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George of Poděbrady

George of Kunštát and Poděbrady known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad, was King of Bohemia. He was a leader of the Hussites, he is known for his attempt to establish common European institutions. It is seen as the first historical vision of European unity. George was the son of Victor of Munsterberg, a Bohemian nobleman, one of the leaders of the Utraquists, the more moderate faction of the Hussites during the Hussite Wars. At the age of fourteen, George himself took part in the Battle of Lipany, which marked the downfall of the more radical Taborites. Early in life, as one of the leaders of the Hussite party, he defeated the Austrian troops of the King Albert II, who had succeeded King Sigismund as King of Bohemia and Hungary. Jiří soon became a prominent member of the Hussite party, after the death of Hynce Ptáček of Pirkstein, its leader. King Albert was succeeded by his posthumously born son Ladislaus, during whose reign Bohemia was divided into two parties: the party faithful to Rome, led by Oldřich of Rosenberg, the Hussite party, led by George.

After various attempts at reconciliation, George sought a military decision. He raised an armed force in north-eastern Bohemia, where the Hussites were strong and where his ancestral castle Litice was situated. In 1448, he marched this army, about 9000 strong, from Kutná Hora to Prague, obtained possession of the capital without resistance. Civil war broke out. In 1451 the emperor Frederick III, as guardian of the young king Ladislaus, entrusted Poděbrad with the administration of Bohemia. In the same year a diet assembled at Prague conferred the regency on George; the struggle of the Hussites against the papal party continued uninterruptedly, the position of George became a difficult one when the young king Ladislaus, crowned in 1453, expressed his pro-Roman sympathies, though he had recognized the compacts and the ancient privileges of Bohemia. In 1457 King Ladislaus died and some voices accused George of having poisoned him. Research in 1985 gave acute leukemia as the cause of death. On 2 March 1458 the estates of Bohemia unanimously chose George as king.

The adherents of the papal party voted for him, some in honour of his moderate policies, some out of deference to popular feeling, which opposed the election of a foreign ruler. George attempted to rule in a moderate manner based on the Compacta of Prague, he won the loyalty of some Catholics, but had to contend with the opposition of Pope Pius II, which proved one of the most serious obstacles to his rule. Pius wished George to consent to this. George rejected this demand but endeavoured to curry favour with the Roman See by punishing the more extreme Hussites. George attempted to secure peace with Rome by a radical suggestion, which some consider to have been a proposal before its time of a European Union, he proposed a treaty among all Christian powers, Poland, Lands of Bohemian Crown, Bavaria and Italy and its princes the founding members, but others the Hispanic powers, joining later. The member states would pledge to settle all differences by peaceful means. There was to be other common institutions.

George couched the proposal in Christian terms as a way to stop the "abominable Turk" who had conquered Constantinople in 1453. He sent Leo of Rozmital on a tour of European courts with a draft treaty of The message of peace to promote this idea. George hoped that the treaty would come into effect in 1464, it is seen as one of historical visions of European unity foreshadowing the European Union. That did not happen. All George's endeavours to establish peace with Rome proved ineffectual, although Pius II's plan of a crusade against Bohemia remained unexecuted. After Pius' death in 1464, George attempted to negotiate with the new pope, Paul II, but Paul proved to be an determined opponent. George made enemies among the nobles of the papal party, who assembled at Zelená Hora on 28 November 1465 to voice their grievances and conclude an alliance against the king; this alliance was from the outset supported by Pope Paul II and on 23 December 1466 the Pope excommunicated George and pronounced his deposition as king of Bohemia, releasing all subjects of the Bohemian crown from their oaths of allegiance to George.

Emperor Frederick III and the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, George's former ally, joined the insurgent Bohemian nobles, starting the Bohemian War. King Matthias conquered a large part of Moravia, was crowned by the papal party in the Moravian ecclesiastical metropolis Olomouc as king of Bohemia on 3 May 1469. George was successful against Matthias but, contrary to the wishes of his followers, came to an agreement with the Hungarian king in 1470, he died on 22 March 1471 and his followers chose Vladislaus II, the son of the Polish king, as his successor to continue the fight against Matthias. During the World War I, early in 1917, was created 2nd Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment of the Czechoslovak legions in Russia and named after "King George of Podebrady". In 1440 he married Kunigunde of Sternberg. Married to 1. Margaret Ptáček 2. Sophie of Silesian Piast 3. Helen Margaret Palaiologina, daughter of John IV, Marquess of Montferrat. Barbara, married firstly to Henry of Lipé and secondly to John of Ronov Henry the Elder, married Ursula of Brandenbu

Caribou Fire

The Caribou Fire was a wildfire in the Kootenai National Forest, 21 miles northwest of Eureka, Montana in the United States. The fire, first reported on August 11, 2017, was started by a lightning strike and burned a total of 24,753 acres, including 2,761 acres acres in Canada; the fire threatened the community of West Kootenai, resulting in a mandatory evacuation of the community. It destroyed 10 homes; the Caribou Fire was one three fires burning in the forest, alongside the Gibralter Fire and Weasel Fire. The Caribou Fire was reported on August 11, 2017, at 10:51 AM, 21 miles northwest of Eureka in the Yaak Area of Kootenai National Forest, it was started by a lightning strike in the upper reaches of Robinson Mountain. It was fueled by dead and downed spruce. Crews estimated the fire had burned 520 acres by August 24, leading fire crews to begin mopping and patrolling for flare ups; the fire resulted in the forest instituting a Stage II Fire Restriction prohibiting fire and stove fire use of any kind except for those from liquid petroleum or propane.

The fire's expansion towards the Canadian border launched coordination between Canadian officials and an aircraft was used to drop fire retardant. As the fire expanded 1,257 acres, crews worked to keep the fire south of the Canadian border using air and ground resources to create fire lines. By August 28, the fire had expanded.25 miles into Canada, with 90% remaining in the U. S. Canadian fire managers launched contingency lines; the Caribou Fire continued to grow northeast, with fire lines passing into the Young J Fire area that burned in 2000. Canadian authorities named the fire burning in Canada the Linklater Fire. Basin Yaak Rd. to Dodge Summit and Caribou Creek Campground were closed. By September 1, the Caribou Fire had grown to 4,818 acres; the next day, the fire moved east towards Forest Road 303, threatening 400 structures and prompting mandatory orders for West Kootenai, Montana. Overnight, the fire doubled in size to 6,785 acres, expanding four miles northeast, destroying a number of structures.

On September 5, property owners who suffered damage or destruction of structures were escorted by the Lincoln County Sheriffs' Department to assess their properties. Protection measures were put in place in the Basin Creek area and pre-evacuation orders were put in place for the West Kootenai area south of Tooley Lake and Basin Creek. Upon further inspection, 10 homes and 30 outbuildings were destroyed in the West Kootenai. Crews used heavy equipment to improve fire lines around West Kootenai and firefighters patrolled homes at night from spot fires. By September 7, the Caribou Fire was 20,631 acres and was 27% contained, with 18,317 acres in the U. S. and 2,314 acres burned. Evacuation orders were lifted on September 10. Canadian scooper planes brought water to help slow fire growth, dropping 140,800 gallons of water in one day. One firefighter was injured on September 15, sustaining injuries from a snag on their left shoulder and neck, they were released the same day after evaluation at a hospital.

Restoration and rehabilitation began in late fall, including the felling of hazard trees along roads and the fire perimeter. Over 200 miles of roads were repaired; the fire was declared 100% contained on November 2, 2017. It burned a total of 24,753 acres. Gibralter Fire Weasel Fire

William Coverdale (architect)

William Coverdale was an English-born carpenter and architect in Canada West. The son of Christopher Coverdale, he came to Kingston, Upper Canada around 1833; the family is thought to have come to Lower Canada around 1810. Coverdale had five children, he worked as master carpenter on the construction of Kingston Penitentiary. In 1859, Coverdale became architect for the construction of the Kingston Asylum, he oversaw the construction of Kingston's Town Hall from 1844 and prepared plans for rebuilding of the rear wing after it burned in 1865. He drew up plans for several large residences and a number of churches are still in use. Coverdale died in Kingston in 1865. Designated heritage buildings associated with Coverdale include: Kingston Penitentiary Sydenham Street United Church Prince George Hotel Roselawn National Historic Site of Canada Anglican Diocesan Centre in Kingston St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church Portsmouth Community Correctional Centre St. Helen's Complex in Kingston "Coverdale, William".

Biographical Dictionary of Architects in Canada 1800 - 1950<