Lupus Hellinck was a Flemish composer of the Renaissance. He was a prominent composer of masses, as well as motets. Although he was a Roman Catholic all of his life, his music shows evidence of sympathy for the Protestant Reformation, three of his motets—including a famous setting of In te domine speravi—were inspired by the prison writings of the martyred reformer Girolamo Savonarola. Hellinck was born in Axel. Little else is known about him until he appears as a choirboy in Bruges at St. Donatian on 24 March 1506, he left in 1511 to go to school, returning to St. Donatian in 1513 as a cleric, where he stayed until 1515; until nothing was known of his activities for the next four years, but in 1989 some records from the Vatican archives were published that showed that he spent this time in Rome. One of these documents, dated April 1518, gave his age as 24, which gives a birth date of 1493 or 1494. During this time he was a member of the household of Pope Leo X, around 1518 he was ordained as a priest.
A further confusion, not definitively solved, is that music theorist and writer Vincenzo Galilei, father of the astronomer, included a "Lupus" from northern Europe in a list of distinguished musicians in the 1513 court of Leo X. By June 1518 Hellinck was in Ferrara, in the employ of Sigismondo d'Este. In 1521 he became a succentor at the nearby Church of Our Lady, he returned again to St. Donatian in 1523 to serve in the same position there. Hellinck seems to have remained in Bruges for the rest of his life. One event, recorded gives an indication of his attitude towards the Protestant Reformation: his participation, in 1539, in a dramatic competition at Ghent, in a production of a play, placed by the Catholic Church on the Index of banned books. Along with his distributed setting of In te domine speravi, his two settings of the Miserere, all of which have been seen as tributes to the executed reformer Savonarola, this indicates his sympathy, if not his active participation in the movement for ecclesiastical reform.
Hellinck wrote masses, German chorales, French chansons, songs in Dutch. All of his masses use the parody technique, many are derived from his own motets. Stylistically they are contrapuntal and unified, with many passages repeated in whole or part. Contrasting homophonic sections appear: for example, the passage et incarnatus est is set in slow-moving chords, a effective procedure used by Josquin des Prez, as in his Missa Pange Lingua. Hellinck's closing "Agnus Dei" sections are made up of material heard earlier in the mass, unifying the entire composition thematically in a way which foreshadowed compositional procedures hundreds of years later. Hellinck's motets have attracted scholarly attention in modern times because of their possible relation to the writings of Savonarola. Hellinck spent time in Ferrara, the birthplace of the reformer, in the Este court where Savonarola was still regarded, where criticism of the papal establishment was possible, at least in guarded ways. While in prison, after being tortured on the rack, within several days of his execution, Savonarola wrote two impassioned meditations on the psalms, Infelix ego and Tristitia obsedit me.
However, prior to these texts being used in compositions verbatim, composers alluded to them in hidden ways: such is the case in Hellinck's motets based on psalms 30 and 50, as it was in Josquin's own famous setting of the Miserere. The three of Hellinck's motets which were Savonarola-inspired were all written in Ferrara. In te domine speravi most dates from 1518 or 1519, although it may have been written shortly after his return to Bruges; the first of two settings of the Miserere, Miserere mei deus, based on a collection of diverse psalm verses and stylistically reminiscent of Josquin's Miserere setting, exists in an Italian source copied around 1520, thus was composed in Ferrara. The other, Miserere mei domine, is based on Psalm 6, again is reminiscent of Josquin's setting, which itself was composed in Ferrara two decades earlier. In his life Hellinck wrote 11 German chorale settings in a motet style; the chorale tune differs little from the other voices rhythmically. The existence of these pieces testifies to his support for the Protestant Reformation.
Hellinck Missa Surrexit pastor Johannes Lupi Te Deum, motets. The Brabant Ensemble Stephen Rice. Hyperion 2020 Bonnie J. Blackburn: "Lupus Hellinck", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, Patrick Macey, Bonfire Songs: Savonarola's Musical Legacy. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1998. ISBN 0-19-816669-9 Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Free scores by Lupus Hellinck in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores by Lupus Hellinck at the International Music Score Library Project
Masolino da Panicale was an Italian painter. His best known works are his collaborations with Masaccio: Madonna with Child and St. Anne and the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel. Masolino was born in Panicale near Florence, he may have been an assistant to Ghiberti in Florence between 1403 and 1407. In 1423, he joined the Florentine guild Arte dei Medici e Speziali, which included painters as an independent branch, he may have been the first artist to create oil paintings in the 1420s, rather than Jan van Eyck in the 1430s, as was supposed. He spent many years traveling, including a trip to Hungary from September 1425 to July 1427 under the patronage of Pipo of Ozora, a mercenary captain, he was selected by Pope Martin V on the return of the papacy to Rome in 1420 to paint the altarpiece for his family chapel in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, by Cardinal Branda da Castiglione to paint the Saint Catherine Chapel in the Basilica of San Clemente, Rome. In the interim, he collaborated with his younger colleague, Masaccio, to paint the frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in the Basilica of Santa Maria del Carmine, which were much admired by fellow artists throughout the fifteenth century.
He painted a cycle of 300 famous historical figures in the Orsini Palace in Rome about 1433-4 and worked in Todi. He spent his years, after 1435, working for Cardinal Branda Castiglione in Castiglione Olona. Masolino was the first painter to make use of a central Vanishing point in his 1423 painting St. Peter Healing a Cripple and the Raising of Tabitha. Section includes external links to works of art. Complete works In Naples: Miracle of the Snow, commissioned by Branda da Castiglione for the dedication of the Basilica of St Mary Major, ca. 1423, National Museum and Gallery of Capodimonte. In Germany: Madonna and Child, tempera on wood, Alte Pinakothek. Madonna and Child, tempera on panel in Kunsthalle Bremen. In Florence: Cappella Brancacci: cycle of frescoes in collaboration with Masaccio, 1424. Madonna and Child, Saint Anne and the Angels, collaboration with Masaccio, tempera on wood, 1424, Florence. Madonna dell ` Umiltà, tempera on wood, 1430 -- Uffizi. In Empoli: Cristo in Pietà, detached fresco, 1424, museum of the Collegiata di Sant'Andrea.
Saint Ivo and the Pupils, fresco, 1424, Church of Saint Steven. Virgin and Child, fresco, 1424, Church of Saint Steven. In Rome: Fresco of the Life of St Catherine of Alexandria commissioned by Branda da Castiglione in the Basilica di San Clemente, Chapel of Sacrament, 1428. Fresco of the Annunciation in the Basilica di San Clemente, Chapel of Sacrament, 1428. Fresco of St Christopher in the Basilica di San Clemente, Chapel of Sacrament, 1428. Death of the Virgin and Crucifixion, Pinacoteca Vaticana. In Castiglione Olona, where his patron was cardinal Branda da Castiglione: Hungarian Landscape in the Palazzo Branda Castiglione. Story of the Virgin in the Collegiata. Frescoes depicting the Life of St. John the Baptist in the Baptistery of Castiglione Olona. In France: Scenes from the Legend of Saint Julian the Hospitaller, tempera on wood, 21 x 39 cm, Musée Ingres. In the United States: The Annunciation oil and tempera on wood 148 x 115 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C; the Archangel Gabriel and The Virgin Annunciate, both ca.
1430, tempera on panel, National Gallery of Art. Dispersed pieces of works Lateral panels of an altarpiece with The Ascension at the center, from Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, ca. 1427–28, started by Masaccio and completed by Masolino after his death: Saints John the Evangelist and Martin of Tours, Saints Paul and Peter, Philadelphia Museum of Art. Masolino da Panicale at Panopticon Virtual Art Gallery Masolino da Panicale on Artcyclopedia Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Masolino da Panicale". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Masolino da Panicale". Alte Pinakothek. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 2014-03-11