The Arabid race is a historical term for a morphological subtype of the Caucasoid race, as used in traditional physical anthropology. The Arabid race is thought to have originated within the Arabian Peninsula, it is predominant there as well, it is a major element in the Levant region of the Middle East, a minor element in other parts of Western Asia. The type is known as Araboid in forensic anthropology. In the Near East region, it is mixed with the Armenoid race; this Armenoid-Araboid hybrid type is alternatively known as the Assyrid. Gulf Arabs known as Arabian Arabs or true Arabs, among whom are the Saudis, Kuwaitis, southern Iraqis and the Bedouins, are more of classic Arabid type. In areas bordering the Iranian plateau, the Arabid type not merges with the Irano-Afghan race, a local Mediterranean subtype. In parts of North Africa among the Arabic-speaking Bedouin herders of the deserts and oases of the Maghreb and Egypt, the Arabid type fuses with another local Mediterranean subtype, the Hamitic, to produce a new hybrid morphological type.
The Hamitic type, predominates throughout among the Berbers as well as the Copts and Fellahin, since it is the taxon to which belonged most Ancient Libyans and Ancient Egyptians, respectively. A similar, minor Arabid element is found in parts of the Horn of Africa, having been introduced from the Persian Gulf region in historic times by the first Islamic proselytizers as well as the adjacent Himyarites and Sabaeans of Hadhramaut. However, here again the Arabid element is secondary to the predominant Hamitic type of the region's first Hamito-Semitic speakers, who were ancestral to the Somalis and other Ethiopid populations. In the Sudan area, classic Arabid types can be found among the Kababish and certain other Arabic-speaking desert tribes collectively known as Sudanese Arabs. Here, they occur in solution with the local Hamitic Mediterranean type, the morphological taxon to which belonged the A-Group, C-Group and Meroitic culture makers, among certain other early populations in the region.
Elsewhere, Arabid elements fuse with the Negroid type of the region's indigenous Nilo-Saharan speakers, the Nilotes, thereby producing an Afro-Arab hybrid type. In the Iberian Peninsula, a rather tall, progressive and high-skulled South Mediterranean type related to the Hamitic variety of North Africa is the predominant element. However, instead of Arabid, it is mixed here with low-skulled, long-skulled, short-statured Berid and West Mediterranid subtypes; the Arabid race is distinguished from the West-Mediterranean race by some minor characteristic facial traits. The Arabid physical type had in earlier times a broader-formed Syrid subtype, found among the farmers of the Fertile Crescent. Bedouin Historical race concepts Semitic peoples Southwest Asia
Negroid is a grouping of human beings regarded as a biological taxon. The term has been used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among populations in most of Sub-Saharan Africa and isolated parts of South and Southeast Asia. Within Africa, a racial dividing line separating Caucasoid physical types from Negroid physical types was held to have existed, with Negroid groups forming most of the population south of the area which stretched from the southern Sahara desert in the west to the African Great Lakes in the southeast. First introduced in early racial science and anthropometry, Negroid denoted one of the three purported major races of humankind. Many social scientists have argued that such analyses are rooted in sociopolitical and historical processes rather than in empirical observation. However, Negroid as a biological classification remains in use in forensic anthropology.
The term today is considered racist, along with the term it derived from, Negro. Negroid has both Ancient Greek etymological roots, it translates as "black resemblance" from negro, οειδές -oeidēs, equivalent to -o- + είδες -eidēs "having the appearance of", derivative of είδος eîdos "appearance". The earliest recorded use of the term "Negroid" came in 1859. In modern usage, it is associated with populations that on the whole possess the suite of typical Negro physical characteristics. In the 19th century, Samuel George Morton posited a "Negro Family", which he grouped with the Caffrian, Oceanic-Negro and Alforian families. In physical anthropology the term is one of the three general racial classifications of humans — Caucasoid and Negroid. Under this classification scheme, humans are divisible into broad sub-groups based on phenotypic characteristics such as cranial and skeletal morphology. Iterations of the terminology, such as Carleton S. Coon's Origin of Races, placed this theory in an evolutionary context.
Coon divided the species Homo sapiens into five groups: Caucasoid, Congoid and Mongoloid, based on the timing of each taxon's evolution from Homo erectus Positing the Capoid race as a separate racial entity, labeling the two major divisions of what he called the Congoid race as being the "African Negroes" and the "Pygmies", he divided indigenous Africans into distinct Congoid and Capoid groups based on their date of ancestral origin rather than just phenotype. Afrocentrist author Cheikh Anta Diop contrasted "Negroid" with "Cro-Magnoid" in his publications arguing for "Negroid" primacy. Grimaldi Man, Upper Paleolithic fossils found in Italy in 1901, had been classified as Negroid by Boule and Vallois; the identification was controversially revived by Diop. In the context of the first peopling of the Sahara, there was a debate in the 1970s whether the non-negroid, mixed, or negroid fossils found in the region were older. Asselar man, a 6,400 year old fossil discovered in 1927 in the Adrar des Ifoghas near Essouk, was claimed as the oldest known anatomically modern human skeleton of Negroid type.
In the first half of the 20th century, the traditional subraces of the Negroid race were regarded as being the True Negro, the Forest Negro, the Bantu Negro, the Nilote, the Negrillo, the Khoisan, the Negrito, the Oceanic Negroids. By the 1960s, some scholars regarded the Khoisan as a separate race known as the Capoid race, while others continued to regard them as a Negroid subrace; the term "Congoid" was used interchangeably with "Negroid", with the main difference being that Congoid excluded the Capoid taxon. In modern craniofacial anthropometry, Negroid describes features; these include a broad and round nasal cavity. According to George W. Gill and other modern forensic anthropologists, physical traits of Negroid crania are distinct from those of the Caucasoid and Mongoloid races, they assert that they can identify a Negroid skull with an accuracy of up to 95%. However, Alan H. Goodman cautions that this precision estimate is based on methodologies using subsets of samples, he argues that scientists have a professional and ethical duty to avoid such biological analyses since they could have sociopolitical effects.
Although used in forensic anthropology, some have challenged the accuracy of craniofacial anthropometry vis-a-vis different human populations that have developed in close proximity to one another and those of mixed ethnic heritage. Since the distinguishing racial traits are not set until puberty, they are difficult to ascertain in preadolescent skulls. Variation in craniofacial form between humans has been found to be due to differing patterns of biological inheritance. Modern cross-analysis of osteological variables and genome-wide SNPs has identified specific genes, which control this craniofacial development. Of these genes, DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3, PAX1 and PAX3 were found to determine nasal morphology, whereas EDAR impacts chin protrusion. Ashley Montagu lists "neotenous structural traits in which... Negroids differ from Caucasoids... flattish nose, flat root of the nose, narrower ea
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Samuel George Morton
Samuel George Morton was an American physician, natural scientist, writer. Morton, raised a Quaker but became Episcopalian in midlife, was born in Philadelphia, attended Westtown School, graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1820. After earning an advanced degree from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, he began practice in Philadelphia in 1824, he was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania Medical College in Philadelphia and served as its professor of anatomy from 1839 until his resignation in 1843. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1844. Morton was a prolific writer of books on various subjects from 1823 to 1851, he wrote Geological Observations in 1828, both Synopsis of the Organic Remains of the Cretaceous Group of the United States and Illustrations of Pulmonary Consumption in 1834. His first medical essay, on the user of cornine in intermittent fever, in 1825 was published in the Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences, his bibliography includes Hybridity in Animals and Plants, Additional Observation on Hybridity, An Illustrated System of Human Anatomy.
Samuel George Morton is thought of as the originator of "American School" ethnography, a school of thought in antebellum American science that claimed the difference between humans was one of species rather than variety and is seen by some as the origin of scientific racism. Morton argued against the single creation story of the Bible and instead supported a theory of multiple racial creations. Morton claimed the Bible supported polygenism, within working in a biblical framework his theory held that each race had been created separately and each was given specific, irrevocable characteristics. After inspecting three mummies from ancient Egyptian catacombs, Morton concluded that Caucasians and Negroes were distinct three thousand years ago. Since the Bible indicated that Noah's Ark had washed up on Mount Ararat, only a thousand years ago before this, Morton claimed that Noah's sons could not account for every race on earth. According to Morton's theory of polygenesis, races have been separate since the start.
Morton claimed. A large volume meant a large brain and high intellectual capacity, a small skull indicated a small brain and decreased intellectual capacity, he was reputed to hold the largest collection of skulls. He claimed that each race had a separate origin, that a descending order of intelligence could be discerned that placed Caucasians at the pinnacle and Negroes at the lowest point, with various other race groups in between. Morton had many skulls from ancient Egypt, concluded that the ancient Egyptians were not African, but were Caucasian, his results were published in three volumes between 1839 and 1849: the Crania Americana, An Inquiry into the Distinctive Characteristics of the Aboriginal Race of America and Crania Aegyptiaca. Morton's skull collection was held at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia until 1966, when it was transferred to the Penn Museum, where it is presently curated. Morton's theories were popular in his day, he was a respected physician and scientist.
The anthropologist Aleš Hrdlička called Morton "the father of American physical anthropology". Crispin Bates has noted that Morton's "systematic justification" for the separation of races, along with the work of Louis Agassiz, was used by those who favoured slavery in the United States, with the Charleston Medical Journal noting at his death that "We of the South should consider him as our benefactor for aiding most materially in giving to the negro his true position as an inferior race." Morton claimed in his Crania Americana that the Caucasians had the biggest brains, averaging 87 cubic inches, Indians were in the middle with an average of 82 cubic inches and Negroes had the smallest brains with an average of 78 cubic inches. Morton believed that the skulls of each race were so different that a wise creator from the beginning had created each race and positioned them in separate homelands to dwell in. Morton believed that cranial capacity determined intellectual ability, he used his craniometric evidence in conjunction with his analysis of anthropological literature available to argue in favor of a racial hierarchy which put Caucasians on the top rung and Africans on the bottom.
His skull measurements came to serve as "evidence" for racial stereotypes. He described the Caucasian as "distinguished by the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments". Morton's followers Josiah C. Nott and George Gliddon in their monumental tribute to Morton's work, Types of Mankind, carried Morton's ideas further and backed up his findings which supported the notion of polygenism – the premise that the different races were separately created by God; the publication of Charles Darwin's On The Origin of Species in 1859 changed the nature of the scholarly debate. In a 1978 paper and in The Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould asserted that Morton had because of an unconscious bias, selectively reported data, manipulated sample compositions, made analytical errors, mismeasured skulls in order to sup
Ethiopid is a historical racial classification of humans. It was equivalent with the Eastern Hamite division of the Caucasian race. Ethiopids are classified as a Caucasoid subrace. According to John Baker, in their stable form, their center of distribution was considered to be Horn of Africa, among that region's Hamito-Semitic-speaking populations. Physically, the classic Ethiopid was with a dolicocephalic or mesocephalic skull. Facial form was Caucasoid, with an orthognathic profile and a rather prominent, narrow nose. Hair form was ringlety and skin color was invariably brown, with either a reddish or blackish tinge, it is not certain which Caucasoid subrace formed the basis of this stock, but authorities suggested Mediterranid or Proto-Mediterranid ancestors. Caucasoid Hamitic People of Ethiopia Arabid Mediterranid Brown race Table 2.1. Baker's Classification of Human Races and Subraces The Races of Europe - The Mediterranean Race in East Africa
Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination. Alexandria was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 332 BC by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexandria became an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat. Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Alexandria was at one time the second most powerful city of the ancient Mediterranean region, after Rome.
Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, during the Ptolemaic dynasty. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. Although it has long been believed only a small village there, recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show significant human activity at the location for two millennia preceding Alexandria's founding.
Alexandria was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks and Syrians; the city was plundered and lost its significance. In the early Christian Church, the city was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, one of the major centers of early Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands; as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis existed on the shore and gave its name to Alexandria in the Egyptian language, it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy, continued the expansion.
Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was lost after being separated from its burial site there. Although Cleomenes was in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome, it became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world; the Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning, but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek and Egyptian.
By the time of Augustus, the city walls encompassed an area of 5.34 km2, the total population in Roman times was around 500-600,000. According to Philo of Alexandria, in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, which escalated to open affronts and violence between the two ethnic groups and the desecration of Alexandrian synagogues; the violence was quelled after Caligula intervened and had the Roman governor, removed from the city. In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215, the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July
Craniometry is measurement of the cranium the human cranium. It is a subset of cephalometry, measurement of the head, which in humans is a subset of anthropometry, measurement of the human body, it is distinct from phrenology, the pseudoscience that tried to link personality and character to head shape, physiognomy, which tried the same for facial features. However, these fields have all claimed the ability to predict traits or intelligence, they were once intensively practised in anthropology, in particular in physical anthropology in the 19th and the first part of the 20th century. Theories attempting to scientifically justify the segregation of society based on race became popular at this time, one of their prominent figures being Georges Vacher de Lapouge, who divided humanity into various, different "races", spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic" race. On the other hand, craniometry was used as evidence against the existence of a "Nordic race" and by Franz Boas who used the cephalic index to show the influence of environmental factors.
Charles Darwin used craniometry and the study of skeletons to demonstrate his theory of evolution first expressed in On the Origin of Species. More direct measurements involve examinations of brains from corpses, or more imaging techniques such as MRI, which can be used on living persons; such measurements are used in research on intelligence. Swedish professor of anatomy Anders Retzius first used the cephalic index in physical anthropology to classify ancient human remains found in Europe, he classified brains into three main categories, "dolichocephalic", "brachycephalic" and "mesocephalic". These terms were used by Georges Vacher de Lapouge, one of the pioneers of scientific theories in this area and a theoretician of eugenics, who in L'Aryen et son rôle social divided humanity into various, different "races", spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic" "mediocre and inert" race, best represented by the "Jew." Between these, Vacher de Lapouge identified the "Homo europaeus, the "Homo alpinus", the "Homo mediterraneus".
"Homo africanus" was excluded from the discussion. Vacher de Lapouge became one of the leading inspirations of Nazi ideology, his classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe. In 1784, Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, who wrote many comparative anatomy memoirs for the Académie française, published the Mémoire sur les différences de la situation du grand trou occipital dans l’homme et dans les animaux. Six years Pieter Camper, distinguished both as an artist and as an anatomist, published some lectures containing an account of his craniometrical methods; these laid the foundation of all subsequent work. Pieter Camper invented the "facial angle", a measure meant to determine intelligence among various species. According to this technique, a "facial angle" was formed by drawing two lines: one horizontally from the nostril to the ear. Camper claimed that antique statues presented an angle of 90°, Europeans of 80°, Black people of 70° and the orangutan of 58°, thus displaying a hierarchic view of mankind, based on a decadent conception of history.
This scientific research was continued by Étienne Geoffroy Paul Broca. In 1856, workers found in a limestone quarry the skull of a Neanderthal man, thinking it to be the remains of a bear, they gave the material to amateur naturalist Johann Karl Fuhlrott, who turned the fossils over to anatomist Hermann Schaaffhausen. The discovery was jointly announced in 1857. Measurements were first made to compare the skulls of men with those of other animals; this wide comparison constituted the first subdivision of craniometric studies. The artist-anatomist Camper's developed a theory to measure the facial angle, for which he is chiefly known in anthropological literature. Camper's work followed 18th-century scientific theories, his measurements of facial angle were used to liken the skulls of non-Europeans to those of apes. "Craniometry" played a role in the foundation of the United States and the ideologies or racism that would become ingrained in the American psyche. As John Jeffries articulates in The Collision of Culture the Anglo-Saxon hegemony present in America during the eighteenth and nineteenth century helped establish "The American School of Craniometry" which helped establish the American and Western concept of race.
As Jeffries points out the rigid establishment of race in eighteenth-century American society came from a new school of sciences which sought to distance Anglo-Saxons from the African American population. The distancing of the African population in American society through craniometry helped in the efforts to scientifically prove they were inferior; the ideologies set forth by this new "American School" of thought were used to justify maintaining an enslaved population to sustain the increasing number of slave plantations in the American South during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the 19th c