Georgia Institute of Technology
The Georgia Institute of Technology referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia. It has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia; the school was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post-Civil War Southern United States. It offered only a degree in mechanical engineering. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university. Today, Georgia Tech is organized into six colleges and contains about 31 departments/units, with emphasis on science and technology, it is well recognized for its degree programs in engineering, business administration, the sciences and design. Georgia Tech is ranked 8th among all public national universities in the United States, 7th in the Best Engineering Schools ranking, 35th among all colleges and universities in the United States by U.
S. News & World Report rankings, 34th among global universities in the world by Times Higher Education rankings. Georgia Tech has been ranked as the "smartest" public college in America. Student athletics, both organized and intramural, are a part of alumni life; the school's intercollegiate competitive sports teams, the four-time football national champion Yellow Jackets, the nationally recognized fight song "Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech", have helped keep Georgia Tech in the national spotlight. Georgia Tech fields eight men's and seven women's teams that compete in the NCAA Division I athletics and the Football Bowl Subdivision. Georgia Tech is a member of the Coastal Division in the Atlantic Coast Conference; the idea of a technology school in Georgia was introduced in 1865 during the Reconstruction period. Two former Confederate officers, Major John Fletcher Hanson and Nathaniel Edwin Harris, who had become prominent citizens in the town of Macon, Georgia after the Civil War believed that the South needed to improve its technology to compete with the industrial revolution, occurring throughout the North.
However, because the American South of that era was populated by agricultural workers and few technical developments were occurring, a technology school was needed. In 1882, the Georgia State Legislature authorized a committee, led by Harris, to visit the Northeast to see firsthand how technology schools worked, they were impressed by the polytechnic educational models developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. The committee recommended adapting the Worcester model, which stressed a combination of "theory and practice", the "practice" component including student employment and production of consumer items to generate revenue for the school. On October 13, 1885, Georgia Governor Henry D. McDaniel signed the bill to create and fund the new school. In 1887, Atlanta pioneer Richard Peters donated to the state 4 acres of the site of a failed garden suburb called Peters Park; the site was bounded on the south by North Avenue, on the west by Cherry Street.
He sold five adjoining acres of land to the state for US$10,000. This land was near Atlanta's northern city limits at the time of its founding, although the city has expanded several miles beyond it. A historical marker on the large hill in Central Campus notes the site occupied by the school's first buildings once held fortifications to protect Atlanta during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War; the surrender of the city took place on the southwestern boundary of the modern Georgia Tech campus in 1864. The Georgia School of Technology opened in the fall of 1888 with two buildings. One building had classrooms to teach students, it was designed for students to produce goods to sell and fund the school. The two buildings were equal in size to show the importance of teaching both the mind and the hands, though, at the time, there was some disagreement to whether the machine shop should have been used to turn a profit. On October 20, 1905, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Georgia Tech.
On the steps of Tech Tower, Roosevelt delivered a speech about the importance of technological education. He shook hands with every student. Georgia Tech's Evening School of Commerce began holding classes in 1912; the evening school admitted its first female student in 1917, although the state legislature did not authorize attendance by women until 1920. Annie T. Wise became the first female graduate in 1919 and was Georgia Tech's first female faculty member the following year. In 1931, the Board of Regents transferred control of the Evening School of Commerce to the University of Georgia and moved the civil and electrical engineering courses at UGA to Tech. Tech replaced the commerce school with what became the College of Business; the commerce school would split from UGA and become Georgia State University. In 1934, the Engineering Experiment Station was founded by W. Harry Vaughan with an initial budget of $5,000 and 13 part-time faculty. Founded as the Georgia School of Technology, Georgia Tech assumed its pre
Chi Phi is an American men's College Social Fraternity, established as the result of the merger of three separate organizations that were each known as Chi Phi. The earliest of these organizations was formed at Princeton University in 1824. Today, Chi Phi has over 47,000 living alumni members from over 100 active and inactive Chapters and un-chartered Colonies. Chi Phi has 57 active Chapters and 5 Colonies. On Christmas Eve in 1824, an association was formed to promote the circulation of correct opinions upon Religion, Education & excluding Sectarian Theology and party Politics, it was the duty of each member to publish at least once a month in any convenient way some article designed to answer the above object. When at length it disbanded, its religious feature was absorbed and perpetuated by what is known now as the'Philadelphian Society' organized in February, 1825, said to be an offspring of the Nassau Hall Tract Society; the old Chi Phi constitution was discovered in 1854 by some undergraduates who emphasizing the social and disregarding the religious purpose reorganized the society into the modern Greek letter fraternity of the same initials.
The majority of the religious societies founded in Princeton were less general in their scope but more efficient in their work than the old Chi Phi. —from Princeton by Varnum Lansing Collins 1914 Archibald Alexander: Principal & Professor of Princeton Theological Seminary 1812 to 1840 James Waddel Alexander: Appointed Tutor, Princeton Theological Seminary in 1824 Robert Baird: Tutor, College of New Jersey 1822 to 1827 James Carnahan: President, College of New Jersey 1822 to 1854 Luther Halsey: Professor 1824 to 1829 Charles Hodge: Professor 1823 to 1826 John Maclean, Jr.: Professor, College of New Jersey 1823 to 1829 Vice President and President Charles Hall: Student 1824 to 1827 Edward Norris Kirk: Student 1824 to 1827 William Swan Plumer: Student 1824 to 1826 Records of the original Chi Phi Society were discovered in 1854 by John Maclean, Jr. of the class of 1858. Maclean found the records in his uncle's paperwork, who happened to be president of the college at that time. Maclean joined with students Charles Smith DeGraw and Gustavus W. Mayer to form a new Chi Phi Fraternity, based on some records of the original society but with many characteristics that differed from the original society.
While the Chi Phi Fraternity of today was founded in 1854, the members place great emphasis on the 1824 date because of many aspects that were carried over from the original records discovered in 1854. The names of the founders of the original society of 1824 were not known to the 1854 founders. L. Collins in 1914; the Chi Phi Fraternity founded by Maclean was short-lived. The group existed sub rosa only until 1859. However, before the Princeton chapter died off, it was able to establish a second chapter at Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1854; the chapter at Franklin and Marshall in turn planted a chapter at Gettysburg College in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The second Chi Phi Fraternity was founded at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill on August 21, 1858 by five undergraduate students; the Chi Phi Fraternity of the South was the second southern Fraternity established prior to the Civil War and was successful in planting six chapters prior to the outbreak of hostilities and nine afterwards, but prior to the merger with the Northern Order.
All but the UNC chapter suspended operations as a result of the Civil War. Rev. Augustus Moore Flythe - Class of 1859 - Episcopal Deacon and Missionary, New Bern, North Carolina Capt. Thomas Capehart, CSA - Class of 1861 - Beginning in April 1861, served as a lieutenant in the Bethel Regiment, 1st North Carolina Volunteers, commanded by Col. D. H. Hill, afterwards a General in the CSA. In early 1862, he became the captain of Co. C, 3rd Battalion North Carolina Light Artillery. After the Seven Days fight, this organization disbanded on account of scarcity of horses and equipment and he was commissioned as a captain in Wynn's Cavalry Battalion, organized for State defense remaining as such until the surrender, he lived the remainder of his life as a wealthy planter in Vance Co. N. C. near the village of Kittrell, where the home he built in 1867 still stands and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. John Calhoun Tucker - Class of 1861 - Served as Private in Co. I, 39th Mississippi Infantry and died in service on December 28, 1862 near Port Hudson, Louisiana at the age of 23.
At the surrender, only seven of his company were reported in service. William Harrison Greene - Class of 1862 - Served as a lieutenant in Co. G, 5th Alabama Infantry Regiment assigned to the Rodes Brigade and the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the War, he was wounded in the leg at Sharpsburg, Maryland in September 1862. He became a gentleman farmer at Wayside, Mississippi. Dr. Fletcher Terry Seymour, M. D. - Class of 1862 - Served as a private in the 6th Tennessee Infantry in 1862. He was honorably discharged on account of ill health and became a merchant and planter at Eurekaton, Tenn. On November 14, 1860, the third independent fraternity to be named Chi Phi was founded at Hobart College, Geneva by twelve men who took the initiatory oath and received a badge; the twelve men became known throughout Chi Phi as the "Twelve Apostles". The fraternity was known as the "Secret Order of Chi Phi" and the first chapter would be called the Upsilon chapter; the Secret Order of Chi Phi
Omega Psi Phi
Omega Psi Phi is an international fraternity with over 750 undergraduate and graduate chapters. The fraternity was founded on November 17, 1911 by three Howard University juniors, Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper and Frank Coleman, their faculty adviser, Dr. Ernest Everett Just. Omega Psi Phi is the first predominantly African-American fraternity to be founded at a black university. Since its founding in 1911, Omega Psi Phi's stated purpose has been to attract and build a strong and effective force of men dedicated to its Cardinal Principles of manhood, scholarship and uplift. Throughout the world, many notable members are recognized as leaders in the arts, athletics, business, civil rights, education and science fields. A few notable members include Bill Cosby, Samuel M. Nabrit, Walter E. Massey, Benjamin Mays, Bayard Rustin, Langston Hughes, Count Basie, Roy Wilkins, Benjamin Hooks, Vernon Jordan, Robert Henry Lawrence, Jr. Malcolm Jenkins, Rev. Jesse Jackson, William H. Hastie and L. Douglas Wilder, Representative James Clyburn, Earl Graves, Tom Joyner, Charles Bolden, Ronald McNair, General William "Kip" Ward, Michael Jordan, Ovince Saint Preux, Shaquille O'Neal, Roger Kingdom, Terrence Trammell, Shammond Williams, Vince Carter, Steve Harvey, Rickey Smiley, Ray Lewis, Stephen A. Smith, numerous presidents of colleges and universities.
Over 250,000 men have been initiated into Omega Psi Phi throughout the United States, Bahamas, Virgin Islands, South Korea, Liberia and Kuwait. On the 2013 Super Bowl champion Baltimore Ravens, six players and GM Ozzie Newsome are members. In 1924, at the urging of fraternity member Carter G. Woodson, the fraternity launched Negro History and Literature Week in an effort to publicize the growing body of scholarship on African-American history. Encouraged by public interest, the event was renamed "Negro Achievement Week" in 1925 and given an expanded national presence in 1926 by Woodson's Association for the Study of Negro Life as "Negro History Week." Expanded to the full month of February from 1976, this event continues today as Black History Month. Since 1945, the fraternity has undertaken a National Social Action Program to meet the needs of African Americans in the areas of health, civil rights, education. Omega Psi Phi has been a patron of the United Negro College Fund since 1955, providing an annual gift of $350,000.00 to the program.
Omega Psi Phi is a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, composed of nine predominately African-American Greek-letter sororities and fraternities that promote interaction through forums and other media for the exchange of information, engage in cooperative programming and initiatives throughout the world. The represents over 2.5 million members. Omega Psi Phi celebrated its centennial during the week of July 27–31, 2011 in Washington, D. C. becoming distinguished as only the third African-American collegiate fraternity to reach the century mark. The Centennial Celebration recognized the impact of the Fraternity in communities over the past 100 years, honored Omega Men for achievement in all walks of life, reiterated Omega Psi Phi's commitment to providing unparalleled community service and scholarship, charted the Fraternity's future activities; each Chapter administers Internationally Mandated Programs every year:Achievement Week – A week in November that seeks to recognize individuals who have made notable contributions to society.
During the Achievement Week, a High School Essay Contest is held and the winner receives a scholarship award. Scholarship – The Charles R. Drew Scholarship Program encourages academic progress among the organization's undergraduate members. A portion of the fraternity's budget is designated for the Charles R. Drew Scholarship Commission, which awards scholarships to members and non-members. Social Action Programs – All chapters are required to participate in programs that uplift their society. Many participate in activities like: voter registration, illiteracy programs, mentoring programs and charitable organizations such as American Diabetes Association, United Way, the Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation. Talent Hunt Program – Each chapter is required to hold a yearly talent contest, to encourage young people to expose themselves to the Performing Arts. Individuals who win these talent contests receive an award, such as a scholarship. Memorial Service – March 12 is Omega Psi Phi Memorial Day; every chapter of the Fraternity performs a ritualistic memorial service to remember members who have died.
Reclamation and Retention – This program is an effort to encourage inactive members to become active and participate in the fraternity's programs. College Endowment Funds – The fraternity donates thousands of dollars to Historically Black Colleges and Universities each year. Health Initiatives – Chapters are required to coordinate programs that will encourage good health practices. Programs that members involve themselves in include HIV/AIDS awareness, blood drives, prostate cancer awareness, sickle cell anemia awareness programs. Voter Registration and Motivation – Coordination activities that promote voter registration and mobilization. NAACP – A Life Membership at Large in the NAACP is required by all chapters and districts. Omega Psi Phi recognizes graduate membership. College students must be working toward a bachelor's degree at a four-year institution, have at least 31 semester credits, maintain at least a 2.5 grade point average. For the graduate chapter, an applicant must possess a bachelor's degree.
The fraternity grants honorary membership to men who have contributed to society in a positive way on a na
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Kappa Alpha Psi
Kappa Alpha Psi is a collegiate Greek-letter fraternity with a predominantly African-American membership. Since the fraternity's founding on January 5, 1911 at Indiana University Bloomington, the fraternity has never limited membership based on color, creed or national origin; the fraternity has over 160,000 members with 721 undergraduate and alumni chapters in every state of the United States, international chapters in the United Kingdom, South Korea, United States Virgin Islands, South Africa, The Bahamas. The president of the national fraternity is known as the Grand Polemarch, who assigns a Province Polemarch for each of the twelve provinces of the nation; the fraternity has many notable members recognized as leaders in the arts, business, Civil Rights, education and science sectors at the local and international level. The Kappa Alpha Psi Journal is the official magazine of the fraternity since 1914; the Journal is published four times a year in February, April and December. Frank M. Summers was the magazine's first editor and became the Fourteenth Grand Polemarch.
The former editor of the magazine was Jonathan Hicks. The current editor of the magazine is Earl T. Tildon. Kappa Alpha Psi sponsors programs providing community service, social welfare and academic scholarship through the Kappa Alpha Psi Foundation and is a supporter of the United Negro College Fund and Habitat for Humanity. Kappa Alpha Psi is a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council and the North-American Interfraternity Conference; the fraternity is the first predominantly African American Greek-letter society founded west of the Appalachian Mountains still in existence, is known for its "cane stepping" in NPHC organized step shows. Kappa Alpha Psi celebrated its 100th anniversary on January 5, 2011, is one of four predominantly African American collegiate fraternities to do so; the founders of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. are: Elder Watson Diggs, more affectionately known as'The Dreamer', Dr. Ezra D. Alexander, Dr. Byron Kenneth Armstrong, Atty. Henry Tourner Asher, Dr. Marcus Peter Blakemore, Paul Waymond Caine, George Wesley Edmonds, Dr. Guy Levis Grant, Edward Giles Irvin, Sgt.
John Milton Lee. The founders endeavored to establish the fraternity with a strong foundation before embarking on plans of expansion. By the end of the first year, the ritual was completed, a design for the coat of arms and motto had begun. Frederick Mitchell's name is on the application for the Incorporation of the Fraternity but withdrew from school and thus never became a member of the Fraternity; the fraternity was founded as Kappa Alpha Nu on the night of January 5, 1911, by ten African-American college students. The decision upon the name Kappa Alpha Nu may have been to honor the Alpha Kappa Nu club which began in 1903 on the Indiana University campus but had too few registrants to effect continued operation; the organization known today as Kappa Alpha Psi was nationally incorporated under the name of Kappa Alpha Nu on May 15, 1911. The name of the organization was changed to its current name in 1915, shortly after its creation. During this time there were few African-American students at the majority white campus at Bloomington and they were a small minority due to the era of the Jim Crow laws.
Many African-American students saw each other on campus and were discouraged or prohibited from attending student functions and extracurricular activities by white college administrators and fellow students. African-American students were denied membership on athletic teams with the exception of track and field; the racial prejudice and discrimination encountered by the founders strengthened their bond of friendship and growing interest in starting a social group. By 1913, the fraternity expanded with the second undergraduate chapter opened at the University of Illinois—Beta chapter. After this, Kappa Alpha Psi chartered undergraduate chapters on Black college campuses at Wilberforce University—Delta chapter, Lincoln University —Epsilon chapter. In 1920, Xi chapter was chartered at Howard University. In 1921, the fraternity installed the Omicron chapter at Columbia University, its first at an Ivy League university; the fraternity's first chapter in the South was established in 1921 at Morehouse College— Pi chapter.
Kappa Alpha Psi expanded through the Midwest and West at both white and black colleges. Some believe the Greek letters Kappa Alpha Nu were chosen as a tribute to Alpha Kappa Nu, but the name became an ethnic slur among racist factions. Founder Elder Watson Diggs, while observing a young initiate compete in a track meet, overheard fans referring to the member as a "kappa alpha nig", a campaign to rename the fraternity ensued; the resolution to rename the group was adopted in December 1914, the fraternity states, "the name acquired a distinctive Greek letter symbol and KAPPA ALPHA PSI thereby became a Greek letter Fraternity in every sense of the designation." Kappa Alpha Psi has been the official name since April 15, 1915. In 1947, at the Los Angeles Conclave, the National Silhouettes of Kappa Alpha Psi were established as an auxiliary group, which membership comprises wives or widows of fraternity members. In 1980, the Silhouettes were recognized and granted a seat on the Board of Directors of the Kappa Alpha Psi Foundation.
Silhouettes provide support and assistance for the activities of Kappa Alpha Psi at the Grand chapter and local levels. In the 1950s, as black Greek-letter organizations began the tradition of step shows, the fraternity began using the "Kappa Kane" in what it termed "cane stepping"; the kappa canes were longer in the 1950s than in decades. In the early 1960s
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel