Baron Carteret is a title, created twice in British history, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first creation came into the Peerage of England in 1681 when the fourteen-year-old Sir George Carteret, 2nd Baronet, was made Baron Carteret, of Hawnes in the County of Bedford; the peerage was proposed for his grandfather Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet, a celebrated royalist statesman, but he died before he was granted the title and as his eldest son, predeceased him, it was bestowed on his grandson, with remainder to the latter's brothers. The Baronetcy, of Metesches in the Island of Jersey, had been created for George Carteret in the Baronetage of England on 9 May 1645. Lord Carteret married daughter of John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath. In 1715 Lady Grace was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain in her own right as Viscountess Carteret and Countess Granville. Lord Carteret and Lady Granville were both succeeded by their son John Carteret, the second Baron and second Earl.
The titles became extinct on the death of the latter's son Robert Carteret, the third Earl, in 1776. However, the late Earl Granville bequeathed his lands to his nephew the Honourable Henry Thynne, he was the second son of Lady Louisa Carteret by her husband Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth and was the younger brother of Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath. In accordance with the terms of the legacy Henry Thynne assumed the surname and arms of Carteret in lieu of his patronymic and in 1784 was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Baron Carteret, of Hawnes in the County of Bedford, with remainder to the younger sons of his brother, the Marquess of Bath, he was succeeded according to the special remainder by the second Baron. He notably served as Comptroller of the Household between 1804 and 1812, he was succeeded by his younger brother John Thynne, the third Baron. He held political office as Vice-Chamberlain of the Household between 1804 and 1812, he had no children and the title became extinct on his death in 1849.
Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet Sir George Carteret, 2nd Baronet George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, 2nd Baron Carteret Robert Carteret, 3rd Earl Granville, 3rd Baron Carteret Henry Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret George Thynne, 2nd Baron Carteret John Thynne, 3rd Baron Carteret Earl Granville Marquess of Bath Carteret, New Jersey Carteret Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG, FRS was an English landowner and Infantry officer who became a naval officer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660. He served Oliver Cromwell loyally in the 1650s, but went on to play a considerable part in the Restoration of Charles II, was rewarded with several Court offices, he served as the English Ambassador to Portugal 1661-1662, Ambassador to Spain 1666-1668. He became an Admiral, serving in the two Anglo-Dutch Wars in the reign of Charles II, was killed at the Battle of Solebay. Our best picture of him is contained in the diary of Samuel Pepys, his cousin and protégé. Montagu was the only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu by his first wife Paulina Pepys of Cottenham and was brought up at Hinchingbrooke House. After his mother's death his father remarried Anne Isham, daughter of Gregory Isham and widow of John Pay of Westminster; the marriage was happy, relations between Anne and her stepson were cordial.
He served the Cause of Parliament by raising a regiment of infantry in June 1643. In 1645, he was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire as a recruiter to the Long Parliament, he was nominated MP for Huntingdonshire in 1653 for the Barebones Parliament and was elected MP for Huntingdonshire in 1654 for the First Protectorate Parliament. He continued to serve in the army for the Commonwealth of England and, in 1656 he became a General at Sea, serving jointly with General at sea Robert Blake in the Mediterranean and Spain; as the principal General at Sea, he blockaded Dunkirk before the Battle of the Dunes. Montagu enjoyed the confidence of Cromwell, who appointed him to his Council of State. Montagu, on his side, never lost his admiration and respect for Cromwell, was prepared to defend his record after the Restoration. In 1656 he was re-elected MP for Huntingdonshire in the Second Protectorate Parliament, he was a member of the influential group, known to their opponents as "the Kinglings" who but without success, urged Cromwell to proclaim himself King.
Montagu was prepared to support a Cromwell dynasty, in the confusion which followed Oliver's death remained loyal to his son Richard Cromwell during his brief and disastrous rule as Lord Protector. In 1660 Montagu was elected MP for Dover and Weymouth and Melcombe Regis and chose to sit for Dover in the Convention Parliament. Despite his record of loyal service to Oliver Cromwell, he was among the first men of influence to decide that, given the chaos which had followed Cromwell's death, the return of the Stuart dynasty was inevitable, he was accordingly one of the first to make contact with the exiled King, although he was discreet enough to conceal this from close associates like Samuel Pepys. At the Restoration he served Charles II as Admiral, commanding the fleet that brought him back from exile in May 1660. Two months on 12 July 1660, he was created Baron Montagu of St Neots, Viscount Hinchingbrooke, Earl of Sandwich. King Charles made him a Knight of the Garter and appointed him Master of the Great Wardrobe, Admiral of the narrow seas, Lieutenant Admiral to The Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England.
He carried St. Edward's staff at Charles' subsequent coronation. Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, who liked and admired Montagu, wrote that the conferring of these honours caused much resentment among those Royalists who had gone into exile with their King, regarded Montagu as a "diehard" Cromwellian, he was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to Portugal in 1661, favoured the Portuguese marriage, through which England obtained Mumbai and Tangier. Montagu, like others, saw a great future for Tangier as an international trade centre, he commanded the fleet which took possession of the city in January 1662, purchasing a house there. Returning to England, in his capacity as Ambassador, he escorted the new Queen, Catherine of Braganza, from Lisbon. In the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665 to 1667 he fought at the Battle of Lowestoft, an English victory, but defeat at the Battle of Vågen led to him being removed from active service, his reputation suffered another serious blow when he failed to prevent his sailors from plundering a number of prize ships which he had brought in.
By long standing custom the sailors could take any goods they found between the decks, but they were forbidden to "break the bulk" i.e. ransack the ship's hold. When this became known, the rumour spread that Montagu had unlawfully helped himself to a fortune, the public, who were still enduring the horrors of the Great Plague of London, reacted with such unexpected fury that a minor mishap became a national affair: "the Prize Goods Scandal". Although Clarendon wrote that Montagu was too likeable to have any personal enemies, he did have political opponents, including his own superior at the Admiralty, Duke of York, James' influential secretary Sir William Coventry, who were happy to exploit the scandal, he felt obliged to obtain a royal pardon: the King, mindful of his good services at the Restoration, willingly granted it. During his absence from battle Edward Montagu served as England's ambassador to Spain, replacing Sir Richard Fanshawe; this is further evidence that despite his unpopularity, he retained the King's confidence, although his pol
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic, traditionally known as La Serenissima was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for over a millennium between the 7th century and the 18th century from 697 AD until 1797 AD. It was based in the lagoon communities of the prosperous city of Venice, was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy, it dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea, including commerce between Europe and North Africa, as well as Asia. The Venetian navy was used in the Crusades, most notably in the Fourth Crusade. Venice achieved territorial conquests along the Adriatic Sea. Venice became home to an wealthy merchant class, who patronized renowned art and architecture along the city's lagoons.
Venetian merchants were influential financiers in Europe. The city was the birthplace of great European explorers, such as Marco Polo, as well as Baroque composers such as Vivaldi and Benedetto Marcello; the republic was ruled by the Doge, elected by members of the Great Council of Venice, the city-state's parliament. The ruling class was an oligarchy of aristocrats. Venice and other Italian maritime republics played a key role in fostering capitalism. Venetian citizens supported the system of governance; the city-state employed ruthless tactics in its prisons. The opening of new trade routes to the Americas and the East Indies via the Atlantic Ocean marked the beginning of Venice's decline as a powerful maritime republic; the city state suffered. In 1797, the republic was plundered by retreating Austrian and French forces, following an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Republic of Venice was split into the Austrian Venetian Province, the Cisalpine Republic, a French client state, the Ionian French departments of Greece.
Venice became part of a unified Italy in the 19th century. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is referred to as La Serenissima, in reference to its title as one of the "Most Serene Republics". During the 5th century, North East Italy was devastated by the Germanic barbarian invasions. A large number of the inhabitants moved to the coastal lagoons. Here they established a collection of lagoon communities, stretching over about 130 km from Chioggia in the south to Grado in the north, who banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards and other invading peoples as the power of the Western Roman Empire dwindled in northern Italy; these communities were subjected to the authority of the Byzantine Empire. At some point in the first decades of the eighth century, the people of the Byzantine province of Venice elected their first leader Ursus, confirmed by Constantinople and given the titles of hypatus and dux, he was the first historical Doge of Venice. Tradition, first attested in the early 11th century, states that the Venetians first proclaimed one Anafestus Paulicius duke in 697, though this story dates to no earlier than the chronicle of John the Deacon.
Whichever the case, the first doges had their power base in Heraclea. Ursus's successor, moved his seat from Heraclea to Malamocco in the 740s, he represented the attempt of his father to establish a dynasty. Such attempts were more than commonplace among the doges of the first few centuries of Venetian history, but all were unsuccessful. During the reign of Deusdedit, Venice became the only remaining Byzantine possession in the north and the changing politics of the Frankish Empire began to change the factional divisions within Venetia. One faction was decidedly pro-Byzantine, they desired to remain well-connected to the Empire. Another faction, republican in nature, believed in continuing along a course towards practical independence; the other main faction was pro-Frankish. Supported by clergy, they looked towards the new Carolingian king of the Franks, Pepin the Short, as the best provider of defence against the Lombards. A minor, pro-Lombard faction was opposed to close ties with any of these further-off powers and interested in maintaining peace with the neighbouring Lombard kingdom.
The successors of Obelerio inherited a united Venice. By the Pax Nicephori, the two emperors had recognised that Venice belonged to the Byzantine sphere of influence. Many centuries the Venetians claimed that the treaty had recognised Venetian de facto independence, but the truth of this claim is doubted by modern scholars. A Byzantine fleet sailed to Venice in 807 and deposed the Doge, replacing him with a Byzantine governor. During the reign of the Participazio family, Venice grew into its modern form. Though Heraclean by birth, the first Participazio doge, was an early immigrant to Rialto and his dogeship was marked by the expansion of Venice towards the sea via the construction of bridges, bulwarks and stone buildings; the modern Venice, at one with the sea, was being bor
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina was an English and a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi, parts of modern Florida and Louisiana. Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolana, in 1629; the charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663. It was not until 1663 that the province became known as "Carolina." Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. Led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.
In 1669, the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina divided the colony of Carolina into two provinces, Albemarle province in the north and Clarendon province in the south. Due to dissent over the governance of the colony, the distance between settlements in the northern half and settlements in the southern half, in 1691 a deputy governor was appointed to administer the northern half of Carolina. In 1712, the two provinces became separate colonies, the colony of North Carolina and the colony of South Carolina. Although the division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, both colonies remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors. A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729. On October 30, 1629, King Charles I of England granted a patent to Sir Robert Heath for the lands south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees, "under the name, in honor of that king, of Carolana."
Carolus is Latin for'Charles'. Heath wanted the land for French Huguenots, but when Charles restricted use of the land to members of the Church of England, Heath assigned his grant to George, Lord Berkeley. King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France. Following the 1660 restoration of the monarchy, Heath's heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, but Charles II ruled the claim invalid. On March 24, 1663, Charles II issued a new charter to a group of eight English noblemen, granting them the land of Carolina, as a reward for their faithful support of his efforts to regain the throne of England; the eight were called Lords Proprietors or Proprietors. The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the southern border of the Virginia Colony at 36 degrees north to 31 degrees north. In 1665, the charter was revised with the northerly boundary extended to 36 degrees 30 minutes north to include the lands of settlers along the Albemarle Sound who had left the Virginia Colony.
The southern boundary was moved south to 29 degrees north, just south of present-day Daytona Beach, which had the effect of including the existing Spanish settlement at St. Augustine; the charter granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The Lords Proprietors named in the charter were Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. Of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, with the assistance of his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, drafted the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina, a plan for government of the colony influenced by the ideas of the English political scientist, James Harrington; some of the other Lords Proprietors had interests in other colonies: for instance, John Berkeley and George Carteret held stakes in the Province of New Jersey, William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia. The Lords Proprietors, operating under their royal charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself.
The actual government consisted of a governor, a powerful council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors themselves, a weak, popularly elected assembly. Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had started to emigrate up the coast of modern North Carolina. A hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia. A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, who inhabited Parris Island, SC, as late as 1655; the Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia. Although the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island was the first English attempt at settlement in the Carolina territory, the first permanent English settlement was not established until 1653, when emigrants from the Virginia Colony, with others from New England and Bermuda, settled at the mouths of the Chowan and Roanok
The Navy Board and known as the Council of the Marine or Council of the Marine Causes was the commission with responsibility for day-to-day civil administration of the Royal Navy between 1546 and 1832. The board was headquartered within the Navy Office; the origins of the Navy Board first began to appear in the 15th century when the Keeper of the Kings or Clerk of the Kings Ships in 1414 the predecessor later subordinate office, of the Lord Admiral of England was joined by a Keeper of the Storehouses in 1514. As management of the navy began to expand he was joined by a Clerk Comptroller in 1522 later the Lieutenant of the Admiralty in 1544 a Treasurer of Marine Causes in 1544 was added. A sixth officer was created, a Surveyor and Rigger of the Navy, in 1544, a seventh officer called Master of Naval Ordnance in 1545 the group by January 1545 was working as a body known as the Council of the Marine or King's Majesty's Council of His Marine. In the first quarter of 1545 an official memorandum was outlined that proposed the establishment of a new organisation that would formalize a structure for administering the navy that would have a clear chain of command for executing the office.
Following the previous proposals the Navy Board was appointed by letters patent by Henry VIII on the 24 April 1546 it was directed by the Lieutenant of the Admiralty until 1557. The board was charged with overseeing the administrative affairs of the navy (while directive and operational duties of the Lord High Admiral remained with the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office. In 1557 the Lieutenant of the Admiralty ceased to direct the Navy Board that role was now given to the Treasurer of the Navy known as the Senior Commissioner. In the earlier part of its history it remained independent until 1628 when it became a subsidiary body of the Board of Admiralty now reporting to the First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1660 the Treasurer of the Navy ceased to direct the board and was replaced by the Comptroller who now held the new joint title of Chairman of the Board. Although a subordinate body of Admiralty Board, it still maintained its independence in relation to its role within the Royal navy until 1832.
Following re-structuring proposals of the Naval Service made by Sir James Graham the Navy Board was abolished and all of the functions were merged under the single responsibility of the Board of Admiralty with its administrative functions being dispersed among the Naval Lords. The Navy Board overall responsibilities were the construction and maintenance of ships through the Royal Dockyards of Deptford, Woolwich and Chatham. In addition to the procurement of victuals, stores and services for the fleet and provision of ordnance items, it was responsible for all civilian and naval pay, for the appointment of junior officers and warrant officers, had several other duties in addition. The Lieutenant of the Admiralty: He presided over the Council of the Marine and was superseded by the Treasurer; the Treasurer of the Navy: He was Senior Commissioner of the board from 1564-1660 and controlled and directed all Naval finance - though in practice his responsibilities were increasingly devolved to the Comptroller.
The Comptroller of the Navy: He was in charge of Naval spending he acted as Chairman of the Board from 1660 until its abolition in 1832. The Surveyor of the Navy: He was in charge of Naval shipbuilding, ship design and running the Royal Dockyards; the Clerk of the Navy: He was in charge of the day-to-day running of the Board and the administration of its work and acted as Chief Secretary to the Navy Office. The Surveyor of Marine Victuals: He was responsible for the administration of victualling yards and supply of food and beverages for the Royal Navy from 1550-1679, his office was abolished and replaced by the Victualling Board in 1683; the Master of Naval Ordnance: He was a assigned officer from the Ordnance Office responsible for the supply of Naval Ordnance he was a member from. The Comptroller of Storekeepers's Accounts: His post was created to relieve the Comptroller of the Navy one of his duties The Comptroller of Treasurer's Accounts: His post was created to relieve the Comptroller of the Navy one of his duties The Comptroller of Victualling Accounts: His post was created to relieve the Comptroller of the Navy one of his dutiesNote:The Navy Pay Office was independent of the Board.
As the size of the fleet grew, the Admiralty sought to focus the activity of the Navy Board on two areas: ships and their maintenance, naval expenditure. Therefore, from the mid- to late-17th century, a number of subsidiary Boards began to be established to oversee other aspects of the Board's work; these included: The Victualling Board, was responsible for providing naval personnel with enough food and supplies. The Sick and Hurt Board and was responsible for providing were responsible for providing medical support services to the navy and managing prisoners of war; the Transport Board, was responsible for the provision of transport services and for the transpo
Commonwealth of England
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales along with Ireland and Scotland, were ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested in the Parliament and a Council of State. During the period, fighting continued in Ireland and Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as the Third English Civil War. In 1653, after the forcible dissolution of the Rump Parliament, the Army Council adopted the Instrument of Government which made Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of a united "Commonwealth of England and Ireland", inaugurating the period now known as the Protectorate. After Cromwell's death, following a brief period of rule under his son, Richard Cromwell, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, the start of a process that led to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 – a period referred to by monarchists as the Interregnum – although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwell's formal assumption of power in 1653. The Rump was created by Pride's Purge of those members of the Long Parliament who did not support the political position of the Grandees in the New Model Army. Just before and after the execution of King Charles I on 30 January 1649, the Rump passed a number of acts of Parliament creating the legal basis for the republic. With the abolition of the monarchy, Privy Council and the House of Lords, it had unchecked executive and legislative power; the English Council of State, which replaced the Privy Council, took over many of the executive functions of the monarchy. It was selected by the Rump, most of its members were MPs. However, the Rump depended on the support of the Army with which it had a uneasy relationship. After the execution of Charles I, the House of Commons abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords.
It declared the people of England "and of all the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging" to be henceforth under the governance of a "Commonwealth" a republic. In Pride's Purge, all members of parliament who would not accept the need to bring the King to trial had been removed, thus the Rump never had more than two hundred members. They included: supporters of religious independents who did not want an established church and some of whom had sympathies with the Levellers. Most Rumpers were gentry, though there was a higher proportion of lesser gentry and lawyers than in previous parliaments. Less than one-quarter of them were regicides; this left the Rump as a conservative body whose vested interests in the existing land ownership and legal systems made it unlikely to want to reform them. For the first two years of the Commonwealth, the Rump faced economic depression and the risk of invasion from Scotland and Ireland. By 1653 Cromwell and the Army had eliminated these threats. There were many disagreements amongst factions of the Rump.
Some wanted a republic. Most of England's traditional ruling classes regarded the Rump as an illegal government made up of regicides and upstarts. However, they were aware that the Rump might be all that stood in the way of an outright military dictatorship. High taxes to pay the Army, were resented by the gentry. Limited reforms were enough to antagonise the ruling class but not enough to satisfy the radicals. Despite its unpopularity, the Rump was a link with the old constitution, helped to settle England down and make it secure after the biggest upheaval in its history. By 1653, France and Spain had recognised England's new government. Though the Church of England was retained, episcopacy was suppressed and the Act of Uniformity 1558 was repealed in September 1650. On the insistence of the Army, many independent churches were tolerated, although everyone still had to pay tithes to the established church; some small improvements were made to court procedure. However, there were no widespread reforms of the common law.
This would have upset the gentry, who regarded the common law as reinforcing their status and property rights. The Rump passed many restrictive laws to regulate people's moral behaviour, such as closing down theatres and requiring strict observance of Sunday; this antagonised most of the gentry. Cromwell, aided by Thomas Harrison, forcibly dismissed the Rump on 20 April 1653, for reasons that are unclear. Theories are that he feared the Rump was trying to perpetuate itself as the government, or that the Rump was preparing for an election which could return an anti-Commonwealth majority. Many former members of the Rump continued to regard themselves as England's only legitimate constitutional authority; the Rump had not agreed to its own dissolution.
Elizabeth, New Jersey
Elizabeth is both the largest city and the county seat of Union County, in New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 124,969, retaining its ranking as New Jersey's fourth most populous city, behind Paterson; the population increased by 4,401 from the 120,568 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 10,566 from the 110,002 counted in the 1990 Census. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 130,215, an increase of 4.2% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 212th-most-populous in the nation. In 2008, Elizabeth was named one of "America's 50 Greenest Cities" by Popular Science magazine, the only city in New Jersey selected. Elizabeth called "Elizabethtown" and part of the Elizabethtown Tract, was founded in 1664 by English settlers; the town was not named for Queen Elizabeth I as many people may assume, but rather for Elizabeth, wife of Sir George Carteret, one of the two original Proprietors of the colony of New Jersey.
She was the daughter of 3rd Seigneur de Sark and Anne Dowse. The town served as the first capital of New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, Elizabethtown was continually attacked by British forces based on Manhattan and Staten Island, culminating in the Battle of Springfield which decisively defeated British attempts to gain New Jersey. After independence, it was from Elizabethtown that George Washington embarked by boat to Manhattan for his 1789 inauguration. There are numerous monuments of the American Revolution in Elizabeth. On March 13, 1855, the City of Elizabeth was created by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and replacing both Elizabeth Borough and Elizabeth Township, subject to the results of a referendum held on March 27, 1855. On March 19, 1857, the city became part of the newly created Union County. Portions of the city were taken to form Linden Township on March 4, 1861; the first major industry, the Singer Sewing Machine Company came to Elizabeth and employed as many as 2,000 people.
In 1895, it saw one of the first car companies, when Electric Carriage and Wagon Company was founded to manufacture the Electrobat, joined soon by another electric car builder, Andrew L. Riker; the Electric Boat Company got its start building submarines for the United States Navy in Elizabeth, New Jersey, beginning with the launch of USS Holland in 1897. These pioneering naval craft were developed at Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth between the years 1896–1903. Elizabeth grew in parallel to its sister city of Newark for many years, but has been more successful in retaining a middle-class presence and was spared riots in the 1960s. On September 18, 2016, a backpack holding five bombs was discovered outside NJ Transit's Elizabeth train station. One bomb detonated accidentally when a bomb squad robot failed to disarm the contents of the backpack. Police were unsure if this event was related to bombs in Seaside Park, New Jersey and Manhattan that had exploded the previous day. On September 19, police arrested Ahmad Khan Rahami, a 28-year-old Afghan-born naturalized U.
S. citizen, for questioning in connection with all three incidents. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 13.464 square miles, including 12.319 square miles of land and 1.145 square miles of water. Elizabeth is bordered to the southwest by Linden, to the west by Roselle and Roselle Park, to the northwest by Union and Hillside, to the north by Newark. To the east the city is across the Newark Bay from Bayonne in Hudson County and the Arthur Kill from Staten Island, New York; the borders of Elizabeth and Staten Island meet at one point on Shooters Island, of which 7.5 acres of the island is owned by Elizabeth, though the island is managed by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The Elizabeth River is a waterway that courses through the city for 4.2 miles and is channelized, before draining into the Arthur Kill. Midtown occasionally known as Uptown, is the main commercial district and a historic section as well, it includes the First Presbyterian Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, its St. John's Episcopal Churchyard.
The First Presbyterian Church was a battleground for the American Revolution. Located here are the 1931 Art Deco Hersh Tower, the Thomas Jefferson Arts Academy, the Ritz Theatre, operating since 1926. Midtown/Uptown includes the area once known as "Brittanville" which contained many English type gardens. Bayway borders the City of Linden. From US 1&9 and Allen Street, between the Elizabeth River and the Arthur Kill, it has maintained a strong Polish community for years. Developed at the turn of the 20th century, many of the area residents once worked at the refinery which straddles both Elizabeth and Linden. There are unique ethnic restaurants and stores along Bayway, a variety of houses of worship. Housing styles are older and well maintained. There are many affordable two to four-family housing units, multiple apartment complexes; the western terminus of the Goethals Bridge, which spans the Arthur Kill to Staten Island can be found here. A small section of the neighborhood was isolated with both the completion of the Goethals Bridge in 1928 and the construction of the New Jersey Turnpike in the 1950s.
This section known as "Relocated Bayway" will soon be a memory and piece of histor