The Babington Plot was a plan in 1586 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, a Protestant, put Mary, Queen of Scots, her Roman Catholic cousin, on the English throne. It led to the Queen of Scots' execution, a result of a letter sent by Mary in which she consented to the assassination of Elizabeth; the long-term goal of the plot was the invasion of England by the Spanish forces of King Philip II and the Catholic League in France, leading to the restoration of the old religion. The plot was discovered by Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and used to entrap Mary for the purpose of removing her as a claimant to the English throne; the chief conspirators were John Ballard. Babington, a young recusant, was recruited by Ballard, a Jesuit priest who hoped to rescue the Scottish Queen. Working for Walsingham were double agents Robert Poley and Gilbert Gifford, as well as Thomas Phelippes, the last a spy agent and cryptanalyst; the turbulent Catholic deacon Gifford had been in Walsingham's service since the end of 1585 or the beginning of 1586.
Gifford obtained a letter of introduction to Queen Mary from a confidant and spy for her, Thomas Morgan. Walsingham placed double agent Gifford and spy decipherer Phelippes inside Chartley Castle, where Queen Mary was imprisoned. Gifford organised the Walsingham plan to place Babington's and Queen Mary's encrypted communications into a beer barrel cork which were intercepted by Phelippes and sent to Walsingham. On 7 July 1586, the only Babington letter, sent to Mary was decoded by Phelippes. Mary responded in code on 17 July ordering the would-be rescuers to assassinate Queen Elizabeth; the response letter included deciphered phrases indicating her desire to be rescued: "The affairs being thus prepared" and "I may be transported out of this place". At the Fotheringay trial in October 1586, Elizabeth's Lord High Treasurer Lord Burghley and Walsingham used the letter against Mary who refused to admit that she was guilty, but she was betrayed by her secretaries Nau and Curle who confessed under pressure that the letter was truthful.
Mary, Queen of Scots, a Roman Catholic, was regarded by Roman Catholics as the legitimate heir to the throne of England. In 1568 she escaped imprisonment by Scottish rebels and sought the promised aid of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I, a year after her forced abdication from the throne of Scotland; the issuance of the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis by Pope Pius V on 25 February 1570, granted English Catholics authority to overthrow the English queen. Queen Mary became the focal point of numerous plots and intrigues to restore England to its former religion, to depose Elizabeth and to take her life. Rather than the promised aid, Elizabeth imprisoned Mary for nineteen years in the charge of a succession of jailers, principally the Earl of Shrewsbury. In 1564 Elizabeth's Privy Council signed a "Bond of Association" designed by Cecil and Walsingham which stated that anyone within the line of succession to the throne on whose behalf anyone plotted against the Queen, would be excluded from the line and executed.
This was agreed upon by hundreds of Englishmen, who signed the Bond. Mary agreed to sign the Bond; the following year, Parliament passed the Act of Association, which provided for the execution of anyone who would benefit from the death of the Queen if a plot against her was discovered. Because of the bond, Mary could be executed if a plot was initiated by others that could lead to her accession to England's throne. Queen Elizabeth ordered Queen Mary transferred back to the ruined Tutbury Castle in the wintry weather of Christmas Eve 1569. Mary became ill because of the bad conditions of her captivity, imprisoned in a damp cold room with closed windows and with no access to the sun. In 1585, Elizabeth ordered Mary to be transferred in a coach and under heavy guard and placed under the strictest confinement at Chartley Hall in Staffordshire, under the control of Sir Amias Paulet, she was prohibited any correspondence with the outside world. Puritan Paulet was chosen by Queen Elizabeth in part because he abhorred Queen Mary's Catholic faith.
Reacting to the growing threat posed by Catholics, urged on by the pope and other Catholic monarchs in Europe, Francis Walsingham, Queen Elizabeth's Secretary of State and spymaster, together with William Cecil, Elizabeth's chief advisor, realised that if Mary could be implicated in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth, she could be executed and the papist threat diminished. As he wrote to the Earl of Leicester: "So long as that devilish woman lives, neither Her Majesty must make an account to continue in quiet possession of her crown, nor her faithful servants assure themselves of the safety of their lives." Walsingham used Babington to ensnare Queen Mary by sending his double agent, Gilbert Gifford to Paris to obtain the confidence of Morgan locked in the Bastille. Morgan worked for George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, an earlier jailor of Queen Mary. Through Shrewsbury, Queen Mary became acquainted with Morgan. Queen Mary sent Morgan to Paris to deliver letters to the French court. While in Paris, Morgan became involved in a previous plot designed by William Parry, which resulted in Morgan's incarceration in the Bastille.
In 1585 Gifford was arrested returning to England while coming through Rye in Sussex with letters of introduction from Morgan to Queen Mary. Walsingham released Gifford to work in the Babington Plot. Gifford used the alias "No. 4" just as he had used other aliases such as Colerdin and Cornelys. Walsingham had Gifford function as a courier in the entrapment plot against Queen Mary; the Babington plot was related
Rising of the North
The Rising of the North of 1569 called the Revolt of the Northern Earls or Northern Rebellion, was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. When Elizabeth I succeeded her half-sister Mary as Queen of England in 1558, her accession was disputed due to the questioned legitimacy of the marriage of the Queen's parents – Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Under Henry VIII and his advisor Thomas Cromwell, power was shifted from regional institutions to royal control; this course was encouraged by Elizabeth's counsellors such as William Cecil and a policy of centralization was the approach favoured by Elizabeth herself at least in regards to the northern border region. Opponents of Elizabeth looked to Mary, Queen of Scots, as the descendant of Henry's sister Margaret Tudor; the claims were put forward by Mary's father-in-law, King Henry II of France, but Mary upheld them after her return to Scotland in 1561.
Many English Catholics a significant portion of the population, supported Mary's claim as a way to restore Catholic ideology. This position was strong in Northern England, where several powerful nobles were Catholics. Supporters of Mary hoped for aid from France and Spain. Mary's position was strengthened by the birth of her son, James, in 1566 but weakened again when she was deposed in July 1567; the rebellion was led by Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland, Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland. Seven hundred knights assembled at Raby Castle. In November 1569 Westmorland and Northumberland occupied Durham. Thomas Plumtree celebrated Mass in Durham Cathedral. From Durham, the rebels marched south to Bramham Moor, while Elizabeth struggled to raise forces sufficient to confront them. But, hearing of a large force being raised by the Earl of Sussex, the rebels abandoned plans to besiege York, captured Barnard Castle instead, they found little popular support. Sussex marched out from York on 13 December 1569 with 10,000 men against the rebels' 6,000, was followed by 12,000 men under Baron Clinton.
The rebel earls retreated northward and dispersed their forces, fleeing into Scotland. A questionable role in the rebellion was played by an early sympathiser of Mary. At the outbreak of the rebellion, he travelled to Elizabeth's court at Windsor to claim the heritage of his young nephew, the 5th Baron Dacre. After the latter's untimely death in 1569, this had descended to his sisters, all married to sons of the Duke of Norfolk. Dacre returned to Northern England, ostensibly a faithful partisan of Elizabeth, but his intentions remain unclear. After the retreat of the rebels, he seized Greystoke Castle and fortified his own Naworth Castle, where he gathered 3,000 Cumbrian troops and tried to keep up the appearance of good relations with the Queen, he held out against a siege of the royal army under Baron Hunsdon but attacked the retreating army at Gelt River. Though Hunsdon was outnumbered, he charged Dacre's foot with his cavalry, killing 300–400 and capturing 200–300 men. Dacre escaped via Scotland to Flanders.
Of the rebellion's leaders, the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland had fled into Scotland. Northumberland was captured by James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, turned over to Elizabeth in 1572, who had him beheaded at York. After having been hidden at Ferniehirst Castle, Westmorland escaped to Flanders, where he died impoverished, his family lost their ancestral homes and his wife, Jane Howard fled to the Continent. She lived the rest of her life under house arrest, her brother, the Duke of Norfolk, was first imprisoned pardoned. He was imprisoned again following the Ridolfi plot in 1571 and executed in 1572. Norfolk's treason charges included "comforting and relieving of the English rebels that stirred the Rebellion in the North since they have fled out of the realm." Altogether, 600 supporters of Mary were executed. Queen Elizabeth declared martial law, exacting terrible retribution on the ordinary folk of the Yorkshire Dales, despite the lack of any popular support for the Earls' Rising, with her demand for at least 700 executions.
The victims of this purge were, as a contemporary account said "wholly of the meanest sort of people", so that hardly a village escaped the sight of a public hanging. In 1570, Pope Pius V had tried to aid the rebellion by excommunicating Elizabeth and declaring her deposed in the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, but the document did not arrive until the rebellion had been suppressed; the bull gave Elizabeth more reason to view Catholics with suspicion. It inspired conspiracies to assassinate her, starting with the Ridolfi plot. In 1587, Elizabeth brought Queen of Scots, to trial for treason; the Rising of the North is the main conflict in the historical drama film Mary Queen of Scots. Desmond Rebellions Prayer Book Rebellion Pilgrimage of Grace Fletcher and Diarmaid MacCulloch. Tudor rebellions. Kesselring, Krista; the Northern Rebellion of 1569: Faith and Protest in Elizabethan England. Lowers, James K. Mirrors for rebels: a study of polemical literature relating to the Northern Rebellion, 1569. Http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/NorthernRebellion.htm http://www.timetravel-britain.com/05/July/raby.shtml
Buxton is a spa town in Derbyshire, in the East Midlands region of England. It has the highest elevation – about 1,000 feet above sea level – of any market town in England. Close to the county boundary with Cheshire to the west and Staffordshire to the south, Buxton is described as "the gateway to the Peak District National Park". A municipal borough until 1974, Buxton was merged with other localities lying to the north, including Glossop, to form the local government district and borough of High Peak within the county of Derbyshire. Despite being in the East Midlands, economically Buxton is within the sphere of influence of Greater Manchester; the population of the town was 22,115 at the 2011 Census. Buxton landmarks include Poole's Cavern, an extensive limestone cavern open to the public, St Ann's Well, fed by the geothermal spring bottled and sold internationally by Buxton Mineral Water Company. In the town is the Buxton Opera House, which hosts several music and theatre festivals each year.
The Devonshire Campus of the University of Derby is housed in one of the town's historic buildings. Buxton is twinned with Bad Nauheim in Germany; the Romans developed a settlement known as Aquae Arnemetiae. The discovery of coins indicates; the origins of the town's name are uncertain. It may be derived for Rocking Stone; the town grew in importance in the late 18th century when it was developed by the Dukes of Devonshire, with a resurgence a century as the Victorians were drawn to the reputed healing properties of the waters. Built on the River Wye, overlooked by Axe Edge Moor, Buxton has a history as a spa town due to its geothermal spring which rises at a constant temperature of 28 °C; the spring waters are piped to St Ann's Well opposite the Crescent near the town centre. The Dukes of Devonshire have been involved with Buxton since 1780, when the 5th Duke used the profits from his copper mines to develop the town as a spa in the style of Bath, their ancestor Bess of Hardwick had taken one of her four husbands, the Earl of Shrewsbury, to "take the waters" at Buxton shortly after he became the gaoler of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1569, they took Mary there in 1573.
She called Buxton "La Fontagne de Bogsby", stayed at the site of the Old Hall Hotel. The area features in the poetry of W. H. Auden and the novels of Jane Austen and Emily Brontë. Instrumental in the popularity of Buxton was the recommendation by Erasmus Darwin of the waters at Buxton and Matlock to Josiah Wedgwood I; the Wedgwood family went to Buxton on holiday and recommended the area to their friends. Two of Charles Darwin's half-cousins, Edward Levett Darwin and Reginald Darwin, settled there; the arrival of the railway in 1863 stimulated the town's growth: the population of 1,800 in 1861 had grown to over 6,000 by 1881. Although outside the National Park boundary, Buxton is geologically in the Peak District and built between the Lower Carboniferous limestone of the White Peak and the Upper Carboniferous shale and gritstone of the Dark Peak; the early settlement was of limestone construction while the present buildings, of locally quarried sandstone date from the late 18th century. At the southern edge of the town the River Wye has carved an extensive limestone cavern, known as Poole's Cavern.
More than 330 yards of its chambers are open to the public. The cavern contains Derbyshire's largest stalactite and there are unique'poached egg' stalagmites. A notorious local highwayman called. At about 1,000 feet above sea level, Buxton is the highest market town in England. Due to this high elevation, Buxton tends to be cooler and much wetter than surrounding towns, with daytime temperature around 2 °C lower than Manchester. A Met Office weather station has collected climate data for the town since 1867, with digitised data from 1959 available online. In June 1975, the town was hit by a freak snowstorm. In the 2011 census, Buxton was 0.6 % Asian, 0.2 % Black, 0.8 % Mixed/multiple. With the increasing popularity of Buxton's thermal waters in the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of buildings were commissioned to provide for the hospitality of tourists retreating to the town; the Old Hall Hotel is one of the oldest buildings in Buxton. It was owned by 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, he and his wife, Bess of Hardwick, were the "gaolers" of Queen of Scots.
She came to Buxton several times to take the waters, the last time in 1584. The present building has a five-bay front with a Tuscan doorway; the Crescent was built between 1780 and 1784, modelled on Bath's Royal Crescent by John Carr along with the neighbouring irregular octagon and colonnade of the Great Stables. The Crescent features a grand assembly room with a fine painted ceiling. Nearby stands the elegant and imposing monument to Samuel Turner, treasurer of the Devonshire Hospital and Buxton Bath Charity, built in 1879 and accidentally lost for the latter part of the 20th century during construction work before being found and restored in 1994; the Crescent has been unoccupied for many years, but plans were in place in 2012 for it to be converted into a hotel. The neighbouring Great Stables were completed in 1789, but in 1859 were converted to a charity hospital for the'sick poor' by Henry Currey, architect to William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire and of St Thomas' Hospital in London.
It became known as the Devonshire Roya
Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury
Sir Francis Talbot, 5th Earl of Shrewsbury, 5th Earl of Waterford, 11th Baron Talbot, KG was the son of George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, Anne Hastings. He held the subsidiary titles of 14th Baron Strange of Blackmere and 10th Baron Furnivall, his maternal grandparents were William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, Katherine Neville. Katherine was a daughter of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury, he succeeded his father in 1538, taking over his father's position as Chamberlain of the Exchequer for life. Though a Roman Catholic, he retained the royal favour during the reign of Henry VIII, received some lands from the dissolution of the monasteries, including those belonging to Worksop Priory. While he took little part in national politics, he was a powerful figure in the North of the kingdom, he took part in the invasion of Scotland which culminated in the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, was made President of the Council of the North in 1549. Under Edward VI he conformed to the reformed religion but it was no secret that his sympathies were with the Catholic faith.
Although not active in national politics he was a member of the King's Council. While he did not oppose the proclamation of Lady Jane Grey as Queen, he certainly worked to persuade the Council to recognise Mary I and was one of the first to voice support for her. Mary rewarded him with a place on her Council, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1545. He married Mary Dacre, daughter of Thomas Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre, on 30 November 1523, they had three children: George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury Anne Talbot, Baroness Bray, Baroness Wharton. Married in 1542 her first husband John Bray, 2nd Baron Bray and heir of Edmund Braye, 1st Baron Braye. There is no evidence. Thomas Talbot He married a second time to daughter of Robert Shakerley, they had one son, Sir John Talbot, born in 1541 in Grafton, England Biography at the Tudor Place
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, was an English nobleman and politician. Although hailing from a family with strong Catholic leanings, he was raised a Protestant, he was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, held many high offices during her reign. Norfolk was the son of Earl of Surrey, he commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage, his father predeceased his grandfather, so Norfolk inherited the Dukedom of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk in 1554. He was a second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, Lady Elizabeth Howard, he was trusted with public office despite his family's history and leanings towards Catholicism. While still young, Norfolk was Queen's Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise.
He negotiated the February 1560 Treaty of Berwick by which the Congregation invited English assistance, after the Treaty of Edinburgh was signed in July of that year he was able to return to the court. Norfolk commissioned Thomas Tallis in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts Spem in alium. Norfolk was the Principal of the commission at York in 1568 to hear evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots presented by Regent Moray, including the casket letters. Having married and lost three wives by 1567, despite having presided at the York commission, Norfolk schemed to marry Mary, Queen of Scots. William Maitland of Lethington favoured the proposed union, Mary herself consented to it, but Norfolk was unwilling to take up arms. While he delayed Elizabeth ordered his arrest in October 1569 and imprisoned him. Following his release in August 1570, after some hesitation, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England.
The plot was revealed to the queen's minister Lord Burghley, after a 1571 trial, Norfolk was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at the Church of St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London. Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was restored to his sons; the title of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations to his great-great-grandson Thomas Howard. Thomas Howard's first wife was Mary FitzAlan, who after the death of her brother Henry in 1556 became heiress to the Arundel estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, she died after a year of marriage, having given birth to a son: Philip Howard, who became the 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that modern Dukes of Norfolk derive their surname of'FitzAlan-Howard' and their seat in Arundel. Though her funeral effigy is found at Framlingham church, Mary FitzAlan was not buried there but first at the church of St. Clement Danes, Temple Bar and under the direction of her grandson's will, at Arundel.
Norfolk next married another heiress, Margaret Audley, widow of Sir Henry Dudley and daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden. Margaret's children by her marriage to Norfolk were: 1st Earl of Suffolk. After Margaret's death in 1563, Norfolk married Elizabeth Leyburne, widow of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gillesland and daughter of Sir James Leyburn. Norfolk's three sons by his first two wives, Philip and William, married Anne and Elizabeth Dacre; the Dacre sisters were the daughters of Elizabeth Leyburne by her marriage to Thomas Dacre and were, stepsisters to Norfolk's sons. Following the death of his third wife, Norfolk made an effort in 1569 to marry Queen of Scots; the marriage, of course, never happened, Norfolk was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth and executed for this. Thomas Howard appears as a character in the Philippa Gregory novels The Virgin's Lover and The Other Queen, in the novel I, Elizabeth by Rosalind Miles. A fictionalized version of the 4th Duke of Norfolk appears as a villain, played by Christopher Eccleston, in the 1998 film Elizabeth.
Another version of the Duke is in the BBC mini-series The Virgin Queen, played by Kevin McKidd. In the Channel 4 documentary Elizabeth presented by David Starkey, the Duke is portrayed by actor John Gully. Dukes of Norfolk family tree John George Howard, a Toronto architect who claims to be related to the Duke. Edwards, Francis; the marvellous chance: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk, the Ridolphi plot, 1570-1572. ISBN 0-246-64474-5. "Murdin, William: Collection of State Papers, 1571-1596". London. 1759. Papers from Norfolk's treason trial 1568-1572. Williams, Neville. Thomas Howard, Fourth duke of Norfolk. ASIN B0007DRE5Y. William Cooke Taylor, ed.. Thomas Howard: Fourth Duke of Norfolk; the Benedictine Brethren of Glendalough. ISBN 1-4254-6159-X. "Howard, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland
Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland, 12th Baron de Ros of Helmsley, KG, of Belvoir Castle, was created Earl of Rutland by King Henry VIII in 1525. Thomas was the son of Sir George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros by his wife Anne St Leger, his maternal grandparents were Sir Thomas St Leger and Anne of York, a daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. She was thus an elder sister of Kings Edward IV and of his brother and eventual successor, Richard III. Another of her brothers was Edmund, Earl of Rutland, her nieces and nephews included Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk, Margaret of York and George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence. Elizabeth of York married Henry Tudor and was the mother of Henry VIII and grandmother of Elizabeth I. On 22 June 1513 Thomas landed at Calais on the French expedition. In 1513 he became Baron Ros aged 16 or 17, on his father's death and was summoned in 1515 to Parliament, he was at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520 and at King Henry VIII's meeting with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor afterwards.
In December 1521 he became cupbearer to the king. In January 1522 he was made steward of Pickering and from April to October of the same year he held the appointment of Lord Warden of the East Marches, in which he was succeeded by Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, he received the wardenship of Sherwood Forest on 12 July 1524, an office which afterwards became hereditary in his family. He was appointed a Knight of the Garter on 24 April 1525 and on 18 June 1525 he was made Earl of Rutland, a title held by members of the house of York, he was a great favourite of King Henry VIII and received many grants, including the keepership of Enfield Chase on 12 July 1526, Belvoir Castle, which remains the chief seat of his family. On 11 October 1532 he landed with the king in France, he was at the coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn in 1533 and took part in her trial. Rutland was engaged in meeting the Pilgrimage of Grace, he held a joint command with the Earls of Huntingdon and Shrewsbury and marched to Nottingham and thence to Newark and Doncaster against the northern rebels.
He was steward of many monasteries, from his various ancestors had claims through their having founded certain of the houses. Hence at the Dissolution of the Monasteries he received numerous grants of monastic property. In Leicestershire he obtained Charley, by exchange, Croxton. Jointly with Robert Tyrwhit, he obtained Belvoir and Kyme in Lincolnshire, in Yorkshire Nun Burnham; when Anne of Cleves came to England to marry the king, Rutland was appointed her lord chamberlain and met her at Shooter's Hill on her approach to Greenwich Palace, after her unfortunate interview with the king at Rochester. In 1542 he became constable of Nottingham Castle, he went to the border again on 7 August 1542 as Warden of the Marches, but was recalled, in consequence of illness, in November of the same year. From Newark-on-Trent he wrote on 7 November to the Council of the North: "As Gode best knows, I ame in a poyur and febvll estat", he died on 20 September 1543. Manners, about two months before receipt of his earldom, was nominated by Henry VIII a Knight of the Garter in 1525.
His Garter stall plate of brass inlaid with coloured enamel, survives in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. It is inscribed: Thoms lord roosse, Erle of rotteland. Above the escutcheon, circumscribed by the Garter, is the crest of Manners: A peacock in pride; the arms displayed are: quarterly: 1 and 4, or, two bars azure a chief quarterly of the last and gules, on the 1st and 4th, two fleurs-de-lis or, on the 2nd and 3rd, a lion passant guardant or. The marriage ended in 1513. Secondly in about 1523 he married Eleanor Paston, daughter of Sir William Paston of Norfolk, by whom he had the following progeny: Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland Sir John Manners, of Haddon Hall, husband of Dorothy Vernon, grandfather of John Manners, 8th Earl of Rutland and great-grandfather of John Manners, 1st Duke of Rutland and Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury. Sir Thomas Manners, grandfather of Thomas Vavasour, 1st Baronet. Roger Manners, Esq. died unmarried Oliver Manners, Esq. Gertrude Manners, who married George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury and was the mother of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury and Edward Talbot, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury.
Anne Manners, who married Henry Neville, 5th Earl of Westmorland and was the mother of Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland. Frances Manners, who married Henry Nevill, 6th Baron Bergavenny and was grandmother of Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland. Katherine Manners, who married Sir Henry Capell, Sheriff of Essex. Elizabeth Manners, who married Sir John Savage of Rocksavage, whose mother was Elizabeth Somerset, daughter of Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester by his wife Elizabeth Herbert, 3rd Baroness Herbert, she was the grandmother of Thomas Savage, 1st Viscount Savage and the great-grandmother of John Savage, 1st Earl Riv
Earl of Shrewsbury
Earl of Shrewsbury is a hereditary title of nobility created twice in the Peerage of England. The second earldom dates to 1442; the holder of the Earldom of Shrewsbury holds the title of Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland and Earl Talbot in the Peerage of Great Britain. Shrewsbury and Waterford are the oldest earldoms in their peerages held by someone with no higher title, as such the Earl of Shrewsbury is sometimes described as the premier earl of England and Ireland; the first creation occurred in 1074 for Roger de Montgomerie, one of William the Conqueror's principal counselors. He was one of the Marcher Lords, with the Earl of Hereford and the Earl of Chester, a bulwark against the Welsh. Roger was succeeded in 1094 by his younger son Hugh, his elder son Robert of Bellême succeeding to his lands in Normandy. On Hugh’s death in 1098 the earldom passed to his brother Robert; the title was forfeit in 1102 after the 3rd Earl, rebelled against Henry I and joined Robert Curthose's invasion of England in 1101.
These earls were sometimes styled Earl of Shropshire. The title was created for a second time in 1442 when John Talbot, 7th Baron Talbot, an English general in the Hundred Years' War, was made Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England, he was made hereditary Lord High Steward of Ireland and, in 1446, Earl of Waterford in the Peerage of Ireland. John Talbot, the first Earl, was succeeded by his son John, the second Earl, who had succeeded as seventh Baron Furnivall on his mother's death in 1433. Lord Shrewsbury served as both Lord Chancellor of Lord High Treasurer of England, he was killed at the Battle of Northampton in 1460 during the Wars of the Roses. His grandson, the fourth Earl, was Lord Steward of the Household between 1509 and 1538, his son, the fifth Earl, was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1533, five years before he succeeded his father. On his death the titles passed to the sixth Earl, he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration as Lord Talbot in 1553.
Lord Shrewsbury was entrusted with the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots, served as Earl Marshal from 1572 to 1590. He married as his second wife the famous Bess of Hardwick. Shrewsbury was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Lady Gertrude Manners, the seventh Earl, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Derbyshire. He had no sons and on his death in 1616 the baronies of Talbot, Strange of Blackmere and Furnivall fell into abeyance between his three daughters, he was succeeded in the earldoms by the eighth Earl. He was Member of Parliament for Northumberland, he was succeeded by his distant relative, the ninth Earl. He was the great-great-grandson of third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury; the family bought Barlow Woodseats Hall in 1593 as part of the estate. He was succeeded by his nephew, the tenth Earl and Lord of Grafton, he was the son of John Talbot of Grafton. On his death the titles passed to the eleventh Earl, he was killed in a duel with George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. His son, the twelfth Earl, was a prominent statesman.
He was one of the Immortal Seven who in 1688 invited William of Orange to invade England and depose his father-in-law James II and served under William and Mary as Secretary of State for the Southern Department and Secretary of State for the Northern Department. In 1694 he was created Marquess of Duke of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England; the Duke was childless and on his death in 1718 the marquessate and dukedom became extinct. He was succeeded in his other titles by the thirteenth Earl, he was the son of second son of the tenth Earl. Lord Shrewsbury was in the Holy Orders of the Church of Rome. On his death the titles passed to the fourteenth Earl, he was succeeded by his nephew Charles, the fifteenth Earl. He began in 1812 the creation of the extensive gardens at Alveton Lodge, Staffordshire which estate had been in the family since the 15th century; when he died the titles were inherited by his nephew John, the sixteenth Earl, the son of the Hon. John Joseph Talbot; when in 1831 the principal home of the family at Heythrop, Oxfordshire was destroyed by fire he moved the family seat to Alton Towers.
The sixteenth Earl was a noted patron of A W N Pugin. He was succeeded by Bertram, his second cousin once removed, the seventeenth Earl, the great-grandson of the Hon. George Talbot, younger son of the aforementioned Gilbert Talbot, second son of the tenth Earl. Bertram died unmarried at an early age in 1856. By his will he left his estates to Lord Edmund Howard, son of the Duke of Norfolk, but the will was contested by three distant relatives and after a long and expensive legal case the House of Lords ruled in 1860 in favour of Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 3rd Earl Talbot, who thus became the eighteenth Earl of Shrewsbury and Waterford, he was a descendant of the aforementioned the Hon. Sir Gilbert Talbot, third son of the second Earl of Shrewsbury (see the Earl Tal