to play subtle'Noël Coward' love scenes with the right values and sing at the same time. Joe Layton suggested "What would happen if...we just eliminated role and gave everything to Stritch? The show was old-fashioned, the thing, working was Elaine Stritch; every time she went on stage was a sensation." The reconstructed'Sail Away' opened on Broadway at the Broadhurst Theatre on October 3, 1961", with Stritch giving what Howard Taubman of The New York Times said "must be the performance of her career."
In 1966, she played Ruth Sherwood in the musical Wonderful Town at New York's City Center, appeared in an Off Broadway revival of Private Lives in 1968. Stritch became known as a singer with a powerful voice, she was the original performer cast in the role of Joanne in Stephen Sondheim's Company on Broadway. After over a decade of successful runs in shows in New York, Stritch moved in 1972 to London, where she starred in the West End production of Company. On tour and in stock, Stritch appeared in such musicals as No, No, The King and I, I Married an Angel, both as Vera Charles and Mame Dennis in Mame. Strich's earliest television appearances were in The Growing Paynes and the Goodyear Television Playhouse, she appeared on episodes of The Ed Sullivan Show in 1954. She was the first and original Trixie Norton in a Honeymooners sketch with Jackie Gleason, Art Carney and Pert Kelton; the character was a burlesque dancer, but the role was rewritten and recast after just one episode with the more wholesome looking Joyce Randolph playing the character as an ordinary housewife.
Stritch's other television credits included a number of dramatic programs in the 1950s and 1960s, including Studio One. In the 1960 television season, Stritch appeared in the role of writer Ruth Sherwood in the CBS sitcom My Sister Eileen, opposite Shirley Bonne as her younger sister, Eileen Sherwood, an aspiring actress; the sisters, natives of Ohio, live in a brownstone apartment in Greenwich Village. The one-season series aired opposite Hawaiian Eye on ABC and Perry Como's Kraft Music Hall on NBC. In 1975, Stritch starred in the British LWT comedy series Two's Company opposite Sir Donald Sinden, she played Dorothy McNab, an American writer living in London, known for her lurid and sensationalist thriller novels. Sinden played Robert, her English butler, who disapproved of everything Dorothy did and the series derived its comedy from the inevitable culture clash between Robert's British stiff-upper-lip attitude and Dorothy's devil-may-care New York view of life. Two's Company was exceptionally well received in Britain and ran for four series until 1979.
In 1979, both Stritch and Sinden wer