The Georgia Institute of Technology referred to as Georgia Tech or, in the state of Georgia, as Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia. It has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia; the school was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post-Civil War Southern United States. It offered only a degree in mechanical engineering. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university. Today, Georgia Tech is organized into six colleges and contains about 31 departments/units, with emphasis on science and technology, it is well recognized for its degree programs in engineering, business administration, the sciences and design. Georgia Tech is ranked tied for 5th among all public national universities in the United States, tied for 4th in the Best Undergraduate Engineering Schools ranking, tied for 29th among all collegiate institutions in the "National Universities" category by U.
S. News & World Report as of the 2020 rankings, 34th among global universities in the world by Times Higher Education as of the 2019 rankings. Student athletics, both organized and intramural, are a part of alumni life; the school's intercollegiate competitive sports teams, the four-time football national champion Yellow Jackets, the nationally recognized fight song "Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech", have helped keep Georgia Tech in the national spotlight. Georgia Tech fields eight men's and seven women's teams that compete in the NCAA Division I athletics and the Football Bowl Subdivision. Georgia Tech is a member of the Coastal Division in the Atlantic Coast Conference; the idea of a technology school in Georgia was introduced in 1865 during the Reconstruction period. Two former Confederate officers, Major John Fletcher Hanson and Nathaniel Edwin Harris, who had become prominent citizens in the town of Macon, Georgia after the Civil War believed that the South needed to improve its technology to compete with the industrial revolution, occurring throughout the North.
However, because the American South of that era was populated by agricultural workers and few technical developments were occurring, a technology school was needed. In 1882, the Georgia State Legislature authorized a committee, led by Harris, to visit the Northeast to see firsthand how technology schools worked, they were impressed by the polytechnic educational models developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. The committee recommended adapting the Worcester model, which stressed a combination of "theory and practice", the "practice" component including student employment and production of consumer items to generate revenue for the school. On October 13, 1885, Georgia Governor Henry D. McDaniel signed the bill to create and fund the new school. In 1887, Atlanta pioneer Richard Peters donated to the state 4 acres of the site of a failed garden suburb called Peters Park; the site was bounded on the south by North Avenue, on the west by Cherry Street.
He sold five adjoining acres of land to the state for US$10,000. This land was near Atlanta's northern city limits at the time of its founding, although the city has expanded several miles beyond it. A historical marker on the large hill in Central Campus notes the site occupied by the school's first buildings once held fortifications to protect Atlanta during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War; the surrender of the city took place on the southwestern boundary of the modern Georgia Tech campus in 1864. The Georgia School of Technology opened in the fall of 1888 with two buildings. One building had classrooms to teach students, it was designed for students to produce goods to sell and fund the school. The two buildings were equal in size to show the importance of teaching both the mind and the hands, though, at the time, there was some disagreement to whether the machine shop should have been used to turn a profit. On October 20, 1905, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Georgia Tech.
On the steps of Tech Tower, Roosevelt delivered a speech about the importance of technological education. He shook hands with every student. Georgia Tech's Evening School of Commerce began holding classes in 1912; the evening school admitted its first female student in 1917, although the state legislature did not authorize attendance by women until 1920. Annie T. Wise became the first female graduate in 1919 and was Georgia Tech's first female faculty member the following year. In 1931, the Board of Regents transferred control of the Evening School of Commerce to the University of Georgia and moved the civil and electrical engineering courses at UGA to Tech. Tech replaced the commerce school with what became the College of Business; the commerce school would split from UGA and become Georgia State University. In 1934, the Engineering Experiment Station was founded by W. Harry Vaughan with an initial budget of $5,000 and 13 part-time faculty. Founded as the Georgia School of Technology, Georgia Tech assumed
Count Hippolyte François Jaubert was a French politician and botanist. Jaubert was born in the son of François Hippolyte Jaubert and Rosalie Mélanie Cheminade, he was adopted by his uncle, Count François Jaubert, Councilor of State and governor of the Bank of France under the First Empire. Although Jaubert was passionate about natural history, his uncle made him study law, while allowing him to study with René Desfontaines and Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, he was called to the bar in 1821, but shortly afterwards his uncle died, Jaubert inheriting the title of Count and an immense fortune. With this money he was able to buy large landholdings in Berry, ten blast furnaces in the departments of Nièvre and Cher, become director of the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans, all the while concentrating on botany and politics, he married Marie Boigues, sister of Louis Boigues, a manufacturer at Imphy and founder of the town of Fourchambault. They had two children: Louis Hippolyte Francois Jaubert, who became prefect of the department of Sarthe.
In 1821 Jaubert toured Auvergne and Provence with his friend Victor Jacquemont, studying the flora and geology of those regions. That same year, together with Karl Sigismund Kunth, Adolphe Brongniart, Adrien de Jussieu, Jean Baptiste Antoine Guillemin and Achille Richard, he founded the short-lived Natural History Society of Paris, which financed an expedition to Asia of several naturalists, among them Pierre Martin Rémi Aucher-Éloy, he joined the conseil général of Cher in 1830, became its president. He entered national politics at the time of the July Revolution of 1830, was elected six times to the Chamber of Deputies of France, from 1831 to 1842. Close to the Doctrinaires, he attached himself to prime minister Adolphe Thiers, served in the latter's second administration as Minister of Public Works from 1 March to 28 October 1840. During this period, the conservative deputy for Versailles, Ovide de Rémilly, put forward an old proposal of the Left, that members of the Chamber of Deputies should be forbidden from accepting salaried public positions during their term of service.
This was a proposal that Thiers himself had supported while in opposition, so to avoid a display of public hypocrisy, Thiers sent Jaubert to negotiate for its deferment. Jaubert was hostile to this reform, wrote to a number of conservative deputies asking them to help bury the proposal. One of Jaubert's letters was leaked to the press, causing an outcry on the Left and questions in the Chamber. However, the operation was successful and the proposition was rejected by the deputies on 15 June 1840. Following the general election of 9 July 1842 Jaubert was in opposition to the government, voted against the indemnity proposed by François Guizot to be paid to Britain in compensation for the imprisonment of the missionary George Pritchard in Tahiti, he was appointed to the Peerage of France on 27 November 1844. He took no part in the Revolution of 1848, under the Second Empire, he withdrew from political life, devoting himself to botany and business, he was elected to the French Academy of Sciences in 1858, was among the founders of the Botanical Society of France in 1854.
Following the collapse of the Second Empire in 1870 and the creation of the Third Republic, Jaubert was elected representative of Cher in the National Assembly on 8 February 1871. From that date until his death at Montpellier in 1874, he devoted himself entirely to politics, he joined the Orléanist parliamentary group, Centre droit. Using the herbarium that he collected and those of the National Museum of Natural History, with the help of Édouard Spach, he published his Illustrationes plantarum orientalium, he was decorated Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur on 27 April 1830
Polysilanes are organosilicon compounds with the formula n. They are relatives of traditional organic polymers but their backbones are composed of silicon atoms, they exhibit distinctive electrical properties. They are used industrially as precursors to silicon carbide; the first polysilane, poly, x, was reported in 1949 by Charles A. Burkhard of General Electric, it was prepared by heating sodium metal with dimethyldichlorosilane: 2SiCl2 + 2 Na → n + 2 NaClThe modified Wurtz coupling of dichlorosilanes remains a viable and general route to high molecular weight, linear polysilane derivatives. This reaction is conducted at elevated temperature in an inert solvent using a dispersion of the alkali metal; the polymerization stops with the addition of an alcohol. The major limitation with the Wurtz-type polymerization is that the substituents must be able to tolerate the vigorous reaction conditions; the reaction works well for methyl and phenyl substituents. With the rigorous conditions, the yield of the product ranges from a few percent to 50%.
Potassium-graphite can be used at much lower temperatures than those required for traditional Wurtz coupling. This reaction produces a trimodal distribution of products: a low molecular weight fraction and two higher molecular weight fractions; the low molecular weight fraction consists of five and six-membered rings, i. e. 5 and 6. Formation of these rings competes with the growth of the polymer. Another method for the synthesis of polysilanes is dehydrogenative coupling of silanes; the product obtained by Burkhard was difficult to work. Interest in the polysilanes resumed in the early 1980s when it was reported that x can be converted to silicon carbide by thermolysis. Polysilanes range from crystalline to amorphous materials, which are more soluble in organic solvents. Decreasing the symmetry and lengthening the organic substituents lowers the crystallinity. Many polysilanes are rubbery elastomers; when doped with oxidizing agents, the polymers become semiconductors. Most are stable to nearly 300 °C and, in contrast to the polysilicon hydrides, are inert to oxygen at normal temperatures.
They are not hydrolyzed. Polysilanes exhibit photoconductivity, although degrade; the hydrogen atoms of the higher-dimensional polysilicon hydrides may be substituted with organic side-groups to give random network organosilicon polymers but these retain the polysilyne base name, for example, as in polymethylsilyne. 29Si NMR spectroscopy provides insights into the microstructure of a polymer. If resonances are broad, oligomerization is likely. Yajima and coworkers discovered; this transformation has kindled research on polysilanes and their derivatives.. As a preceramic polymer polycarbosilane can be used to produce dense silicon carbide and silicon oxycarbide through pyrolysis in inert atmospheres. Photopolymerisation of modified polysilanes in stereolithography followed by ceramization is an emerging route towards the additive manufacturing of ceramics. Polysilanes exhibit σ-delocalization; this characteristic stems from the low ionization energy for electrons in Si-Si sigma bonds relative to that of C-C sigma bonds, for instance.
Accordingly, they absorb in the UV-region due to intense σ-σ* electronic transitions.6 Polysilanes degrade in the presence of UV light since σ-σ* electronic transitions can be thought of as bonds breaking precluding some applications. Dialkyl polysilanes tend to have a band gap of about 4.5 eV. Introduction of an aryl substituent to each silicon lowers the band gap to about 3.5 eV, making for a borderline semiconductor. Polysilynes are a related class of organosilicon compounds with the formula n, they are more cross linked than polysilanes and have been less studied