Unic was a French manufacturer founded in 1905, and active as an automobile producer until July 1938. Unic was founded by Georges Richard after he left Richard-Brasier, in 1905 Richard had a meeting with the entrepreneur-financier Baron Henri de Rothschild and obtained funding for the creation of the société anonyme des automobiles Unic, based at Puteaux. The objective was to manufacture unique vehicles, and at the start the company made only light cars, although the manufacturers initial range was restricted to light cars, their popularity as taxis led to the production of delivery vans and other small utility style vehicles. The 1943 cc 12 CV four-cylinder model was successful and survived in production for nearly 20 years. During World War I, taxis made by the company participated in the Marne operation, after World War I, a new four-cylinder was offered, along with the taxis. In 1922 the firm introduced a truck, called the Unic MSC. 1922 was the year when the founder of Unic, Georges Richard, died while awaiting transfer to a Paris clinic, Georges Dubois, hitherto in charge of vehicle testing, took on responsibility for the business.
During the 1920s, a 1997 cc sports model was marketed, by the time of the 19th Paris Motor Show, in October 1924, Unic were exhibiting three passenger cars. This was an evolution of the two litre model exhibited in 1924, now branded as the Unic Type L9, with a 3,150 mm wheelbase, for the 1929 model year attention was now focused on the companys first 8-cylinder model. The new Unic 14 CV/HP Type H1 featured a 2½-litre straight-8 power unit and it was priced at 55,000 francs in bare chassis form. October 1933 was nevertheless the last time an 8-cylinder passenger car would appear on the Unic show stand, for the next few years the company focused on 4-cylinder cars in the 11 CV/HP tax band, just as they had through the mid-1920s. For 1934 Unic announced their new Type U4 model, featuring a 2-litre side-valve engine, in addition to this passenger car, Unic continued to produce through 1934 a similarly sized taxi of great robustness. By this time the car range was down to just these two models. The Unic Type U4D was a four-cylinder 2,150 car which featured overhead valves and offered a maximum output of 55 hp, the appeal of Unic passenger cars by this time derived not from technical brilliance nor from stunning originality.
Those who appreciated the cars were impressed by excellent reliability resulting from an approach taken during the production process. Also admired were their elegant spacious bodies, most of which came from the coach builder Letourneur et Marchand or from their subsidiary, Unic cars by now were not being sold in large numbers and this was reflected in the price. At the 1937 Motor Show the standard steel-bodied Unic Type U-4 D with its 12CV engine was priced at 53,750 francs. Few customers in this class were willing to pay the price for the Unics virtues of dependability and space, after 1938 Unic concentrated in the truck business, being one of the leading French makes
Bentley Mark V
The Bentley Mark V was Rolls-Royces second Bentley model. Intended to have announced at the Earls Court Motor Show set down for late October 1939 it had much in common with its predecessor. War was declared on 3 September 1939 and a few days Bentley announced it had ceased production of civilian items, the Mark V was sold only as a bare chassis to be fitted with an owners own coachbuilder. It proved to be the last Derby Bentley, after the war moved to Crewe. Piston crowns were raised and rectangular combustion chambers provided, externally an oil filter was mounted on the forward right hand side. Without a beam axle the engine could be mounted forward and particular care was taken to mount it so as to minimise noise. The engine displaced 4¼-litres with an 88.9 mm bore and 114.3 mm stroke, syncromesh was provided on all ratios but first and reverse. Previously it had provided on just third and fourth speeds. This proved a very welcome refinement adding greatly to the pleasure of driving the car.
The gear change lever was moved closer to the driver by the seat squab. The clutch employed an improved design, a new divided transmission shaft eased potential vibration problems. This was the first Bentley to dispense with a front beam axle. It followed Rolls-Royces lead from 1936 and instead used a new design of independent front suspension in its new chassis. Low rate open coil springs sat within pairs of triangulated wishbones holding the front wheels at their outer point. The upper wishbones acted on a hydraulic damper, the arms at the bottom were set wide apart so that the rearward one could act as a torque member under braking. These assemblies on each side were linked by a strong anti-roll bar, by Girling using Rolls-Royces mechanical servo assistance. 57% of the effort was now applied to the front of the car, Chassis B-24-AW Thirty five MK V Chassis were manufactured numbered B-2-AW through to B-70-AW with even numbers only being used. Mark V, seventeen cars completed Corniche MK V, One car completed, the chassis number given was 14-BV Some consider Marks I, II and III to have been Rolls-Royce development vehicles and therefore Mark IV the first Derby 3½-litre and 4¼-litre Bentleys
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, or the Secret State Police, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe. The force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security agencies of Prussia into one organization. Then from 27 September 1939 forward, it was administered by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt and was considered an organization to the SS Sicherheitsdienst. This gave Göring command of the largest police force in Germany, soon afterward, Göring detached the political and intelligence sections from the police and filled their ranks with Nazis. On 26 April 1933, Göring merged the two units as the Geheime Staatspolizei, which was abbreviated for a stamp and became known as the Gestapo. He originally wanted to name it the Secret Police Office, and its first commander was Rudolf Diels, a protégé of Göring. Diels was appointed with the title of chief of Abteilung Ia of the Political Police of the Prussian Interior Ministry, Diels was best known as the primary interrogator of Marinus van der Lubbe after the Reichstag fire.
In late 1933, the Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick wanted to integrate all the forces of the German states under his control. Göring outflanked him by removing the Prussian political and intelligence departments from the interior ministry. Göring himself took over the Gestapo in 1934 and urged Hitler to extend the agencys authority throughout Germany and this represented a radical departure from German tradition, which held that law enforcement was a Land and local matter. In this, he ran into conflict with Heinrich Himmler, who was chief of the second most powerful German state. Frick did not have the muscle to take on Göring by himself so he allied with Himmler, with Fricks support, Himmler took over the political police of state after state. Concerned that Diels was not ruthless enough to counteract the power of the Sturmabteilung, Göring handed over control of the Gestapo to Himmler on 20 April 1934. Also on that date, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of all German police outside Prussia, named chief of the Gestapo by Himmler on 22 April 1934, continued as head of the SS Security Service.
Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from Roehm, who he viewed as an obstacle, roehms position was menacing as upwards of over 4. Several Nazi chieftains, among them Goering, Joseph Goebbels, Rudolf Hess, both the SD and Gestapo released information concerning an imminent putsch by the SA. Once persuaded, Hitler acted by setting Himmlers SS into action, on 17 June 1936, Hitler decreed the unification of all police forces in the Reich and named Himmler as Chief of German Police. This action effectively merged the police into the SS and removed it from Fricks control, Himmler was nominally subordinate to Frick as police chief, but as Reichsführer-SS, he answered only to Hitler
A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for automobiles or a manufacturer of complete horse-drawn vehicles. Coachwork is the body of a vehicle, a horse-drawn coach or carriage, or, by extension. The term is reserved for bodies built on a separate chassis. With reference to motor vehicles, auto body is the term in North American English. Coachbuilders are, carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, karosseriebauer in German, a British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630. Some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established even earlier, rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Annes Guards, Brewster a relative newcomer, formed in 1810. This chassis would be delivered by the manufacturer to the coachbuilder of the buyers choice, the chassis would be a rolling chassis which included the chassis frame, brakes, complete steering system including the wheel, radiator and dashboard.
The manufacturer delivered the chassis with lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards, the very easily damaged honeycomb radiator and protected by a shell, became the main visual element identifying the chassis brand. The manufacturer retained an element of control over bodies, bodies not approved by the chassis manufacturer would lose the chassis manufacturers chassis warranties. Until the second World War it would not have been unusual to order the most popular cars as only a chassis and have a local coachbuilder put a body on it for you, the Austin 7s of the 1920s and 1930s were favourite subjects. For example, Fisher Body built all of Cadillacs closed bodies in the 1910s, though automobile manufacturers brought body building skills in-house, the practice of bespoke or custom coachbuilding remained in favour among the wealthy, who continued the habit of centuries past. All ultra-luxury vehicles sold as chassis only, for instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni & Falaschi, the advent of unibody construction, where the car body is unified with, and structurally integral to the chassis, made custom coachbuilding practically impossible. Hermann Graber Ramsauer & Cie, known as Worblaufen after the place they were built, mulliner Park Ward Mulliners Nu-Track Park Ward Harold Radford Salmons Swallow Tickford Tilbury, originators of the Tilbury carriage. Thrupp & Maberly Vanden Plas Vincent of Reading Windover Wingham Martin Walter Walter Alexander & Sons, now Alexander Dennis Ltd Wrightbus James Young Brewster & Co. Brunn Budd Company Derham Earl Automobile Works Fisher Fleetwood KEM Motorworks LeBaron Locke N2A motors Inc. a Langmesser Co. Murphy Rollston Willoughby
The Resistance medal was a decoration bestowed by the French Committee of National Liberation, based in the United Kingdom, during World War II. The Resistance medal was awarded to approximately 38,288 living persons and 24,463 posthumously and these awards were both for membership in the Free French forces and for participation in the metropolitan clandestine Resistance during the German occupation of France in World War II. Higher deeds were rewarded with the Ordre de la Libération, proposals for the medal ceased to be accepted on 31 March 1947. For acts that occurred in Indochina, that date was moved back to 31 December 1947, the Resistance medal may be revoked by decree following any act contrary to honour or integrity, whether committed prior to or after bestowal of the medal. The Resistance medal is a 37mm in diameter circular medal struck from bronze, the reverse bears the relief image of an unfurling ribbon bearing the relief inscription in Latin PATRIA NON IMMEMOR translating into THE NATION DOES NOT FORGET.
The suspension is cast as an part of the medal. A 28mm in diameter rosette is on the ribbon of the Officer of the Resistance medal
National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race and it aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of racial purity. The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, the Nazi Partys precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation, following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. The full name of Adolf Hitlers party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word national.
The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a peasant, characterizing an awkward. It derived from Ignaz, being a version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the name, Nationalsozialistische. The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to reappropriate the term, the use of Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, and so on was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a name for the ideology the party advocated. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics, far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler and other proponents officially portrayed Nazism as being neither left- nor right-wing, but the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach.
It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms, a major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organisations that engaged in political violence after World War I. The Nazis stated the alliance was purely tactical and there remained substantial differences with the DNVP, the Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections in 1932, the alliance broke after the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag, the Nazis denounced them as an insignificant heap of reactionaries. The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their violence. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, there were factions in the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department, Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region. Its inhabitants are called Manceaux and Mancelles, since 1923, the city has hosted the internationally famous 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance sports car race. First mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, the Roman city Vindinium was the capital of the Aulerci, Le Mans is known as Civitas Cenomanorum, or Cenomanus. Their city, seized by the Romans in 47 BC, was within the ancient Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis, a 3rd-century amphitheatre is still visible. The thermae were demolished during the crisis of the century when workers were mobilized to build the citys defensive walls. The ancient wall around Le Mans is one of the most complete circuits of Gallo-Roman city walls to survive, as the use of the French language replaced late Vulgar Latin in the area, with dissimilation, became known as Celmans. Cel- was taken to be a form of the French word for this and that, and was replaced by le, gregory of Tours mentions a Frankish sub-king Rigomer, who was killed by King Clovis I in his campaign to unite the Frankish territories.
As the principal city of Maine, Le Mans was the stage for struggles in the century between the counts of Anjou and the dukes of Normandy. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror successfully invaded England, in 1069 the citizens of Maine revolted and expelled the Normans, resulting in Hugh V being proclaimed count of Maine. Geoffrey V of Anjou married Matilda of England in the cathedral and their son Henry II Plantagenet, king of England, was born here. The airfield was declared operational on 3 September and designated as A-35 and it was used by several American fighter and transport units until late November of that year in additional offensives across France, the airfield was closed. Le Mans has an old town and the Cathédrale St-Julien, dedicated to St Julian of Le Mans. Remnants of a Roman wall are visible in the old town and these walls are highlighted every summer evening in a light show that tells the history of the town. Arboretum de la Grand Prée Part of the former Cistercian abbey de lEpau, founded by Queen Berengaria, jardin des Plantes du Mans Musée de la reine Bérengère, a museum of Le Mans history located in a gothic manor house.
Musée de Tessé, the arts museum of the city, displaying painting. Le Mans has an oceanic climate influenced by the mild Atlantic air travelling inland, summers are warm and occasionally hot, whereas winters are mild and cloudy. Precipitation is relatively uniform and moderate year round, at the 1999 French census, there were 293,159 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Le Mans, with 146,105 of these living in the city proper
The Résistance planned and executed acts of sabotage on the electrical power grid, transport facilities, and telecommunications networks. Estimated to have a strength of 100,000 in June 1944 and this burden amounted to approximately 20 million German reichsmarks per day, a sum that, in May 1940, was approximately equivalent to four hundred million French francs. Because of this overvaluation of German currency, the occupiers were able to make fair and honest requisitions and purchases while, in effect. Prices soared, leading to food shortages and malnutrition, particularly among children, the elderly. The labour shortage was worsened by the fact that a number of the French were held as prisoners of war in Germany. Beyond these hardships and dislocations, the occupation became increasingly unbearable, onerous regulations, strict censorship, incessant propaganda and nightly curfews all played a role in establishing an atmosphere of fear and repression. The sight of French women consorting with German soldiers infuriated many French men, as reprisals for Résistance activities, the authorities established harsh forms of collective punishment.
For example, the militancy of communist resistance in August 1941 led to the taking of thousands of hostages from the general population. A typical policy statement read, After each further incident, a number, reflecting the seriousness of the crime, during the occupation, an estimated 30,000 French civilian hostages were shot to intimidate others who were involved in acts of resistance. In early 1943, the Vichy authorities established a paramilitary group and they worked alongside German forces that, by the end of 1942, were stationed throughout France. The group collaborated closely with the Nazis, and was the Vichy equivalent of the Gestapo security forces in Germany and their actions were often brutal and included torture and execution of Résistance suspects. After the liberation of France in the summer of 1944, the French executed many of the estimated 25,000 to 35,000 miliciens for their collaboration. Many of those who escaped arrest fled to Germany, where they were incorporated into the Charlemagne Division of the Waffen SS, the experience of the Occupation was a deeply psychologically disorienting one for the French as what was once familiar and safe become strange and threatening.
Many Parisians could not get over the shock experienced when they first saw the huge swastika flags hanging over the Hôtel de Ville, Many résistants often spoke of some climax when they saw some intolerable act of injustice, after which they could not longer remain passive. Barthelt recalled, I recognized him only by his hat, only by his hat, I tell you and because I was waiting on the roadside to see him pass. I saw his face all right, but there was no skin on it, both his poor eyes had been closed into two purple and yellow bruises. In the beginning, resistance was limited to such as severing phone lines, vandalizing posters. Another form of resistance was underground newspapers like Musée de lHomme which circulated clandestinely, the Musée de lHomme was founded by two professors, Paul Rivet and the Russian émigré Boris Vildé in July 1940
A retractable hardtop, known as coupé convertible or coupé cabriolet, employs an automatically operated, multi-part, self-storing hardtop in lieu of a folding textile-based roof. Frenchman Georges Paulin subsequently designed the production 1934 Peugeot 601 Éclipse manually retractable hardtop, advances in electronics and weatherproofing materials have made the modern retractable hardtop increasingly popular. 1919 Ben P. Ellerbeck conceived a retractable hardtop – a manually operated system on a Hudson coupe that allowed unimpeded use of the seat even with the top down –. 1935 Peugeot introduced the first production, power-operated retractable hardtop in 1935, the French coachbuilder, Marcel Pourtout, custom-built other examples of Paulins designs on a larger Peugeot chassis as well. The first Eclipse 402s offered a top, but in 1936 was replaced by a manually operated version on a stretched chassis. 1941 Chrysler introduced a retractable hardtop concept car, the Chrysler Thunderbolt,1953 Ford Motor Company spent an estimated US$2 million to engineer a Continental Mark II with a servo-operated retractable roof.
The project was headed by Ben Smith, a 30-year-old draftsman, the concept was rejected for cost and marketing reasons. Engineering work was recycled to the Ford Division which used the mechanism in their 1957-1959 flagship Ford Fairlane 500 Skyliner after an estimated US$18 million more was spent. 1955 Brothers Ed and Jim Gaylord showed their first prototype at the 1955 Paris motor show,1957 Ford introduced the Fairlane 500 Skyliner in the United States. A total of 48,394 were built from 1957 to 1959, the retractable top was noted for its complexity and usually decent reliability in the pre-transistor era. The Skyliner was a car with little luggage space. 1989 Toyota introduced a retractable hardtop, the MZ20 Soarer Aerocabin. The car featured a folding hardtop and was marketed as a 2-seater with a cargo area behind the front seats. 1995 The Mitsubishi GTO Spyder by ASC was marketed in the U. S, produced by French coachbuilding specialist Heuliez, the Macarenas top can be folded in about 30 seconds.
It has a beam behind the front seats which incorporates LCD screens into the crossmember for the rear passengers. 2006 General Motors introduced a retractable version of the Pontiac G6. The roof featured a relatively simple two-piece folding design and did not materially reduce rear seat space, production continued through the 2009 model year. The Volkswagen Eos features a five-segment retractable roof where one section is itself an independently sliding transparent sunroof, the Mercedes SL hardtop features a glass section that rotates during retraction to provide a more compact stack
Delage was a French luxury automobile and racecar company founded in 1905 by Louis Delage in Levallois-Perret near Paris, it was acquired by Delahaye in 1935 and ceased operation in 1953. The company was founded in 1905 by Louis Delage, who borrowed Fr 35,000 and its first location was on the Rue Cormeilles in Levallois-Perret. The company at first had just two lathes and three employees, one of them Peugeots former chief designer, Delage initially produced parts for Helbé, with the De Dion-Bouton engine and chassis assembled by Helbé, Delage added only the body. The first model was the Type A, a voiturette which appeared in 1906 and it was powered by a one-cylinder De Dion-Bouton of 4.5 or 9 hp. Like other early carmakers, Delage participated in racing, entering the Coupe de Voiturettes held at Rambouillet in November 1906 with a 9 hp racer. In 1907 the factory moved to the Rue Baudin Levallois, where a 4,000 m2 workshop allowed it to grow, the two-cylinder Delages were no match for the competition this year at the Coupe des Voiturettes.
In 1908, the success enabled the development of the factory and entry into more Grand Prix races and that year, racing success returned, Delage won the Grand Prix des Voiturettes held 6 July. This event, six laps of the 47.74 mi Dieppe Grand Prix circuit, saw 47 starters. Delage fielded three cars, a pair with 1,242 cc De Dion-Bouton twins, driven by Thomas and Lucas-Bonnard, Guyot won at an average 49.8 mph, not needing to stop for fuel. All three Delages finished this time, Thomas the quickest of the cars, while the team took home the regularity prize. These good results contributed to total sales exceeding 300 cars for the year, Delage converted to four-cylinder engines in 1909, at first provided by De Dion and Edouard Ballot, the company were producing their own sidevalve fours, too. After an increase in sales, the facilities were too small, so in 1910 the factory moved to a new facility at 138 Boulevard de Verdun. The following year saw the creation of advanced bodywork, by 1912,350 workers were producing over 1000 cars annually, and offered four- and six-cylinder sidevalve engines.
During the First World War, Delage produced munitions, production of passenger cars virtually stopped, with the exception of some fabrication for the Army. But the Delage factories were running full support for the war effort, when the war concluded, Delage moved away from small cars and made its reputation with larger cars. First up was the CO, with a 4,524 cc fixed-head sidevalve six producing 20 hp, the CO plans had been drawn up during the conflict, this was the first passenger car with front brakes. It was joined by the DO with a 3-liter four, the 1920s were really the first Golden Age of Delage. The most famous were the DE and DI,4 cylinders of about 2 liters and 11 hp, Delage attempted to compete with Hispano-Suiza, with the GL of 30 hp and 5954 cc, with some success
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan