The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and it remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st-century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of December 2019, there are 75 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 13 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels. It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do; the total displacement of the Royal Navy is 439,200 tonnes.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based: Portsmouth and Devonport, the last being the largest operational naval base in Western Europe; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. There is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a "raiding-ship army" which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion and ravaging of England by Jarl Osborn and his sons Harald and Bjorn. In addition to the ravaging of the English townships of Dover, Sandwich
Woza Albert! is a political satire play that imagines the second coming of Christ during the apartheid-era in South Africa. The play opened at Johannesburg's Market Theater and toured in Europe and America as the most successful play to come out of South Africa, winning more than 20 prestigious awards worldwide. In 2003 it was produced by Terence Frisby at the Criterion Theatre in London. Woza Albert! was written by Percy Mtwa, Mbongeni Ngema, Barney Simon in 1981. In 2002, it was performed in London by Errol Ndotho; the two actors play roles of various black South Africans - a vendor, servant, manual labourer, soldier - receiving the news that Christ has arrived in South Africa, where a Calvinist white elite imposes apartheid. Christ's arrival precipitates a crisis, the government launches a nuclear bomb against the peacemaker. In the ruins, great South African leaders in resistance to apartheid such as Albert Luthuli, former president of the African National Congress, are resurrected, they play dozens of parts that involve them using many skills such as acting, mime and dance.
They create images using a few words and actions. The play is an example of Workshop Theater, a rather popular style of performance in South Africa at the time as it allowed people to come together to create a performance that they were passionate about. A film was made following the success of the play. A BBC-TV team, led by David M. Thompson, undertook the filming of the movie while in South Africa to film elections in 1981. Equipment was scant, as was time, but nonetheless the film captured the performances that are the core of the film. WOZA ALBERT! Salem British Theatre Guide
Marmara Ereğlisi LNG Storage Facility is an above-ground liquefied natural gas tanks facility in Tekirdağ Province, northwestern Turkey. The LNG storage facility is located in Marmara Ereğlisi, 35 km east of Tekirdağ and 95 km west of Istanbul, it is part of an LNG terminal operated by the state-owned natural gas distributor BOTAŞ, where LNG carriers at a discharge port pump the imported cargo ashore. LNG is stored in tanks and regasified to convey to the main pipeline system as needed; the project for the construction of the LNG storage facility launched in 1984. The facility went into service in August 1994. In 2007, six filling platforms were added for tank trucks having 20–50 m3 capacity. Three filling platforms are able to fill up daily 75 tanker trucks. With the completion of an additional fourth storage tank in 2019, country's LNG storage capacity will increase by 30%; the expansion will increase the total storage capacity of the facility about 50% up to 27,000,000 m3 with extra 9,000,000 m3.